Impact of Vedic Culture on Society
by Kaushik Acharya | 2020 | 120,081 words
This page relates ‘Chart: Religious beliefs of the Kings who ruled in Northern India’ of the study on the Impact of Vedic Culture on Society as Reflected in Select Sanskrit Inscriptions found in Northern India (4th Century CE to 12th Century CE). These pages discuss the ancient Indian tradition of Dana (making gifts, donation). They further study the migration, rituals and religious activities of Brahmanas and reveal how kings of northern India granted lands for the purpose of austerities and Vedic education.
Chart: Religious beliefs of the Kings who ruled in Northern India
The following dynasty-wise chronological chart refers to the religious beliefs of the kings who ruled in northern India in the early and early middle ages and the general religious beliefs of the respective dynasties, which evidenced from the inscriptions and related studies.
|Information about the Dynasty||King / Queen||Religious Epithet|
|Mostly they adopted the vaiṣṇavite epithet Parama- Bhāgavata in their inscriptions but also tolerant towards other religions . Kumāragupta I was a great devotee of Mahādeva .||Samudragupta||Parama-Bhāgavata|
|Śarabhapuriyas adopted the vaiṣṇavite epithet Parama- Bhāgavata in their inscriptions.||Rāhudāva/Narendra||Parama-Bhāgavata|
|Mostly they adopted the vaiṣṇavite epithet.||Rudrasena I||Atyanta- Svamimahābhairavabhakta|
|Queen Prabhāvatīgupta||Atyanta-Bhāgavadbhaktā, Bhāgavatpadanudhayta|
|Maitrakas of Valabhī|
|The Maitraka were mostly followers of the Śiva but also tolerant of other religions. Kharagraha I and Dhārāsena III Both the Maitraka kings were not using any title except Śri.||Dhruvasena I||Parama-Bhāgavata|
|The kings of this dynasty were Parama-Bhāgavata.||Siṃhāditya||Parama-Bhāgavata|
|Maukharis were worshipers of Śiva.||Sūryavarman / Iśānavarman||Parama-Māheśvara|
|The kings of this dynasty were Parama-Māheśvara.||Taralasvāmin||Māheśvara|
|Pāṇḍuvaṃśi kings generally followed Brahmanical traditions, although they were also tolerant towards Buddhism.||Tivaradeva||Parama-Vaiṣṇava|
|The Mudgalas of Dakṣiṇa Toṣāla|
|The kings of this dynasty followed Brahmanical traditions.||Śivarāja||Parama-Māheśvara|
|Puṣyabhūti dynasty was mainly Śaivite and worshiper of Āditya (the Sun God) but later patronized to Buddhism.||Prabhākaravardhana||Parama-Ādityabhakta|
Harṣa became a devout Buddhist afterward
|The rulers of the Early Gurjara dynasty till Dāddā III were worshipers of Sūrya (the Sun-God), but after Dāddā III, they are identified as śaiva.||Dāddā II||Parama-Ādityabhakta|
|Rāṣṭrakūṭas may have been initially Śaivites and embraced Vaiṣṇavism later. The Rāṣṭrakūṭa rulers Amoghavarṣa I , Indra III , Kṛṣṇa II, and Indra IV patronized Jainism.||Nānnarāja||Parama-Māheśvara|
|The kings of this dynasty were mostly Parama-Māheśvara.||Mādhavavarman II||Parama-Māheśvara|
|During their rule, Jainism developed in the Deccan. However, there is no information about Buddhism during the early period of this dynasty. There arrived the Bhāgavata and Paśupati (Śiva) creeds. In honor of the triad of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Maheśvara, temples were built up||Vijayarāja||Parama-Māheśvara|
|Yuvarāja Śreyāśraya-ŚrīŚilāditya||Parama-Māheśvara, Parama-Vaiṣṇava|
|Pulakesirāja||Parama-Māheśvara and others|
|The kings of this dynasty were mostly Śaivite .||Bhāvihita||Parama-Māheśvara|
|The Hansot inscription describes that the family was devoted to Maheśvara.||Bhartṛvaḍḍha||Parama-Māheśvara|
|Pratihāra kings were followers of Brahmanism.||Rāmabhadra||Parama-Ādityabhakta|
|They were mainly patronized to Buddhism.||Devapalādeva||Parama-Saugata|
|Most of the Paramāra kings were Śaivite s and built several Śiva temples in different places, although they also patronized Jain scholars.||Vākpatirāja||Parama-bhattāraka, Mahārajādhirājā, Maheśvara, Parameśvara|
|The records says mostly the early rulers of this dynasty followed Buddhism, and later rulers mostly followed Śaivism and Vaiṣṇavism. However, they were much tolerant of other religions.||Śīvākaradeva||Parama-Saugata|
|Subhākaradeva I||Saugatasraya Parama-Saugata|
|Subhākara IV||Devotee of Hari|
|Their personal faith was mainly on Śaivism and Vaiṣṇavism.||Tīvārādeva||Parama-Vaiṣṇava|
|They were mainly patronized to Buddhism.||Vijayasena||Parama-Māheśvara|
|Their personal faith was on both Śaivism and Vaiṣṇavism.||Yaśovarmaṇ||Parama-Vaiṣṇava|
Footnotes and references:
CII, vol. III (revised edition), pp. 253-254.
USVAE, vol. III, no. 162 [Pīpardūla Plates of Narēndra (c. 485 CE)].
CII, vol. V, pp. 12, 18, 23, 30.
Ibid., vol. IV, pp. 24, 27.
Palitānā Plates of Dhruvasena (c. 525 CE).
D.C. Sircar, op. cit., p. 237. Also see, IA, vol. V, p. 207.
In the epigraphs of Dharapatta’s grandson Dhārāsena II.
Palitānā Plates of Dhārāsena II (c. 571 CE).
Virdi Plates of Kharagraha I (c. 616-17 CE).
L.d. Institute Copper Plate of Dhruvasena II (c. 630-31 CE), Goras Plates of Dhruvasena II (c. 632 CE), Dana Plates of Dhruvasena (II) Bālāditya (c. 633-34 CE), Nogawa Plates of Dhruvasena II ‘A’ (c. 639 -640 CE).
Kapadvanaj Plates of Dhruvasena III (c. 653-654 CE).
Alina Plates of Kharagraha II (c. 656–657 CE).
Jesar Plates of Śilāditya (c. 666–667 CE).
Jesar Plates of Śilāditya III (c. 676–677 CE), Anastu Plates of Śilāditya III (c. 677 CE).
USVAE, vol. III, pp. 456-459, [Palitānā Plates of Siṃhādiya (c. 574 CE)].
Ibid., vol. III, pp. 422-429, [Harāhā Inscription of Īśānavarman (c. 554 CE)]
Ibid., vol. IV, part I, pp. 19-23, [Mankani Plates of Taralasvamin (c. 595-596 CE)].
Ibid., pp. 191-194, [Sarsavani Plates of Buddharāja (c. 610 CE)].
USVAE, vol. IV, part I, pp. 146-150, [Patiakella Grant of Mahārāja Śivarāja (c. 602 CE)].
USVAE, vol. IV, part I, no. 69 (Soro Plates).
Baṅskhera Plate of Harṣa (c. 628-629 CE), Madhuban Plates of Harṣa (c. 631-632 CE), Kurukshetra Plates of Sri-Harṣa (c. 650-651 CE).
Sankhed Plates of Dāddā II–A & B (c. 642 CE).
Umeta Plates of Dāddā II (c. 648-49 CE).
Tiwarkhed Plates of Rāṣṭrakūṭa Nānnarāja (c. 731 CE).
Bisheshwar Nath Reu, History of the Rashtrakutas, p. 14.
Bagumra Plates of Indra III, (I Set) (c. 912 CE).
EI, vol. VI, pp. 143-146, [Ganjam grant of Madhavarāja II].
Kaira Plates of Vijayarāja (c. 643-644 CE).
Navasāri Plates of Pulakesirāja (c. 739 CE).
Dungarpur Plates of Bhavihitra (c. 655 CE).
N.G. Majumder (ed.), op. cit., p. 145.
USVAE, vol. VI, pp. 181-184, [Barah Copper-plate (c. 836 CE)].
Mungir Copper-Plate of Devapāladeva (9th century CE).
Gaonri Plates-B & C (c. 981 CE & c. 986 CE).
The Nelpur grant [EI, vol. XV, pp. 1-8 and EI, vol. XXVII, p. 212].
Ibid., vol. XXVII, p. 212.
A Grant of Vakulamahādevī (10th Century CE).
In the Dhenkanal plate (JBORS, vol. II, p. 419).
JBORS, vol. XVI, pp. 69-83.
Ibid., vol. V, p. 567.
CII, vol. III, p. 295.
EI, vol. XXXVI, pp. 197-198.
Sirpur Stone Inscription (loc. cit.).
N.G. Majumder (ed.), op. cit., p. 41.
Ibid., p. 43.
, p. 145.
USVAE, vol. VII, pp. 466-469.