Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti)

by K. C. Lalwani | 1973 | 185,989 words

The English translation of the Bhagavati-sutra which is the fifth Jaina Agama (canonical literature). It is a large encyclopedic work in the form of a dialogue where Mahavira replies to various question. The present form of the Sutra dates to the fifth century A.D. Abhayadeva Suri wrote a vritti (commentary) on the Bhagavati in A.D. 1071. In his J...

Part 2 - Types of renunciation

Q. 26. Bhante! How many types of renunciation are there?

A. 26. Gautama! Two types, viz., of roots and of branches, mūlaguṇa and uttaraguṇa.

Q. 27. Bhante! How many are the types of mūlaguṇa renunciation?

A. 27. Gautama! Two types, viz., of the whole (sarva) and of the part (deśa).

Q. 28. Bhante! Haw many are the types of sarvamūlaguṇa enunciation?

A. 28. Gautama! Five types, viz., to desist from all forms of violence, till to desist from all forms of accumulation.

Q. 29. Bhante! How many are the types of deśamūlaguṇa renunciation?

A. 29. Gautama! Five types, viz., to desist in general from violence, till to desist in general from accumulation.

Q. 30. Bhante! How many are the types of uttaraguṇa renunciation?

A. 30. Gautama! Two types, viz., whole and part.

Q. 31. Bhante! How many are the types of savvuttaraguṇa renunciation?

A. 31. Gautama! Ten types which are aṇāgaya, aikkanta, koḍisahiya, niyanṭiya, sāgāramaṇāgāra, parimāṇakaḍa, niravasesa, sākeya, addhā.

Q. 32. Bhante! How many are the types of desuttarāguṇa renunciation?

A. 32. Gautama! Seven types which are disīvvaya, uvabhoga-paribhoga-parimāna, anatthadaṇḍaveramaṇa, sāmāyiya, desāvagāsiya, posahovavāsa, (and the seventh one consisting of a couple of items) atihī-saṃvibhāga and apacchima-māraṇantiya-saṃlekhaṇā-jhusaṇā-āṛāhaṇā.

Notes (based on commentary of Abhayadeva Sūri):

Q/A. 31. Ten forms of savvuttaraguṇa renunciation are as follows:

(1) Aṇāgaya—This is renunciation in anticipation of some difficulty at a future date.

Cf.

hohī pajjosavaṇā mama ya tayā aṃtarāiyaṃ hojjā |
guruveyavacceṇaṃ tavassi gelaṇṇayāe vā || 1
so dāi tavokammaṃ paḍivajjai taṃ aṇāgae kāle |
eyaṃ paccakkhāṇaṃ aṇāgayaṃ[?] hoi ṇāyavvaṃ || 2

(2) Aikkanta—This Is deferring renunciation till some future date because of unavoidable circumstances.

Cf.

pajjosavaṇāi tavaṃ jo khalu ṇa karei kāraṇajjāe |
guruveyāvacceṇaṃ tavassigelaṇṇayāe vā || 1
so dāi tavokammaṃ paḍivajjai taṃ aicchie kole |
eyaṃ paccakkhāṇaṃ aikkaṃtaṃ hoi ṇāyavvaṃ || 2

(3) Koḍisahiya—This happens when before the fulfilment of one renunciation another starts. For example, on the day of breaking a fast, before one takes food, one may renounce all food items except one, which means that he takes only one food item in breaking his fast.

Cf.

paṭṭavaṇao u divaso paccakkhāṇassa ṇiṭṭhavaṇao yo |
jahiyaṃ saseṃti [?] doṇṇi u taṃ bhaṇṇāi koḍisahiyaṃ tu ||

(4) Niyantiya—This means the fulfilment of a renunciation on a scheduled date notwithstanding any difficulty, howsoever great.

Cf.

māse māse ya tavo amuge diṇammi evaiyo |
haṭṭheṇa gilaṇeṇa va kāyavvo jāva...usāso || 2
eyaṃ paccakkhāṇaṃ ṇiyaṃṭiyaṃ dhīrapurisapaṇṇattaṃ |
ja geṇhaṃta jaṇagārā aṇissiyappā apaḍibaddhā || 2

(5) Sāgār—When a conditional renunciation is concluded even earlier as soon as the condition is fulfilled.

(6) Nirāgāra is unconditional renunciation.

(7) Parimāṇakaḍa—A conditional renunciation in which the donor, the quantity of food to be accepted, the household, etc., are already in the mind of the person concerned. The renunciation concludes only on the fulfilment of the Condition.

Cf.

dattīhi va kavalehi va dharehi[?] bhikkhāhi ahava davvehiṃ |
jo bhattapariccāyaṃ karei pariṇāmakaḍameyaṃ |

(8) niravaśeṣa—This is renunciation of all types of food and drink without exception.

(9) Sakeya—This is renunciation in terms of some sign or symbol.

Cf.

aṃguṭṭhamuṭṭhīdhara se ūsāsa thibugajoikkhe |
bhaṇiyaṃ sakeyameyaṃ dhīrehiṃ[?] aṇaṃtaṇāṇihiṃ ||

(10) Addhā—This is renunciation for a particular period, say, a quarter after sunrise.

Cf.

addhāpaccakkhāṇaṃ jaṃ taṃ kāla[?]pamāṇacheeṇaṃ[?] |
purimaḍḍhaporusihiṃ muhuttamāsaddhamāsehiṃ ||

Q/A. 32. Seven (eight?) forms of desuttaraguṇa renunciation are as follows:

(1) Disīvvaya—To restrict the direction of the movement.

(2) Uvabhoga-paribhoga-parimāṇa—To restrict the quantum of both uvabhoga and paribhoga. Uvabhoga refers to objects like food which can be used only once. Paribhoga refers to objects like cloth which can be used for sometime.

(3) Anarthadaṇḍa-viramaṇa—To desist from unnecessary violence, such as, to think in terms of violence, to be careless in one’s activity, to provide weapons to another to kill, etc.

(4) Sāmāyika—To settle down in equanimity for a duration of 48 minutes.

(5) Deśāvagāsiya—To restrict the zone or direction of movement.

(6) Posaho-ubabāsa—To live for some time like a monk and to undergo a fast.

(7) Atihisambibhāga—To offer food, drink, cloth, medicine, bed, duster, etc., 14 items in all, to a monk, according to the need and requirement of the latter, in a detached mood, and to cultivate this habit for all times.

Apacchima-māraṇāntiya-saṃlekhaṇā—This is the final renunciation at the time of death.

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