Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti)

by K. C. Lalwani | 1973 | 185,989 words

The English translation of the Bhagavati-sutra which is the fifth Jaina Agama (canonical literature). It is a large encyclopedic work in the form of a dialogue where Mahavira replies to various question. The present form of the Sutra dates to the fifth century A.D. Abhayadeva Suri wrote a vritti (commentary) on the Bhagavati in A.D. 1071. In his J...

Part 10 - Criteria for purity

Q. 23. Bhante! What is the meaning of food and drink being śastrātīta, śastraparināmita, eṣīta, veṣīta and sāmudāika?

A. 23. Gautama! When a monk (or a nun) who has no weapon or mace in his possession, who has no flower garland or sandal paste in his decoration, takes food which is free from worm or any other form of life, which, is not cooked by him or for him, which is not pre-planned, which is not the outcome of invitation, which is not bought for him or meant for him, which is nine-fold pure, which is free from ten faults, such as doubt, etc., which is free from faults called udgama and utpādana in the search for food, which is free from contaminations (already cited) called aṅgāra, dhuma and saṃyojanā, which is free from sound, such as, sur-sur, chap-chap, which is not spoiled by hurried or slow pace in begging, which is taken, without wasting or dropping any portion, but like grease applied to the axle of a wheel or ointment applied to a sore, only for the fulfilment of restraint, to carry the burden of restraint, and like a snake crawling straight into its hole, then, Gautama, the food and drink he takes is said to be śastrātīta, śastraparināmita, and so on.

Bhante! Right you are. It is truly so.

Chapter one ends.

Notes (based on commentary of Abhayadeva Sūri):

Q/A. 23. The word satthātīyassa (सत्थातीयस्स) means food which has been cooked on fire but is currently beyond the touch of fire. The word satthapariṇāmiyassa (सत्थपरिणामियस्स) means food which has been rendered free from contamination with live objects by the touch of fire. Food is said to be pure in nine respects (ṇavakoḍīparisuddha [?]) when it is not to hurt self, not to hurt others, not to approve violence, not to cook by himself, not to make another cook, not to approve cooking, not to buy himself, not to ask another to buy, and not to approve any purchase whatsoever.

As to sixteen lapses called udgama, we have the following:

ahākammuddesiya pūikamme ya mīsajāe ya |
ṭhavaṇā pāhuḍiyāe pāoyara kīya pāmicce || 1
pariyaṭṭie abhihaḍe abbhiṇṇe mālohaḍe iya |
acchijje aṇisiṭṭhe ajjhoyarae ya solasa || 2

To be specific, they are:

(1) ahākamma—To render food free from live objects for the use of a monk or to cook food for a monk with a view to make it free from live objects.

(2) uddesiya—To cook more than what is necessary for the household.

(3) puikamma [pūikamma?]—To mix with impure food.

(4) misajāye [mīsajāye?]—To cook food for the household as well as for the monk.

(5) ṭhavanā [ṭhavaṇā?]—To keep aside some food for the monk.

(6) pāhuḍiyā—To change the date of a feast to suit the presence of a monk.

(7) pāoyara—To lit a candle to procure food from some dark corner of the store.

(8) kīya—To buy for a monk.

(9) pāmicca—To buy something on credit for a monk.

(10) pariyaṭṭiye—To exchange something for the sake of a monk.

(11) abhihaḍa—To fetch for a monk.

(12) abbhinna—To remove the lead (from a bottle) to make an offer.

(13) mālohaḍa—To undergo pain to bring food down from the shelf,

(14) acchijje—To snatch from a weaker person, a servant or a child, to make an offer to a monk.

(15) anisitṭha [aṇisiṭṭha?]—To make an offer without the knowledge of a co-owner or co-owners.

(16) ajjhoyara—To add more food to the cooking vessel on receipt of the information that a monk is on his way to beg food.

These sixteen lapses caused by a donor accrue to a monk.

As to the sixteen lapses called utpādana, we have the following:

dhāī duī ṇisitte ājīva vȧṇimage tigicchāya |
kohe māṇe māyā lohe ya havati dasa e e || 1
puvvimpacchāsaṃsthava vijjā saṃte ya cuṇṇa joge ya |
uppāyaṇāi dosā solasame mūlakamme ya || 2

They are: To earn food (livelihood) by serving as an attendant maid, as an intelligence (espionage) woman, or as an astrologer, by declaring one’s caste and lineage, by extolling a particular sect to its followers, by administering herbs and medicines, by submission to passions, by praising the donor before and after receiving food, by stealing through the application of occult powers or by the display of some magic or acrobatic feats, and last but not least, by helping a woman to gain pregnancy or in abortion.

The monk alone is responsible for these lapses.

As to the ten faults accruing from the search for food called eṣaṇā, we have the following couplet:

saṃkiyamakkhiyaṇikkhitta pihiyasāhariyadāyagummīse |
apariṇayalittachaḍḍie esaṇadosā dasa havaṃti ||

(1) Śaṅkiya [Saṅkiya?] means that there is doubt about there being some fault

(2) Makkhiya means that the hand, spoon or laddie with which the food is to be given to a monk has touched some live object.

(3 Nikkitta [Nikkhitta?] means that the food which is going to be offered has been placed on some live object.

(4) Pihiya means that the food which is going to be offered has been covered by something which contains live object.

(5) Sāhariya means the use of an unclean pot for the storage of food which is going to be offered.

(6) Dāyaga means the offer of food by children who do not have the proper authority to give.

(7) Ummisa means that pure food has been mixed with impure stuff or vice versa.

(8) Apariṇaya means not duly cooked.

(9) Litta means food like milk, curd, etc., which is likely to stick to the walls of the pot.

(10) Cchaḍḍiya [Chaḍḍiya?] means liquid stuff whose drops fall on the ground.

The householder as well as the monk is responsible for these ten lapses.

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