Jainism in Odisha (Orissa)

by Ashis Ranjan Sahoo | 2015 | 106,639 words

This essay studies the presence of Jainism in Odisha or Orissa by documenting the Art, Architecture and Iconography of Jaina images, relics, structures and establishments from different districts. In Odisha, archaeological evidences show how Jainism flourished during the 1st century BCE during the reign of emperor Kharavela, stating that Jainism wa...

The twin hills are honeycombed with a number of big and small caves. At present, there are only 18 caves in the Udayagiri, while the Khandagiri has preserved only 15 caves in various state of preservation (Pls.LXVA-LXIXC). A considerable number of these caves of Khandagiri hill are datable to the post-Kharavela period as well as early medieval period. These caves are protected and numbered by the Archaeological Survey of India, Bhubaneswar Circle but their local names have been retained[1].

The local names of the caves along with their numbers are given below:-

Udayagiri Hill

  1. Rani-Gumpha —— Cave No.1
  2. Bajaghara-Gumpha —— Cave No. 2
  3. Chhota-Hathi-Gumpha —— Cave No. 3
  4. Alakapuri-Gumpha —— Cave No. 4
  5. Jaya-Vijaya-Gumpha —— Cave No. 5
  6. Panasa-Gumpha —— Cave No. 6
  7. Thakurani-Gumpha —— Cave No. 7
  8. Patalapuri-Gumpha —— Cave No. 8
  9. Manchapuri and Svargapuri-Gumpha —— Cave No. 9
  10. Ganesa-Gumpha —— Cave No. 10
  11. Jambesvara-Gumpha —— Cave No. 11
  12. Bagha-Gumpha —— Cave No. 12
  13. Sarpa-Gumpha —— Cave No. 13
  14. Hathi-Gumpha —— Cave No. 14
  15. Dhanaghara-Gumpha —— Cave No. 15
  16. Haridasa-Gumpha —— Cave No. 16
  17. Jagannatha-Gumpha —— Cave No. 17
  18. Rasui-Gumpha —— Cave No. 18

Khandagiri Hill

  1. Tatowa-Gumpha. No-1 —— Cave No. 1
  2. Tatowa-Gumpha, No-2 —— Cave No. 2
  3. Ananta-Gumpha —— Cave No. 3
  4. Tentuli-Gumpha —— Cave No. 4
  5. Khandagiri-Gumpha —— Cave No. 5
  6. Dhyanaghara or Dhyana-Gumpha or Shell cave —— Cave No. 6
  7. Navamuni-Gumpha —— Cave No. 7
  8. Barabhuji-Gumpha —— Cave No. 8
  9. Trisula-Gumpha (Satabakhara or Mahavira-Gumpha) —— Cave No. 9
  10. Unnamed Ruined cave beyond cave No-9 —— Cave No. 10
  11. Lalatendukesari-Gumpha —— Cave No. 11
  12. Ruined cave near Radhakunda —— Cave No. 12
  13. Ruined cave beyond Radhakunda —— Cave No. 13
  14. Ekadasi-Gumpha —— Cave No. 14
  15. Cave near Gupta Ganga —— Cave No. 15

The art and architecture of caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri are comprehensively discussed in the Chapter III and IV. So, the caves which are depicted either symbols or Jaina images or have some special architectural features are only briefly discussed below.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

R.P. Mohapatra, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, Delhi, 1981, pp.4-5.

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