by Ashis Ranjan Sahoo | 2015 | 106,639 words
This essay studies the presence of Jainism in Odisha or Orissa by documenting the Art, Architecture and Iconography of Jaina images, relics, structures and establishments from different districts. In Odisha, archaeological evidences show how Jainism flourished during the 1st century BCE during the reign of emperor Kharavela, stating that Jainism wa...
Hati-Gumpha Inscription Text: (Roman)
1L. Namo Arahamtanam [II] Namo Savasidhanam [II] Airena Maharajena Mahameghavahanena Chetaraja vasa vadhanena pasatha subha lakhanena chaturamta lutha [na] guna upetena Kalingadhipatina Siri Kharavela
2L. [Pam] darasa vasani Siri kadara sariravata kidita kumara kidika Tato lekha rupa ganana vavahara vidhi visaradena savavijavadatena nava vasani Yovarajam [pa]sasitam[II] Sampumna chatuvisati vaso tadani vadhamana sesayo venabhi vijaya tatiye
3L. Kalimga rajavase purisa yuge maharaja bhisechanam papunati [II] Abhisitamato cha padhame vase vatavihata gopura pakara nivesanam patisamkharayati Kalimganagari khivira[m] Sitalatadaga padiyo cha vamdhapayati sabuyana pa [ti] samtapanam cha
4L. Karayati panatisahi satasahasehi pakatiyo cha ramjayati [II] Dutiye cha vase achitayita Satakani[m]pachhimadisam haya gaja nara radha bahulam damdam pathapayati [II] Kanhavemna gataya cha senaya vitasiti Asikanagaram [II] Tatiye puna vase
5L. Gamdhava Veda budho dapa nata gita vadita samdasanahi usaba samaja karapandhi cha kidapayati nagarim [II] Tatha chabuthe vase Vijadharadhivasam ahatapuvam Kalimga puvaraja nivesitam vitadha makuta sa[viluthita] cha nikhita chhata
6L. Bhimgare hitaratana sapateye sava Rathika Bhojake pade vamdapayati [II] Pamchame cha dani vase Namdaraja tivasa sata oghatitam Tanasuliya vata panadim Nagarim pavesa[ya]ti [II] Abhisito cha [chhathe] vase rajaseyam samdamsayam to savakaravana
I0L. [Nagariya Kalimga] rajanivasam Mahavijaya pasadam karayati athatisaya satasahasehi [II] Dasme cha vase damda samdhi sama[mayo]Bharadhavasa pathanam mahijayanam Karapayati [II] Ekadasame cha vase [satunam] payatanam cha maniratanani upalabhate [II]
11L. Kalimga puvaraja nivesitam Pithudam gadhavanamgalena kasayati [II] Janapada bhavanam cha terasa vasa sata katam bhidati Tramira deha samghatam [II] Varasame cha vase [senahi] [sata]sahasehi vitasayati utarapadha rajano [tato]
12L. Magadhanam cha vipulam bhayam janeto hathasam Gamgaya payayati [II] Magadham cha rajanam Bahasatimitam pade vamdapayati [II] namdaraja nitam Kalimgajina samnivesam [Kalimga] [raja] gaha ratana parihare hi Amga Magadha vasu cha nayati [II]
13L........ [va] sino vasikaroti [II] Terasame cha vase supavata vijaya chake Kumari pavate Arahate [hi] pakhina samsitehi kayanisidiyaya Yapannapakehi rajabhitinam chinavatanam vasasitanam pujanurata ubasaga [Kha]ravela sirina jiva deha sayika parikhata [II]
14L............ [Ka] tum jathara [ la] khila gopurani siharani nivesayati sata visikanam pariharehi [II] Abhuta machhariyam cha hathinava [tam] parihara [upalabhate] haya hathi ratana [ma] nikam [II] Pamdaraja edani anekani muta mani ratanani aharapayati idha satasa [hasani]
15L. Sakata samana suvihitanam cha sava disanam yatinam tapasa isinam samghayanam Arahata nisidiya samipe pabhare varakara samuthapitahi aneka yojanahi tahi [panatisahi satasahasehi] silahi Sihapatha Rani sa [bhilasehi]
16L................ patalika chatare cha veduriya gabhe thambhe patithapayati panatariya satasahasehi [II] Muriya kala vochhinam cha choyathi amga samtikam turiyam upadayati [II] Khemaraja sa vadharaja sa bhikhuraja dhamaraja pasamto sunamto anubhavamto kalanni
17L. gunavisesa kusalo save pasamdapajako savadevayatana samkarakarako apatihatachakavahanavalo chkadharo gutachako pavatachako Rajasi vasukula vinisito mahavijayo raja Kharavela siri [II]
Line 1-2: Salutation to Arhats. Salutation to all Siddhas. Arya Mahameghavahana Sri Kharavela, the Lord of Kalinga, who heightens the glory of the Chedi royal dynasty, who possesses all auspicious signs, and is gifted with qualities spreading over four quarters, and who has handsome brown complexion, played for fifteen years the games of the adolescent age.
Line 2-3: Thereafter, proficient in writing, coinage, arithmetic, law and procedure, and skilled in all arts, (he) ruled as the Crown Prince for nine years. After the completion of the twenty-fourth year of age, and with the ripening of the age of minority, (he) as glorious as Vainya, was crowned as king in the third generation of the royal dynasty of Kalinga.
Line 3-4: In the very first year of his coronation (His Majesty) caused to be repaired the gate, rampart, and structures of the fort of Kalinganagari, which had been damaged by storm, and caused to be built embankments for the cool tanks and laid out all gardens at the cost of thirty-five hundred thousand (coins) and thus pleased all his subjects.
Line 4-5: In the second year, without caring for Satakarni (His Majesty) sent to the West a large army of horse, elephant, infantry and chariot, and struck terror to the city of Asika with the troop that marched up to the river Krisna. Thereafter, in the third year, versed in the art of music (His Majesty) made (Kalinga) nagari play, as it were, by arranging festivals and convivial gatherings, organizing performances of acrobatism, dance, as well as, of vocal and instrumental music.
The Rastrika and Bhojaka chiefs with their crowns cast off, their umbrella and royal insignia thrown aside, and their jewellery and wealth confiscated were made to pay obeisance at His Majesty's feet. And, in the fifth year, (His Majesty) caused the aqueduct that had been excavated by king Nanda three hundred years before, to flow in to (Kalinga) nagari through Tanasuli.
Line 6-7: Further, in the sixth year of his coronation, (His Majesty) in order to display the regal wealth, benevolently remitted all taxes and cesses, on the urban and rural population, to the extent of many hundred thousand. And, in the seventh year of his reign, the Queen of Diamond Palace attained motherhood with a son.
Line 7-8: Then, in the eighth year, having destroyed the strong (fort) of Gorathagiri with a mighty army (His Majesty) oppressed Rajagriha. Getting the tidings of all these achievements, the Yavanaraja, who had retreated to Mathura for the rescue of his army encamped there, surrendered(?)
Line 8-9: The sage (Kharavela), with the Kalpa tree burdened with foliage and with the horses, elephants and chariots. (distributed gifts) to all houses, inns and residences, and with a view to making gifts universal, gave away the spoils of victory to the Brahmanas.
Line 9-10: And, in the ninth year, (His Majestry) caused to be built the great Victory palace-the royal residence at the cost of thirty-eight hundred thousand (coins). Then, in the tenth year, (His Majesty) who embodied the principles of politics, diplomacy and peace, caused (the army) to march towards Bharatavarsa for conquest.
Line 10-11: And, in the eleventh year, (His Majesty) secured jewels and precious stones from the retreating (enemies). (His Majesty) caused to be cultivated Pithunda, founded by former kings of Kalinga, with ploughs drawn by asses. Also (His Majesty) shattered the territorial confederacy of the Tamil states that was existing since thirteen hundred years.
Line 11-12: And, in the twelfth year, (His Majesty) terrorized the kings of Uttarapatha by (an army of) hundred thousand. (His Majesty) generated great fear among the people of Magadha while making the elephants and horses drink from the Ganges. (His Majesty) made Bahasatimita, the king of Magadha, pay obeisance at his feet. (His Majesty) then brought Kalinga Jina that had been taken away by king Nanda, along with the jewels obtained from Rajagriha, and the treasures of Anga and Magadha.
Line 13-14 (His Majesty) caused to erect towers with strong and beautiful gateways at the cost of w/hundred Visikas. (His Majesty) obtained horses, elephants and jewelleries sending strange and wonderful elephants and ships The king of Pandya caused to be brought here various pearls, jewels and precious stones hundred thousand in number. (His Majesty) brought to submission the people..of
Lone 14-15: And in the thirteenth year Upasaka Sri Kharavela, a devoted worshipper of those who clothe themselves in the cloth, enjoy royal endowment and take to rainy season retreat, excavated in the Kumari Hill, where the wheel of victory had been well turned, dwelling cells for resting of the bodies of the Japodyapaka Arhats who had renounced their sustenance.
Line 15-16: (As desired by) the Queen (of) Simhapatha, (His Majesty) set up in front of and beside the dwellings of the Arhats.with those thirty-five hundred thousand stone slabs, which were raised from the best quarries and (brought) from a distance of many jojans, for the convenience of the honoured Sramans and for the Yatis, Tapasas, Risis and Samghayanas, who hailed from all directions, and also set up on the pink coloured floor, pillars bedecked with emerald at a cost of one hundred and five thousand (coins). (His Majesty) revived the Tauryatrika with its sixty-four branches that had been suspended during the time of the Mauryas.
Line 16-17: (Thus reigned) that king of Bliss, that king of Prosperity, that Bhiksu king and that king of Dhamma, His Majesty the mighty conqueror Sri Kharavela, the descendant of Rajarsi Vasu, the embodiment of specific qualities, the worshipper of all religious orders, the repairer of all shrines of gods, the possessor of invincible armies, the administrator of the rule of Law, the guardian of Law, the executor of Law, having seen, heard, felt and (done) good.