Triveni Journal

1927 | 11,233,916 words

Triveni is a journal dedicated to ancient Indian culture, history, philosophy, art, spirituality, music and all sorts of literature. Triveni was founded at Madras in 1927 and since that time various authors have donated their creativity in the form of articles, covering many aspects of public life....

Our Constitution Defaced and Defiled: By N. K. Palkhivala. Macmillan & Co. Ltd., Madras-2. Price: Rs. 8.

N. A. Palkhivala, who has been engaged now for some years in defending the Indian Constitution from being undermined by the amendments from time to time, has rendered immense service by delivering these lectures at a time when lawyers and laymen both need a clear concept of the powers of Parliament to reduce the Fundamental Rights which are a vital part of our democracy. In two parts here, the lecturer has traced first in a general way how freedom in a democracy has to be safeguarded and how far in our Constitution the whole range of human rights have been adequately guaranteed. The likely conflicts which could arise between the directive principles and fundamental rights as envisaged in the Constitution are then dealt along with a timely reference to international conventions such as the French Declaration of the Rights of Man (1879), the Bill of Rights of the United States, the Charter of the United Nations with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Naturally the amended Art. 31 C would strike anyone of freedom-loving citizens as an outrage of the worst type on the Constitution. Further, the evil results of the recent deviations from the Constitution in the shape of amendments for abrogating freedom of vote and conscience of members of Parliament and Assemblies, apart from the unusual step taken by the Central Government in appointing a Chief Justice, the Supreme Court against both ruling conventions and construction of the Law Commission’s Report, are vividly described by the lecturer with adequate realisation of values of the socialistic society aimed at by a Government with a modernistic progressive philosophy.

The second part of the lectures is really worth perusal again and again, owing to the brilliant analysis and careful arguments of what really would constitute Parliament’s powers for amedments, how much of implied limitations should be recognised and how much Parliament would be doing harm to the very Constitution given by the people unto themselves when armed with unlimited powers. The reasoned-out points for consideration during the examination of the obligation to the limitation on the amending powers, leave the reader in no doubt regarding the utter requirement to read Art. 368, carrying the needed implication in its terms of limiting the amending power.

Lastly the lecturer has stressed with sufficient authority that the enlargement of its own powers for amendment cannot be achieved by Parliament. The recent Supreme Court’s judgement wherein a majority of seven judges as against six others decided in favour of the limited nature of Parliament’s powers for amendment has been highlighted with the words: “Thus something has been salvaged out of the tempest that raged over Government’s claim to have the power to wreck the Constitution.”

Within the span of 150 pages with an appendix containing the relevant provisions of the Constitution, the lecturer has very ably packed all his ideas and reasonings for preserving the identity of the Constitution. In his concluding words he has shown himself to be not influenced by pessimism. For he says:

“The nation may pass through loss of identity; but never the Constitution. The founding fathers had the unshakeable faith that however stormy the days, the preservation of the identity of the Constitution will always enable the nation to come to its own.” 

Gandhi and his Contemporaries: By P. C. Roy Choudhury. Sterling Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi-16. Price: Rs. 40.

Here are collected 47 short sketches of important men and women both of India and outside who had during their lives contact with the Mahatma and had either been influenced by him or have tried to influence him in their turn. The writer who had been contributing to various journals from time to time these sketches has proved without doubt how necessary it is for anyone to know of the contemporaries of the Mahatma, especially when they have also in their own way showed their merits to the world at large in shaping public life of a nation struggling to achieve freedom. Each of the sketches generally does not exceed in print more than six pages, except perhaps in the case of such international figures as Jawaharlal, Rabindranath Tagore, Srinivasa Sastri and Romain Roland. On the whole the views or comments expressed here are balanced and never create any feeling of bias from political or social angles of view. The narrative runs smooth with an attempt at an objective projection of the personage on to the reader’s enjoyable perception.

An Introduction to Indian Religions: By Harbans Singh and Lal Mani Joshi. Published by the Guru Gobind Singh Department of Religious Studies, Patiala.

Under a mistaken impression that religion should be eschewed from studies in a secular country, this subject is not taught in any university in India. The Punjab University at Patiala, therefore, deserves praise for having introduced religion as an elective subject of study at the undergraduate level. Religion has been one of the greatest, if not the greatest, forces that shaped human civilization and no study of man can be complete without a study of religion.

Separate guides to Indian religions published by bodies like the Theosophical Society of Madras have long been out of print. The present volume, designed as a beginning course for college students, covers Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. Other religions prevailing in India like Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam are to be covered in the second book in the series.

The authors are experienced professors and have projected the tenets of the religions concerned as simply as possible, without bias and any scope for controversy. Too many technical details about the religions dealt with have also been carefully avoided. The emphasis is on the historical development and the spiritual and moral principles of the religions explained.

It is no easy task to interpret, within the span of about 75 pages, religions like Hinduism or Jainism, with a recorded history of over 2500 years and a vast mass of literature that has grown around them through the centuries. But the authors have eminently succeeded in their attempt by concentrating on the essentials. The study of Hinduism covers its growth from Vedic times to the Upanishadic period and traces the influence of the Bhagavad Gita on it.

Jainism, another hallowed religion rooted in the Indian soil, lays emphasis on Ahimsa or non-killing and has preserved some of the most ancient elements of Indian religious culture. The chapter on this religion explains lucidly its somewhat abstruse metaphysical tenets. A longer chapter has been devoted to Buddhism which is the only Indian religion to spread in South-east Asia, China and Japan. The points of difference between the Mahayana and Hinayana and the development of the later Buddhist schools have been dealt with clearly. The chapter is rounded off with choice selections from Buddhist texts.

Although it is the youngest of world religions, Sikhism has had a dynamic history from the time Guru Nanak first preached his message of love and faith and the oneness of God. The life story of the ten Gurus covers the development of this religion. Choice quotations from Sikh scriptures have been appended at the end.

Although the book is meant as a college text-book, the general reader will find it exceedingly interesting as “an intelligent man’s guide to Indian religions.”

Gems from the Gita: By M. P. Pandit. Ganesh and Co., Madras-17. Price: Rs. 6.

The message of the Gita is of perennial value and these selected gems help to focus the attention of the aspirant on the cardinal teachings of the Lord. A thought or an idea is taken, the corresponding Sanskrit verse is given along with a translation and an adequate exposition. In many an instance, the exposition is revelatory bringing home the points that are naturally missed in these hackneyed quotations. Yes, Gita is one of those books, the verses of which are so oft-quoted that they have become hackneyed and fail to evoke the intended sense in the hearer. Pandit has done a signal service in that not only has he selected these gems from the rich quarry of the Gita but also has presented them in the proper light. Let us quote some instances. Commenting on the idea of the Divine in human body, enshrined in the half verse “avajaananti maam moodhaa maanuseem tanum aasritam” the author says: “Man fails to be aware of the Divine seated at the core of his being; he fails to see the same Divinity seated in the bodies of others around him; he does not realise that when he maltreats another, he really offends the Divine in the other.” Again on the oft-quoted–“tat viddhi pranipaatena pariprasnena sevayaa,” “Humility of approach, surrender of oneself–signified by the act of bowing to and adoring the feet of the Master–receptivity and aspiration articulated by appropriate expressions, service that forges a link and builds up an identity at all levels of the being, are the main means to win the grace of the Guru.”

There is enough material in these expositions to ponder over and meditate upon.

The Human Exile: By Bela Fischer. Philosophical Library, New York. Price: 6 Dollars.

The Human Exile is a powerful and passionate plea to overcome the phenomenon of alienation from which we all suffer. We are all exiles in a crowded world which is just a well-knit physical community and not a psychological neighbourhood. The author laments the devisive, destructive and exilic cruelty of modern society. The central theme of the volume is that science and technology have given us only a physically unified world.

We cannot make it into a social reality without ethical virtues. We must strive to overcome selfish and narrow ideals that make for division and war. The call is for the emergence of one world, where co-operation is possible between men and nations. Towards the end of the book the author makes a most persuasive and eloquent appeal to men to adopt ways of love and sanity to build a happy, new social order. “Man’s future begins when he is ready to give up past attitudes and outmoded notions regardless of how long and how intimately they have become a part of man’s life” (176). “The human future cannot be built without controlling the destructive forces which work against it.” Constant vigilance over the ever present destructiveness must go together with creative goals to create greater fulfilment and happiness for man. In the final analysis it is man’s spirit and his sense of common humanity that hold the key to the better world. The book is inspiring reading and it raises the drooping spirit of men’s faith in moral values. The index and the table of reference are sad omissions.

Cosmic Religion: By Jung Young Lee. Philosophical Library, New York. Price: 4-50 Dollars.

Written by a Korean scholar, this book attempts to look at the universe from the standpoint of Tao and traces the omnipresence of Change in every form, on every level of existence. Ecological and existential problems are shown to arise from the separation of man from Nature and the truth of his own self, a situation that could be remedied by a progressive harmonisation with the vibrations of Change. The author is well informed about the implications of the Christian religion and he has a point or two when he corrects the popular notions of crucifixion, resurrection, etc. His, conclusion is unexceptionable: “History moves according to the process of change and transformation. We are in the stream of this process, the process which is deeply affected by the archaic nostalgia. This inspiration for the original home unites every thing in the world toward the ultimate fulfilment of all things in harmony and peace. Then, the perfect realm of the Change may come in our existence as it is in essence.”

Outline of Indian Philosophy: By A. K. warder. Motilal Banarasidas, Delhi-6. Price: Rs. 30.

The author approaches the subjcct with the avowed object of presenting Indian Philosophy shorn of its ‘religious’ frills. He observes that there is a strong belief in the West that in philosophy has no independent existence and is only a handmaid of religion. And in seeking to rectify the situation he has produced a dry treatise expounding just the Indian theories of knowledge, the standards of Indian logic and such other topics forming the ‘philosophy proper’ according to British standards of what true philosophy should be. Naturally he devotes more attention to the development of the Buddhist schools of philosophy with Nyaya and Vaiseshika coming a close second.

We understand the book has been designed as a test-book for use in the universities. Obviously it is not meant for the general reader for whom philosophy has no relevance unless it is what it has always meant in the best traditions of the land, viz., an intellectual presentation of spiritual experience during one’s quest for the Reality.

Dipikaprakasa of Sri Subramanya Sastri. Edited by Dr Shankaranarayanan. Copies from Pandit Rama Sarma, Shaktivilas Vaidyashala, Karur. Tamil Nadu.

Annambhatta’s commentary dipika on the Pratyaksha section of Tarakasangraha is a classic on the Nyaya Vaiseshika system. The commentator differs in his treatment of the subject from other writers. Specially to be noted in his view on the subject of salvation. He holds that “of the five things–pain, birth, effort, faults and erroneous knowledge, the destruction of the immediately preceding one, and consequently the salvation ultimately follows.”

The present work gives the text of Dipika, commentary on it, Dipika-Prakasha by Sri Subramanya Sastri and a gloss on it–Shaktisanjivani–by his son Dr Rama Sarma. The whole work is edited with a tippani (notes) by Dr Shankaranarayanan. A valuable addition to the Nyaya Vaiseshika literature.

Unitive Understanding: Edited by Curran A de Bruler. Gurukula Institute of Aesthetic Values, Narayana Gurukula, Somanhalli, Bangalore.

Comprising mostly papers submitted at the four conferences held by the Narayana Gurukula Foundation in South India, this volume gives a comprehensive idea of the approach of Sri Nataraja Guru to the varied problems of the day. Each paper is prefaced by a short note by the Guru emphasising the unitive spirit in which the theme is discussed. By unitive he means Advaitic and to him “Advaita connotes morethan mere unity and denotes less than the absence of plurality.” The subjects discussed are Religion, World Government, World Law, Yoga, Ethics, Aesthetic Education, Economics and Unified Science. The treatment is difficult to follow, especially for a lay reader who is notaccustomed to the special terminology that is under consistent use in these pages.

Not all would readily accept the findings presented here, as for instance in the paper on Education: “The education of a woman has to differ drastically from that of a man, because of the difference of the functions they have to fulfil in their lives’” (130).

All the same the approach to find a common ground for the solution of the problems in an Absolute that contains all positives and negatives and exceeds them, is commendable.

For a Fundamental Social Ethic: By Oliva Blanchette. Philosophical Library, New York. Price: $ 7-50.

That philosophy has been too long occupied with abstractions and it should be developed into a science or social criticism is the theme of this discussion. A concrete meta-ethics is kept as a desideratum by the author who seeks to “spell out an ethical perspective with which such a philosophy could be worked out. The focus...will be the concrete exercise of moral judgment in its dialectical structure, not just the elements of moral judgment taken in isolation nor anyone of its particular poles of concentration, but the living unity in which all these factors appear.” There is a lively discussion on the question whether principles are to be given a priority or the situational demands.

The book stimulates thinking, though its conclusions do not clinch the issue.

The Literary Criticism of Sri Aurobindo: By Dr S. K. Prasad, Professor and Head of the Department of English, Magadh University, Bharati Bhavan, Patna-4. Price: Rs. 65.

“My humble claim in this book is that the speciality of Sri Aurobindo as a literary critic lies in the fact that he not only provides us with the eternal moorings of poetry and art but us, at the same time, in as precise and persuasive a language possible, the truly new and progressive direction which our literature should and must take in order to enable us to us usher in what he hopefully calls the bright noon of the future,” says the author (Page 79) in concluding his outline treatise on Sri Aurobindo’s Life and Works which constitute the second chapter of this highly commendable work. The first chapter, the introduction, is devoted to some most cogent reflections, on certain aspects of literary criticism with a very stimulating reference to T. S. Eliot’s attack on Arnold’s view that “genuine poetry is conceived and composed in the soul.”

The remaining dozen chapters are devoted to an exposition of the principles the vision and the expectations with which Sri Aurobindo evaluated literature. The author certainly succeeds in establishing that “Both in theory and actual practice,” Sri Aurobindo’s “is an example which, whether considered unique or not, has opened out paths for literary critics as well as poets, which are undoubtedly full of rich promise and untold possibilities.”

A number of works have been produced, some of them, no doubt, of genuine insight, scholarship and appreciation, on Sri Aurobindo’s Integral Yoga, Poetry and Sociology. Here is a work at once first of its kind and a major work, on Sri Aurobindo as a literary critic. It would serve a great degree of its purpose if it awakens an interest in the academic world in the splendour that is Sri Aurobindo’s Future Poetry.

Upanishads and Yoga: By T. Kulkarni. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay-7. Price: Rs. 4.

In this study, the author takes the Upahishads on their own words without depending upon any exegesis thereof. In the chapter on the Upanishads, the allegations that the thought of the Upanishads is antirationalistic and asocial are refuted with the authority of relevant citations.

Another charge levelled against the Upanishads that according to them the phenomenal world is illusory is also rebutted. According to the Upanishads two types of realities are recognised. The reality of the Atman which is not an abstract principle, but identifiable in the body itself as a mass of consciousness, is superior and that of the phenomenal world the objects of which are the creations of the Atman, is inferior. The author quotes profusely from the writing of the scientists like Eugene Weigner, etc., to show how there is in evidence a distinct trend in contemporary literature which seems to show a complete agreement with this Upanishadic view.

The book can be considered as a research paper, the findings of which may stimulate further research in this field.            We commend this to all students of Psychology.

Malayarnaaruta Part III. Edited by Dr V. Raghavan. Rashtriya Samskrita Samsthan, New Delhi. Price: Rs. 5.

The Malayamaaruta is yet another contribution to Sanskrit literature by Dr V. Raghavan. His extraordinary interest in Sanskrit and its manuscript treasures is well-known. As originally designed by him the aim of Malayamaaruta is to bring to light hitherto unpublishing minor works, Khanda Kaavyas.

In the present third volume, Dr Raghavan has edited from manuscripts eight works, by authors of different periods and belong­ing to different parts of India. The collection opens with Srisaamba­sadaasiva Stotra ascribed to Anup Singh of Bikaner, a Patron-King of the 17th century. Of other Kaavyas here, Paramesvara Yogindra’s Saaradaatilaka isa philosophical poem in a musical metre. The next, Sulaimaccaritra is from the pen of Kalyaanamalla, the famous author of the erotic treatise Anangaranga (16th century). The story of this poem is unique in that it is about the biblical hero Solomon, son of David, as handed down in Islamic tradition. Kavikanthaabharana (on poet and speech), Manograhana (on mind’s discontent) and Praastaavikaslokaah are Khanda Kaavyas by a recent author Krishnakavi. The anonymous Subhaashitasudhaanandalaharee in more than a century of verses, is a regular anthology in didactic strain on men and matters.
The last work in this collection is the Prahasana Palaandumandana, by Harijivana Misra of Jaipur (17th century). Unlike the compositions of the Prahasana-Class, the Palaandumandana satirises the eating habits and. tastes of Pandits from different parts of India. With this main idea interesting situations are worked out by the author with dramatic verve. This prahasana has been successfully staged by the Samskrita Ranga, Madras, under the direction of the Editor.

To add to the usefulness of the collection the Editor has given, as in the two earlier volumes, notes on the works and authors; details about the manuscripts and also added explanations of difficult words and passages and an English resume of the Prahasana.

Sri Aurobindo: Poet: By Sisirkumar Ghose. Transition Books, Calcutta Price: Rs. 10.

Sri Aurobindo had seen Light, and he had the Light installed within himself. He is the light in this darkened world, and he radiates his inner light through his works for the resurrection of Man to reilluminate the darkened world. That is why, though he is a ‘Sage-Saint-Sayer’, Sri Aurobindo considered himself ‘first and foremost a poet’. It is with this point that the eminent Professor Sisirkumar Ghose starts and tries to expose the semantic beauty, spiritual glory and profound significance of Sri Aurobindo’s poetic art.

The little book under review is ‘a shorter version of an earlier work on the subject’.

Professor Ghose reiterates that Sri Aurobindo is essentially ‘a poet of love’ of the supreme calibre. He reviews Sri Aurobindo’s development of the theme of love, and exemplifies how the theme is dramatized, at the legendary and spiritual and cosmic levels, par excellence, in Savitri.

Although much more is to be said, the book affords brief appraisal of Sri Aurobindo’s life and achievement as a poet. And it is a fitting ancillary to the already-existing books on Sri Aurobindo by Professor (Dr) K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar, Dr. Prema Nandakumar, Dr Rameswara Gupta and Professor Ghose himself.
–Dr K. V. S. MURTI

Education in Andhra Pradesh: By M. V. Rajagopal. Telugu Vidyarthi Publications, Machilipatnam-1. Price: Rs. 10.

Challenges in Higher Education: By Dr D. Jagannatha Reddy. Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati. Price: Rs. 10.

Problems of Education: Association of University Teachers, Tamil Nadu. Price: Rs. 3.

Nothing is more appropriate than for an educationist of some standing to point out the pinnacles and pitfalls in education. And when such a man has had the privilege of first-hand information by virtue of being in charge of education at various levels, his appraisal of the subject is bound to have a ring of authenticity, if not authority.

Sri Rajagopal also possesses an uncanny power of expression and a masterly command of language. As Registrar ofAndhra University, as Director of Public Instruction and as Education Secretary of Andhra Pradesh Government, Sri Rajagopal has acquired massive statistics and vast experience and these are reflected in every page of his learned book.

It so happens that the book was published just after the publication of the monumental Kothari commision Report on education, thua enabling SriRajagopal to delve deep into the report and make suitable comments. The author has in a systematic way scrutinized education in the State right from primary to tertiary stage and touched on all aspects–thus giving, within the covers of a slender volume, a comprehensive kaleidoscope of education.

Although the scope of the book is problems and prospects of education in Andhra Pradesh, the “academic exercise” is more or less applicable, as the author hopes to other States of India as well. No person interested in education can afford to miss this “acadernic exercise.”

The Vice-chancellor of a university has a justification to publish a book or books on higher education, if only because of his high academic office. “Challenges in Higher Education” is an anthology of lectures delivered by Dr D. Jagannatha Reddy at various places and at various times–an impressive 82 lectures and write-ups.

An array of subjects have been covered and they range from higher education to mass education, from English and Sanskrit to sociology and science, from tennis and postal system to psychiatry and health care, from United Nations and women’s education to national integration and Bhagavad Gita....Indeed, there is no topic of consequence which is not found in the book.

When a Vice-chancellor happens to belong to the noble profession of medicine and to have a wide reading and travelling, in addition to long years of experience, he probably cannot help to turn his searchlight on such disparate discourses. And we should also bear in mind the typical Indian habit of inviting and insisting on men who matter to speak on each and every occasion: the speaker is important, not the speech!

Although the author brings his vast and varied knowledge and experience to bear on these lectures, one honestly wishes that the lecturer had been spared his time and peace a little more. It is possible that some of the lectures are extempore judging from some indiscretions in the English at any rate. However, to those who are fond of learning from learned speakers this volume comes as a gift.

“Problems of Education” is a collection of papers read at seminars held in connection with Tamil Nadu State Education Conference, towards the close of 1971.

The challenges and failures of post-independence education in India have been haunting educationists and educators alike throughout the country. With a view to identifying the areas of dissatisfaction and drawing up positive plans for the improvement in the quality of education, several seminars and conferences have been held in different States in recent years. And the participants, having deliberated the issues in depth and without inhibition have spelt out their recommendations. Whether they have been accepted and implemented is a different matter: the ultimate decision rests with the State.

This book makes useful reading especially for the academics because it discusses their own problems. All aspects of educational matters have been probed into by the different participants in the Seminar–educational and examination reforms; teacher-student relations; teacher-management relations; teacher organizations; N.C.C., N.S.C. and N.S.O.; education in relation to national integration; and so on.

The book is a distinct addition to the current thinking on education which, at present, is at the crossroads.

Adoration of The Divine Mother: By M. P. Pandit. Ganesh and Co., Madras-17. Price: Rs. 6.

Umasahasrani, a poem of thousand verses addressed to Uma, the Divine Mother, is “the magnum opus of Vasishta Ganaptimuni, a close disciple of Bhagavan Ramana Maharshi. It is a veritable treatise for daily study by devotees and those with faith.” Profound truths treasured in the Vedas, Upanishads and Tantras are found presented herein in a simple style. The present work is a collection of 103 selected gems from that Umasahasram. The text is given in Devanagari script and translations in English are followed by explanation. May the devotees adore the Divine Mother at least with these verses; and reap the benefits thereof.

A Value Orientation to our System of Education (Formulated at the Sri Satya Sai Summer Course in Indian Culture and Spirituality): Edited by V. K. Gokak. Gulab Singh and Sons (P) Ltd., New Delhi-110001.

This book is a plea for educational reform. The present system with its undue accent on science and technology is found to be lopsidedand to restore the balance, a course in Indian culture and spirituality is considered a desideratum for the alumni of today.

With an aim to discuss the pattern of the syllabus for such a curriculum with a moral slant, Sri Satya Sai Trust, under the guidance of Bhagavan Baba, organised a summer session to which were invited literatures of repute proficient in various disciplines.

True, it is an education to make a study of even the synopses of lectures delivered on wide ranging subjects covering (1) Indian culture and art (2) Yogic psychology, Yoga and Yogasanas (3) Indian Ethics and Law (4) the sacred texts of Hinduism (5) the systems of Indian philosophy (6) cultural values and sciences (7) an outline of the great religions of the world and (8) the saints of India.

And these self-same subjects are set for value-orientation course with relevant bibliographies, which are expected to lay an ethical and spiritual basis to the training imparted in the academies.

It can be taken that this suggested experiment is down-to-the ground practicable with nothing romantic about it. There is ample scope for properly nurturing the highest nature in the present day students, though, overnight, it cannot transform them into ‘Jinas’ or ‘Arhats’.

I Conquer America: By Dr Krishna Srinivas. Poet Press, Madras-17. Price: Rs. 5.

Krishna Srinivas is a familiar name in poetry circles as he has been serving the cause of poetry through his journal, Poet, since 1960. He had visited the U. S. A. in 1971 and the book under review is an appreciative account of his tour. He had visited ten States and each of them gets a chapter in his travelogue. Quite a few things in this “God’s land,” as he calls the U. S. A., “thrilled” him. He was “thrilled” by the New York Time’s representative defending the publication of the Pentagon papers, and “thrilled” by his encounter with the Miracle Saint from Cologne. Krishna Srinivas’s sense of wonder is almost child-like and his verbal reactions are predictably poetic. The book is the kind of thing one might expect from a poet like Krishna Srinivas.

You can Master Life: By John H. Crowe. Better Yourself Books, Allahabad. Rs. 3-50.

Life is not a bed of roses: man is often frustrated, which leads to decadence and destruction. Only faith in God can reconstruct humanity. Well-read Dr Crowe through his robust sermon provides a therapy for “frustrated and confused persons” to help, develop “techniques of self-appraisal as well as incentives for moral and spiritual victory.”

To “Get Hold of Yourself”, the three essential suggestions are: ‘know thyself’,‘control thyself.’and ‘give thyself.’One has to “Go On” with selfless faith in God, “Believe and Achieve”: ‘Belief in God, His order, and faithful action’ leads to salvation.

The sermon amply. reveals Dr Crowe’s thorough occidental knowledge. In other words: it is coloured with Christian bias. Barring the bias (and some excessive repetition and reiieratiom), the book is indeed relevant to the people of “the current era of chaos, moral poverty, and grim uncertainty.”

Ivy Campton-Burnett (A critical study): By Dr V. Ramakrishna Rao. Published by Andhra University Press, Waltair. Price: Rs. 18-50.

This study is the Ph. D. dissertation of Dr. V. Ramakrishna Rao, in which the novels of Ivy Compton-Burnett, nearly twenty, are analysed to show the recurrent preoccupations of the novelist, lust for power, problem of justice, and incest. The scholar has also made a study of plot and character, realism and the style of the novels. The thesis seeks to come to an impressive conclusion with the words that Compton-Burnett was “one of the ultimate writers.”

This is a scholarly dissertation on a British writer, whose novels were written in chaste British English. The scholar, having spent so many months reading and re-reading these books, should have acquired a taste for simple and chaste English. We are also informed that the thesis had received excellent comments from the Board of Examiners.

A Diplomat Speaks: By K. P. S. Menon: Allied Publishers Private Ltd., 13/14 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi-1. Price: Rs. 15.

Sri K. P. S. Menon, I. C. S., as the Secretary to the Extern Affairs Ministry during the British regime, had played an important part in the international sphere. Naturally he was chosen as our Ambassador, during the early years after Independence, in U. S. S. R., and he did his role with creditable success. Himself, an elegant speaker, he had a number of occasions to make speech during his stay from 1952-’61.

Forty-two of his public utterances have been selected in this volume and they show a good range and variety of topics, such as toasts to foreign delegations visiting U. S. S. R., Republic Day celebrations, important celebrations like Kalidasa Day and the poet Rabindranath’s Centenary Celebrations. Throughout one finds how charmingly he can bestow encomiums on the artistes and painters whom he had occasion to meet or enjoy their performances. Really he is a diplomat in his careful assessments and expressions of what he felt was due to some of the V. I. Ps. like the King of Afghanistan and the King of Nepal.

It is no serious study of any of the trends of Soviet policy or our own relations with U.S.S.R. or some of the other leading foreign powers. In his short preface he has himself given a guidance of what is relevant for Ambassadors to say on important occasions... “These speeches, I hope, will give some tips as to what to say–and more important, what not to say, and how they should say it when they are obliged to break the golden silence”.

Except for a slip occurring on page ix of his Preface where he ascribes the play Mricchakatika to Bhasa and not to Sudraka, the whole volume is a very readable and interesting review of memorable scenes witnessed by him while he stayed in U. S. S. R.

Creativity and Personality: By Prof. C. R. Paramesh, Presidency College, Madras. Price: Rs. 15.

The book is an investigation into creativity and personality and their mutual relationship.

Studies in the past by eminent psychologists record divergent conceptions about creativity and are not definitive. But the consensus is that it indicates development of something unique.

Productive thinking is considered to be a cognitive process and creative solutions- products of creativity are deemed to emerge from association of unique ideas, generated in response to a set stimulus.

Human abilities which comprehend creativity lie dormant in the absence of proper motivation and requisite temperament. Here creativity enters the sphere of personality and its ancillary traits.

These characteristics by means of which creativity can be identified may be enumerated as: Extra-version, Intro-version, Emotionality (anxiety and neuroticism), Ego-strength and values.

Adapting the tests in vogue, to Indian conditions the author evolved his own type of creative individual with special reference to personality traits, as one, who is neither extraverted nor introverted; who is neither high nor low in emotionality who is high on ego-strength and who is high on theoretical and aesthetic values.

In sum, the present study delineates creativity indirectly through its outlets.

As for affiliation of intelligence to creativity different views, pro and con, are advanced by the investigators. But apart from what is derived on the basis of tests and researches the question is whether creativity is amenable to analysis in view of the ‘flash’ conceptof Mozart and ‘Time-lag-cum-spontaneity’ concept advanced by Poincare (vide their appended narratives).
–K. S. RAO

Ecstasy: By Robert Crookall. Darshana International, Moradabad, U. P. Price: Rs. 25.

Dr Crookall is a well-known writer on the phenomena of out-of-the-body experiences and has a good deal of research work on the subject to his credit. In the volume before us he studies the kind of ecstasy that is experienced when there is the release of the soul from the body, both naturally when the soul leaves the body for good and less naturally when there are sorties of the being during sleep or even in waking hours. For this purpose he analyses the customs of the Shamans of old, the practices of some of the tribes in South America and Australia-New Zealand; he also takes into account the experience recorded in the present times and draws certain conclusions which are sound in so far as they go.

He points out that the soul of man can leave the physical body consciously in a subtle vehicle–the vital body–and travel in the non-physical planes, or even in the physical ones but in a non-physical body. It is attached to the physical body by a kind of silvery thread to which there are references even in Biblical literature. The soul cannot come into the body if, for any reason, the attaching cord were sundered. One experiences a rapture when the inner being thus leaves the material body. Such outings are known to have happened when patients were under the influence of anaesthetics or under some shock.

The writer is not familiar with the occult traditions of India. Otherwise his explanations and conclusions would have been vastly different. However, the data he has assembled is highly interesting.

Glimpses into the Psychology of Yoga: By I. K. Taimini. Theosophical Publishing House, Madras-20.

This book may be treated as a follow-up of the author’s treatise on the Patanjala Yoga Sutras under the title Science of Yoga. In the present work the writer takes into account the large material on Yoga and Yogic psychology that has been made available outside the areas specifically dealt with by the old Master and provides insights that enlarge one’s vision and scope of practice of Yoga in its various dimensions.

In the first part he discusses the nature of the Reality as spoken of by the ancients in some of their key-mantras and Hymns e.g., Guru Stotra, Brahma Stotra, Shiva Stotra, Dhyana Mantra of Mahesha. In the second part, he dwells upon the nature of Consciousness in its aspect of manifesting the Divine, in its movement of expansion, involution and obscuration. He writes in detail on the release of Consciousness and its four states viz., jagrat, swapna, sushupti and turiya. In the third part there is a satisfying discussion about the nature of the Mind according to Vedanta, Yoga and modern Science. Two chapters are devoted to the nature of Samadhi. The last part is on the nature of Matter from the occult point of view which “asserts unequivocally that the manifested universe is derived from and is the expression of an Ultimate Reality referred to as the Absolute or Parabrahman.”

An enlightening unhurried dissertation.

Mulk Raj Anand: By Krishna Nandan Sinha. Twayne Publishers, Inc., New York. Price: 6.95 US Dollars.

Of the four books of critical study–by Margaret Berry, M. K. Naik, S. N. Sinha and G. S. Balarama Gupta–of Mulk Raj Anand’s fiction so far published (and Saros Cowasji is expected to bring out his book soon), Dr Sinha’s book appears to be the best. Himself being a fiction writer in Hindi and English, Sinha could somehow espy and expose the deeper layers of Anand’s sensibility and art to certain extent.

The book is punctuated into ten chapters. Sinha first gives a chronology of Anand’s biographical data. For the first time, Sinha makes an attempt to consider and analyse Anand’s imagery in Chapter 8 entitled ‘Imagery and Characterization.’ Sinha could have as well taken into account the two significant images–‘sword’ and ‘sickle’–which are the key to every dimension of the Anandian ‘sensibility and art.’

Chapter 9 is set apart for a consideration of Anand’s ‘Continent of Words’–his poetic-prose style. And Chapter 10, ‘The Complete Concert’ forms the natural summing-up and conclusion. A brief account of Anand’s latest novel Morning Face also is appended at the end.

Anand is perhaps ‘the foremost’ of ‘the few significant novelists of the world today.’ And Sinha’s book is a clear and impartial exposition of Anand’s high achievement (and weaknesses too) as a novelist of ‘creative humanism’, ‘soul-purification’, and ‘social reformation’, and his profound ‘concept of karuna (loving pity), ‘moral and aesthetic beauty’, and the range of his technique–poetic ‘naturalism and symbolism.’ Anand’s fiction ‘has timeless significance’: he is a novelist of ‘yesterday-today-tomorrow.’

But the book is not devoid of lapses. There appear some contradicting and unconvincing statements: for instance, in the chapter dealing with ‘The Trilogy’–“The three novels, however, are epic fragments, not unified wholes” (p. 46): “The Trilogy, then as a whole, is a comprehensive work” (p. 52). Yet Dr Sinha’s book will in fact be “an aid to all such perspective readers who wish to plumb the depths and dimensions of the Anand universe.”

Challenge and Stagnation -The Indian Mass Media: By Chanchal Sarkar. Vikas publications, New Delhi. Price: Rs. 15.

The book is a graphic picture of the stagnation of mass media in India.

Really such apathy and sluggishness in the operation of a vital part of file administration is a challenge to any developing nation to improve its communications system in view of astounding technological advances in continental Europe to enable it to go to the people, discuss its social, national and international problems, take note of their reactions and frame policies for execution.

Considering the ‘space-ship’ age, India as commented on by the author is in the Bicycle stage in the fields of Radio, Television and the Press.

In general the Asian continent is deemed to be a ‘continent of silence’ when compared to Europe, which is computed as ‘one’ in regard to communications though differing in ideologies.

In India except the Press, the other two media are Government-controlled and dance to the tune of their piper. Television is still a teenager and is yet to grow to be of any service. The Radio is counted as a ‘committed tool’ and its programmes do not reflect the problems of the people and their welfare and is rather a mouthpiece of the party in power.

The Government of the, day must foster through its Radio, Television and the Press the sentiment in the people that they are one; that they should collectively put their shoulders to the which and make the country go ahead, while at the same time reach out a helping hand to the down-and-outs of society by means of welfare programmes that meet their needs and wants.

To get far with the mass media India, as pointed out, should see to it that it manufactures its own printing machinery, telecommunication equipment, raw film, etc., and also man its mass media departments with competent and devoted professionals, who could best utilise them to achieve an all round growth of the nation.

If not, it is as good as sinking the knife near the jugular vein of India and allow it to shrink to an anaemic stripling in the communications map of Asia as it does shrink likewise in the map re-drawn by Dr Edwin Reischauer according to his new co-ordinates; Size, population and Income.

The book is an eye-opener to governments still groping in the dark in the present 20th century to bestir themselves and make a move to catch up with the times.
–K. S. R.

Bhakti Vivarana: By Sri Pannam Subrahmanya Sastrighal. Price: Rs. 6-00.

Tarka Sangraha (with Sakti Sanjeevani Commentary): By Sri P. S. Rama Sarma. Both the books are published by Pandit P. S. Rama Sarma, Sri Sakti Vilasa Vaidyasala, Karur, Tamil Nadu.

Pancha Padika Vivarana and Bhamati are the two prominent commentaries, representing two schools of thought on Sri Sankara’s Sutrabhashya. There are many sub-commentaries on the Bhamati, but a brief and easily understandable commentary that gives the views of other commentaries also in a nutshell is a longfelt want and this Bhamati Vivarana fulfils that. This commentary elucidates all the knotty points and Mimamsa nyayas that we come across in the Bhamati in a crystal clear manner and as such is very helpful to all students of Advaita Philosophy. An introduction of 29 pages by Mahamahopadhyaya Anantakrishna Sastry adds lustre to this. He points out the aim and the distinguishing features of the Advaita Philosophy and the Bhamati Prasthana, rebuts the arguments of the critics of Bhamati, and throws fresh light on some important issues, while elaborately pointing out the many contributions and salient features of this new commentary, making this introduction also thereby a brief but elucidative commentary. We commend this book to all students of Advaita Philosophy.

A study of Tarka is a sine qua non for an understanding of the Sastras. Without a clear grasp of the Sabdabodha as taught in the traditional method, the technique of the Tarkik language cannot be mastered. Late Kuruganti Srirama Sastry in his commentary named “Tarkasangraha Sarvasva” on the Tarkasangraha published in 1924 adopted this Sabdabodha and explained the technique and the subject in full. This “Sakti Sanjeevani” is the second commentary of that type and is a boon to both the students and the modern teachers as well, who will do well to digest this commentary and make it their own. The Tippani written by Sri Sankaranarayana Sastry elucidates some points in the commentary and is very useful. Expounding the Mimamsa nyayas quoted in the commentary will enhance the usefulness of the work.


Sri Harsha Naiskadhamu (with commentary in Telugu): By Sri Udaali Subbarama Sastry. Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Akademi, Kala Bhavan, Hyderabad-4. Price: Rs. 8.

Sanskrit has always been a centri-petal force integration in India and in the present context its importance cannot be over-emphasised.

The Telugus have made their able contribution to Sanskrit in olden times. Apart from professional scholars and poets like Jagannatha, kings and ministers too have written books in Sanskrit on various subjects like music, dance, and Alamkara. Mallinatha, Kataya Vema and Timmarasu are well-known as commentators though the latter’s commentary on Bala Bhagavata is not extant.

Be that as it may, it cannot be said that the Telugus have been in the forefront of Sanskritic studies in modern times There is a need for encouraging the study of Sanskrit and Sanskritic studies among Telugus.

It is in this context that the A. P. Sahitya Akademi has to be congratulated for bringing out three cantos of Sri Harsha’s Naishadha with the able commentary of Sri Udaali Subbarama Sastry. The book printed in Telugu script gives the sloka, padavibhaaga, pratipadaartha, samasas with vigrahavakyas and finally the bhava–in this order and is very useful for any Sanskrit enthusiast with some elementary knowledge of Sanskrit. The commentary is simple and lucid; it is done with a purpose and with the particular readership in mind to which it is directed. When Sanskrit texts with commentaries in Telugu script are rare to come by, the present volume will certainly be welcome to many. Needless to say that the book is useful to the Telugu students and teachers of Sanskrit in schools and colleges.


Prasanna Kusumayudhamu: Dr S. V. Joga Rao. Rachayitala Sanghamu, Guntur. Price: Rs. 10.

This is a spick and span new Telugu poem. Sringara of different shades, unbridled here and there, is the main sentiment. Two Sanskrit poets and major Telugu poets are the heroes. Urvasi and other celestial vamps are the heroines. Amorous sports and flirtations of some poets with the celestial damsels in the land of lead form the main theme of the poem.

Dr Joga Rao takes leaves out of the works of the Telugu poets, and describes in their words and styles, their primrose path of dalliance and love sports. At the same time there is an indelible impression of Dr S. V’s individual poetic art and skill in every poem. There is a suggestion of the author’s admiration of the Telugu poets running throughout the work. Caricature and pasticcio are there and parody also peeps through. Newly-coined words and phrases, novel similies, word pictures and flowery figures of speech are found in abundance. In some verses author’s scholarship stares at us. A few verses are rich in sublime thoughts. Beauties of imagination and flashes of winged fancies, mastery of metre and luscious language, brilliance of wit and play upon words, provide a sumptuous feast to the reader. Critical and detailed appreciations of the poem by Dr Viswanatha Satyanarayana and others unfold the beauties of the poem. It is for the students of Telugu literature to make this poetic wine their own, drink it deep and be merry, and beguile away their tedious hours.

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