Stupas in Orissa (Study)

by Meenakshi Chauley | 2013 | 109,845 words

This study examines the Stupas and Votive Stupas in Odisha or Orissa (Eastern India).—In this thesis an attempt has been made to trace the historicity of Buddhism in Odisha on the basis of the architectural development of the Stupa architecture. Archaeological evidence obtained from excavated sites dates such structures as early as third-second cen...

Emanations of Ratnasambhava


He is the counterpart of Kubera and like him presides over the domain of riches. He also seems to have been originally a Yaksha. He is mentioned in a number of Sadhanas of the Sadhanamala, i.e. sadhanas numbered 284-280,291-295,296-299. Generally he is to have one face and two hands holding a Citron and in left hand a mongoose vomiting jewels in the left hand. Existence of pots of jewels is also mentioned in the descriptions (Plate-CXXXVII).


The goddess is the consort of Jambhala, on her crown she bears the image of either Aksobhaya or Ratnasambhava. She is yellow in colour and she bears the ears of corn with her left arm and displays her right hand in varada mudra. She is represented either seated or standing posture and is decked with all sort of ornaments.

Sometimes, Vasudhara is depicted six armed seated in lalitasana. Her three right hands exhibits the namaskara mudra, varad mudra (Plate-CLX) and the ears of corn, the upper left hand has a book, ears of corn and a vessel containing jewels on her lap. Her hair rises upwards in the shape of flame

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