Impact of Vedic Culture on Society

by Kaushik Acharya | 2020 | 120,081 words

This page relates ‘Chart: Religious beliefs of the Kings who ruled in Northern India’ of the study on the Impact of Vedic Culture on Society as Reflected in Select Sanskrit Inscriptions found in Northern India (4th Century CE to 12th Century CE). These pages discuss the ancient Indian tradition of Dana (making gifts, donation). They further study the migration, rituals and religious activities of Brahmanas and reveal how kings of northern India granted lands for the purpose of austerities and Vedic education.

Chart: Religious beliefs of the Kings who ruled in Northern India

[Cf. Previous Page]

The following dynasty-wise chronological chart refers to the religious beliefs of the kings who ruled in northern India in the early and early middle ages and the general religious beliefs of the respective dynasties, which evidenced from the inscriptions and related studies.

Information about the Dynasty King / Queen Religious Epithet
Mostly they adopted the vaiṣṇavite epithet Parama- Bhāgavata in their inscriptions but also tolerant towards other religions . Kumāragupta I was a great devotee of Mahādeva . Samudragupta Parama-Bhāgavata[1]
Chandragupta II Parama-Bhāgavata[2]
Kumāragupta I Parama-Māheśvara
Skandagupta Parama-Bhāgavata[3]
Śarabhapuriyas adopted the vaiṣṇavite epithet Parama- Bhāgavata in their inscriptions. Rāhudāva/Narendra Parama-Bhāgavata[4]
Sudevarāja Parama-Bhāgavata[5]
Mostly they adopted the vaiṣṇavite epithet. Rudrasena I Atyanta- Svamimahābhairavabhakta[6]
Queen Prabhāvatīgupta Atyanta-Bhāgavadbhaktā, Bhāgavatpadanudhayta[7]
Maitrakas of Valabhī
The Maitraka were mostly followers of the Śiva but also tolerant of other religions. Kharagraha I and Dhārāsena III Both the Maitraka kings were not using any title except Śri. Dhruvasena I Parama-Bhāgavata[8]
Gūhasena Parama-Māheśvara Parama-Upāsaka[9]
Dhārapatta Parama-Ādityabhakta[10]
Dhārāsena II Parama-Māheśvara[11]
Śilāditya I Parama-Māheśvara[12]
Kharagraha I Parama-Māheśvara[13]
Dhruvasena II-Bālāditya Parama-Māheśvara[14]
Dhārasena IV Parama-Māheśvara[15]
Dhruvasena III Parama-Māheśvara[16]
Kharagraha II Parama-Māheśvara[17]
Śilāditya II Parama-Māheśvara[18]
Śilāditya III Parama-Māheśvara[19]
The kings of this dynasty were Parama-Bhāgavata. Siṃhāditya Parama-Bhāgavata[20]
Maukharis were worshipers of Śiva. Sūryavarman / Iśānavarman Parama-Māheśvara[21]
The kings of this dynasty were Parama-Māheśvara. Taralasvāmin Māheśvara[22]
Buddharājā Parama-Māheśvara[23]
Pāṇḍuvaṃśi [Pāṇḍuvaṃśī?]
Pāṇḍuvaṃśi kings generally followed Brahmanical traditions, although they were also tolerant towards Buddhism. Tivaradeva Parama-Vaiṣṇava[24]
Nānnarājā I Parama-Māheśvara[25]
The Mudgalas of Dakṣiṇa Toṣāla
The kings of this dynasty followed Brahmanical traditions. Śivarāja Parama-Māheśvara[26]
Śambhūyasa Parama-Ādityabhakta[27]
The Puṣyabhūtis
Puṣyabhūti dynasty was mainly Śaivite and worshiper of Āditya (the Sun God) but later patronized to Buddhism. Prabhākaravardhana Parama-Ādityabhakta
Rajyavardhana I Parama-Ādityabhakta
Ādityavardhana Parama-Ādityabhakta
Śrī-Harṣa Parama-Māheśvara,
Harṣa became a devout Buddhist afterward[28]
Early Gurjara
The rulers of the Early Gurjara dynasty till Dāddā III were worshipers of Sūrya (the Sun-God), but after Dāddā III, they are identified as śaiva. Dāddā II Parama-Ādityabhakta[29]
Dāddā III Parama-Ādityabhakta[30]
Rāṣṭrakūṭas may have been initially Śaivites and embraced Vaiṣṇavism later. The Rāṣṭrakūṭa rulers Amoghavarṣa I , Indra III , Kṛṣṇa II, and Indra IV patronized Jainism. Nānnarāja Parama-Māheśvara[31]
Kṛṣṇa I Parama-Māheśvara[32]
Indra III Parama-Māheśvara[33]
The kings of this dynasty were mostly Parama-Māheśvara. Mādhavavarman II Parama-Māheśvara[34]
Mādhavavarman Parama-Māheśvara[35]
Mādhavarāja II Parama-Brāhmaṇya[36]
During their rule, Jainism developed in the Deccan. However, there is no information about Buddhism during the early period of this dynasty. There arrived the Bhāgavata and Paśupati (Śiva) creeds. In honor of the triad of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Maheśvara, temples were built up Vijayarāja Parama-Māheśvara[37]
Yuvarāja Śreyāśraya-ŚrīŚilāditya Parama-Māheśvara, Parama-Vaiṣṇava[38]
Pulakesirāja Parama-Māheśvara and others[39]
The kings of this dynasty were mostly Śaivite . Bhāvihita Parama-Māheśvara[40]
The Hansot inscription describes that the family was devoted to Maheśvara. Bhartṛvaḍḍha Parama-Māheśvara[41]
Siṃharāja Maheśvara[42]
Pratihāra kings were followers of Brahmanism. Rāmabhadra Parama-Ādityabhakta[43]
Vināyakapāla Parama-Ādityabhakta[44]
Bhojadeva Adivarāha[45]
They were mainly patronized to Buddhism. Devapalādeva Parama-Saugata[46]
Most of the Paramāra kings were Śaivite s and built several Śiva temples in different places, although they also patronized Jain scholars. Vākpatirāja Parama-bhattāraka, Mahārajādhirājā, Maheśvara, Parameśvara[47]
The records says mostly the early rulers of this dynasty followed Buddhism, and later rulers mostly followed Śaivism and Vaiṣṇavism. However, they were much tolerant of other religions. Śīvākaradeva Parama-Saugata
Subhākaradeva I Saugatasraya Parama-Saugata[48]
Subhākaradeva II Parama-Saugata[49]
Vakulamahādevī Parama-Māheśvarī[50]
Queen Tribhūvanamahādevī Parama-Vaiṣṇavī[51]
Subhākara IV Devotee of Hari[52]
Queen Pṛthvi-mahādevī Parama-Vaiṣṇavī[53]
Subhākara III Parama-Māheśvara[54]
Subhākara IV Parama-Māheśvara[55]
Queen Danḍi-mahādevī Parama-Māheśvarī[56]
Somavaṃśi [Somavaṃśī?]
Their personal faith was mainly on Śaivism and Vaiṣṇavism. Tīvārādeva Parama-Vaiṣṇava[57]
Nānnarāja II Parama-Vaiṣṇava[58]
Mahāśivāgupta Parama-Māheśvara[59] Parama-Saugata[60]
Queen Vāsatā Parama-Vaiṣṇavī[61]
They were mainly patronized to Buddhism. Vijayasena Parama-Māheśvara[62]
Ballālasena Parama-Māheśvara[63]
Lakṣmaṇasena Parama-Vaiṣṇava, ParamaNarasiṃha[64]
Viśvarūpasena Parama-Saura[65]
Their personal faith was on both Śaivism and Vaiṣṇavism. Yaśovarmaṇ Parama-Vaiṣṇava[66]
Dhāṇgadeva Parama-Māheśvara[67]

Footnotes and references:


USVAE, vol. III, no. 13 [Nālandā Charter of Samudragupta (c. 325 CE or c. 335 CE), & Gaya Copper-Plate Charter of Samudragupta (c. 339 CE)].


R.C. Majumder, A Comprehensive History of India, part I, p. 58.


CII, vol. III (revised edition), pp. 253-254.


USVAE, vol. III, no. 162 [Pīpardūla Plates of Narēndra (c. 485 CE)].


EI, vol. XXIII, p. 20 (The Aranga Plate of Mahārāja Sudevarāja).


CII, vol. V, pp. 12, 18, 23, 30.


Ibid., vol. IV, pp. 24, 27.


Palitānā Plates of Dhruvasena (c. 525 CE).


D.C. Sircar, op. cit., p. 237. Also see, IA, vol. V, p. 207.


In the epigraphs of Dharapatta’s grandson Dhārāsena II.


Palitānā Plates of Dhārāsena II (c. 571 CE).


Navalākhi Plate of Śilāditya, c. 605-606 CE, Vāla Plates of Śilāditya I, c. 606 CE.


Virdi Plates of Kharagraha I (c. 616-17 CE).


L.d. Institute Copper Plate of Dhruvasena II (c. 630-31 CE), Goras Plates of Dhruvasena II (c. 632 CE), Dana Plates of Dhruvasena (II) Bālāditya (c. 633-34 CE), Nogawa Plates of Dhruvasena II ‘A’ (c. 639 -640 CE).


Bhavnagar Plates of Dhārāsena IV ‘A’ (c. 645–646 CE), Alina Plates of Dhārāsena IV (c.

649–650 CE), Kheda (Kaira) Plates of Dhārāsena IV (c. 649–650 CE).


Kapadvanaj Plates of Dhruvasena III (c. 653-654 CE).


Alina Plates of Kharagraha II (c. 656–657 CE).


Jesar Plates of Śilāditya (c. 666–667 CE).


Jesar Plates of Śilāditya III (c. 676–677 CE), Anastu Plates of Śilāditya III (c. 677 CE).


USVAE, vol. III, pp. 456-459, [Palitānā Plates of Siṃhādiya (c. 574 CE)].


Ibid., vol. III, pp. 422-429, [Harāhā Inscription of Īśānavarman (c. 554 CE)]


Ibid., vol. IV, part I, pp. 19-23, [Mankani Plates of Taralasvamin (c. 595-596 CE)].


Ibid., pp. 191-194, [Sarsavani Plates of Buddharāja (c. 610 CE)].


Baloda Plates of Tīvaradeva (c. 600 CE), Bondā Plates of Mahāśiva Tivara (c. 600 CE).


A.M. Shastri (ed.), op. cit., part I, p. 161.


USVAE, vol. IV, part I, pp. 146-150, [Patiakella Grant of Mahārāja Śivarāja (c. 602 CE)].


USVAE, vol. IV, part I, no. 69 (Soro Plates).


Baṅskhera Plate of Harṣa (c. 628-629 CE), Madhuban Plates of Harṣa (c. 631-632 CE), Kurukshetra Plates of Sri-Harṣa (c. 650-651 CE).


Sankhed Plates of Dāddā II–A & B (c. 642 CE).


Umeta Plates of Dāddā II (c. 648-49 CE).


Tiwarkhed Plates of Rāṣṭrakūṭa Nānnarāja (c. 731 CE).


Bisheshwar Nath Reu, History of the Rashtrakutas, p. 14.


Bagumra Plates of Indra III, (I Set) (c. 912 CE).


Purushottampur Plates of Sainyabhita Masdhavavarman II Srinivasa (c. 633 CE).


Puri Plates of Madhavavarman (c. 633 CE).


EI, vol. VI, pp. 143-146, [Ganjam grant of Madhavarāja II].


Kaira Plates of Vijayarāja (c. 643-644 CE).


Surat Plates of Yuvarāja Śryasraya Śilāditya (c. 693 CE).


Navasāri Plates of Pulakesirāja (c. 739 CE).


Dungarpur Plates of Bhavihitra (c. 655 CE).


USVAE, vol. VII, pp. 322-333, [Hansot Plates of the Chahamana Bhartrivaddha (c. 756 CE)].


Loc. cit.


N.G. Majumder (ed.), op. cit., p. 145.


Loc. cit.


USVAE, vol. VI, pp. 181-184, [Barah Copper-plate (c. 836 CE)].


Mungir Copper-Plate of Devapāladeva (9th century CE).


Gaonri Plates-B & C (c. 981 CE & c. 986 CE).


The Nelpur grant [EI, vol. XV, pp. 1-8 and EI, vol. XXVII, p. 212].


Ibid., vol. XXVII, p. 212.


A Grant of Vakulamahādevī (10th Century CE).


In the Dhenkanal plate (JBORS, vol. II, p. 419).


B. Mishra, op. cit., p. 37.


The Baud plate of Queen Prthvi mahādevī (EI, vol. XXIX).


JBORS, vol. XVI, pp. 69-83.


Ibid., vol. V, p. 567.


Loc. cit.


CII, vol. III, p. 295.


Adhabhara Plates of Mahā-Nānnarāja,(c. 600 CE)(EI, vol. XXXI, p. 221).


EI, vol. XXXVI, pp. 197-198.


Sirpur Stone Inscription (USVAE, vol. III, no. 46).


Sirpur Stone Inscription (loc. cit.).


N.G. Majumder (ed.), op. cit., p. 41.


Loc. cit.


Ibid., p. 43.


, p. 145.


Sisirkumar Mitra, The Early Rulers of Khajurāho, pp. 36-37.


USVAE, vol. VII, pp. 466-469.

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