Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh (early history)

by Prakash Narayan | 2011 | 63,517 words

This study deals with the history of Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh (Northern India) taking into account the history and philosophy of Buddhism. Since the sixth century B.C. many developments took place in these regions, in terms of society, economic life, religion and arts and crafts....

The monks and the paribbajakas address each other with the epithet avuso and also exchange greeting (S.S.).[1] However, the actual relationship between the monks and paribbajakas is not always friendly. Therefore, a number of paribbajakas belonging to different schools come to the monk Anuradha, exchange greeting (S.S.) with him and address him as avuso. However, the paribbajakas are dissatisfied at the end of his discourse and say of him, “This bhikku must be a novice (navo) not long ordained, or if he is an elder (thero), he is an ignorant fool.[2] Pataliputta the paribbajaka exchange greeting (S.S.) with the monk samiddhi and uses the mutual term of respect avuso. But soon after the conversation, Potaliputta takes leave of samiddhi, ‘neither rejoicing nor protesting against what samiddhi has said.”[3]

Paribbajakas with gotta affiliation are addressed by their gotta, and the mode of address is somewhat different in that avuso is ommited. The monk Moggallama exchange greeting (S.S.) with Vacchagotta the paribbajaka and addresses him as bho vaccha. In reply vaccha addresses him as bho Moggallana.[4]

Footnotes and references:


Anguttara Nikaya.I.215; V.121-22, 194; Digha Nikaya. II.162; Majjhima Nikaya. I.227-28. 513; III.124, 207; Samyutta Nikaya. I.120ff; III. 116; IV.401ff; Vinaya. III. 240.


Samyutta Nikaya.III.116, so cavam bhikkhu navo bhavissati acira pabbajito thero va pana balo avyottoti.


Majjhima Nikaya.III.207.


Samyutta Nikaya.IV.391.

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