Triveni Journal

1927 | 11,233,916 words

Triveni is a journal dedicated to ancient Indian culture, history, philosophy, art, spirituality, music and all sorts of literature. Triveni was founded at Madras in 1927 and since that time various authors have donated their creativity in the form of articles, covering many aspects of public life....

A Case for Preparation of Modern Bilingual

Dr. Poranki Dakshina Murthy

A CASE FOR PREPARATION OF MODERN BILINGUAL  DICTIONARIES FOR INDIAN LANGUAGES

All languages of our nation are important and have contributed well to the enrichment of Indian Literature in general. But unfortunately we do not find a free flow of literary contributions from one language to another. Of course, some translators have indeed made it possible to some extent, which is not at all sufficient. We have failed to posses a proper knowledge of the literary treasures cherished in the languages other than our own. Hence we need more and more translations so that each speech community may be able to have a free access to the literature and language of the other community.

Dictionaries provide us good reference material promoting the activity of translation in both directions. Many languages have secured a few bilingual dictionaries, mostly compiled in the 19th or 20th centuries. Most of the entries in those dictionaries are found to abound in a maximum number of classical and archaic literary forms. Therefore many translators find it difficult to secure good dictionaries for their present day needs.

To overcome this predicament it requires a well-planned project for preparation of Modern Bilingual Dictionaries for all Indian languages, in a phased manner and on scientific lines. In the initial stage, we can take the language spoken by the majority of the people in a state and prepare bilingual dictionaries for each of the other languages spoken in the state and those found around the borders of the state. For example, TELUGU is the language spoken by the majority of the people in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Urdu is spoken by several lakhs of people in some districts. Along the border areas of the state, people speak Tamil, Kannada, Marathi and Oriya. Link languages of Hindi and English are also of great importance. Thus, Seven bilingual dictionaries are required to be prepared for the benefit of those who translate from Telugu to the above other languages. The number of such dictionaries varies from one language to the other, depending on the geographical position of the state.

Language  Bilingual Dictionaries proposed for compilation in the first phase
1. Assamese: Assamese-Bengali, Assamese-Hindi, Assamese-English
2. Bengali: Bengali-Oriya, Bengali-Assamese, Bengali-Hindi, Bengali-English, Bengali-Manipuri
3. Dogri: Dogri-Hindi
4. Gujarati: Gujarati-Marathi, Gujarati-Hindi, Gujarati-Urdu, Gujarati-English
5. Hindi: Hindi-Bengali, Hindi-Nepali, Hindi-Punjabi, Hindi-Urdu, Hindi-Dogri, Hindi-Kannada, Hindi-Kashmiri, Hindi-Marathi, Hindi-Gujarati, Hindi-Malayalam, Hindi-Tamil, Hindi-Oriya, Hindi-Assamese, Hindi-Manipuri, Hindi-Maithili, Hindi-Rajasthani, Hindi-Dogri, Hindi-Konkani, Hindi-Telugu
6. Kannada: Kannada-Telugu, Kannada-Tamil, Kannada-Malayalam, Kannada -Marathi, Kannada-Konkani, Kannada-Hindi, Kannada-English, Kannada-Urdu
7. Kashmiri: Kashmiri-Hindi, Kashmiri-Punjabi, Kashmiri-Urdu, Kashmiri-English
8. Konkani: Konkani-Hindi, Konkani-Marathi, Konkani-Kannada, Konkani-English
9. Maithili: Maithili-Hindi, Maithili-English
l0. Malayalam: Malayalam-Kannada, Malayalam-Tamil, Malayalam-Hindi, Malayalam-English
11. Manipuri: Manipuri-Hindi, Manipuri-Assamese, Manipuri-Bengali, Manipuri-English
12. Marathi: Marathi-Telugu, Marathi-Kannada, Marathi-Konkani, Marathi-Hindi, Marathi-Gujarati, Marathi-Urdu, Marathi-English
13. Nepali: Nepali-Hindi, Nepali-English
14. Oriya: Oriya-Telugu, Oriya-Bengali, Oriya-Hindi, Oriya-English
15. Punjabi: Punjabi-Rajasthani, Punjabi-Hindi, Punjabi-Kashmiri, Punjabi-Urdu, Punjabi-English
16. Rajasthani: Rajasthani-Hindi
17.Sindhi: Sindhi-Hindi
18.Tamil: Tamil-Telugu, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil-Hindi, Tamil-English
19.Telugu: Telugu-Tamil, Telugu-Kannada, Telugu-Marathi, Telugu-Oriya, Telugu-Urdu, Telugu-Hindi, Telugu-English
20.Urdu: Urdu-Hindi, Urdu-Kashmiri, Urdu-Punjabi, Urdu-Marathi, Urdu-Gujarati, Urdu-Tamil, Urdu-Kannada, Urdu-Malayalam, Urdu-Bengali, Urdu-Oriya, Urdu-English, Urdu-Konkani, Urdu-Nepali       

In the above categories, new dictionaries need not be considered for preparation if there are good dictionaries already available, capable of serving our present day needs. Those that have gone out of print may be considered for reprinting.

Total number of entries (words and phrases) in each dictionary can be limited 30 to 40 thousand. Preparation of each dictionary may be expected to complete in four or five years. Work can be taken up in all the languages mentioned above, simultaneously.

SECOND PHASE
In the Second Phase of the project, we can consider modern Bilingual Dictionaries in the reverse order for each of the languages identified above (see Table II). Every care should be taken for avoiding duplication of work and unnecessary expenditure.

TABLE - II
1. Telugu: Tamil-Telugu, Kannada-Telugu, Marathi-Telugu, Oriya-Telugu, Urdu-Telugu, Hindi-Telugu, English-Telugu, etc., etc.
NOTE: The same procedure can be followed in respect of all other languages, avoiding duplication of work.

THIRD PHASE
As long as we are not unreasonably and unrealistically ambitious, we can hope for securing Modern Bilingual Dictionaries, atleast for some of the languages, if not ‘from each to each of the Indian languages’. This can be considered in the Third Phase, while planning also for providing Bilingual Dictionaries of (i) Idioms and Phrases, (ii) Proverbs in every language, separately.

When the project is taken up in all its seriousness, planned and executed properly, we would be able to provide bilingual dictionaries for all Indian languages, in a few decades, contributing to a stronger spirit of national integration and taking Indian Literature to greater heights.

The author has a detailed plan for the preparation of such dictionaries in all Indian languages. Those who are interested may write to him to the following address:

H. No. 1-100, Chaitanyapuri, Hyderabad - 500 060. Andhra Pradesh Ph. No. 24146205.
–Editor

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