Triveni Journal

1927 | 11,233,916 words

Triveni is a journal dedicated to ancient Indian culture, history, philosophy, art, spirituality, music and all sorts of literature. Triveni was founded at Madras in 1927 and since that time various authors have donated their creativity in the form of articles, covering many aspects of public life....

The Reddis and the Rayas - A Page from Deccan History

Dr. N. Venkataramanayya, M.A., Ph.D.

The Reddis and the Rayas: A

Page from Deccan History

(Reader in Indian History, University of Madras)


To many students of Vijayanagara history, Kondavidu is but the name of a fortress for which the Rayas occasionally fought either with the Gajapatis of Orissa or with the Muhammadans, Why the Emperors should have fought with these powers for the possession of this fort, they do not pause to enquire. Before we embark on a study of the relations of the Rayas with the lords of Kondavidu, it may be useful to have an idea of the principles on which their policy towards their neighbours in the north was based. They regarded the river Krishna as their natural northern frontier and never ceased, throughout their history, to push it forward so that it might reach the banks of that river. In this attempt, they had to encounter two enemies, on whom they had to wage incessant warfare. In the north, they had to face the fierce opposition of the sultans of Kulburga, who desired to push them to the banks of the Tungabhadra. The history of the struggle between the Rayas and the rulers of Kulburga need not be dwelt upon in this context, as it is pretty familiar to students of Vijayanagara history.

In the north-east, the small kingdom of Kondavidu prevented the Rayas from extending their dominions up to their natural frontier. Therefore, they set their hearts on the conquest of the kingdom, which could not have appeared a very hard task at the beginning. However, when the struggle had actually commenced, they discovered that the Reddis who were the masters of the kingdom showed no disposition to submit easily. In addition to this, the appearance of a number of competitors made the work of conquest more difficult. The possession of the fort of Kondavidu was coveted by the rulers of the northern kingdoms, as it opened the gateway for the invasion of the rich coastal region. According to the poet Srinatha, ‘the fort was so incomparable that it excited the cupidity of the three kings(viz., the king of Vijayanagara, the Bahmani Sultan, and the Gajapati). Consequently, the kingdom of Kondavidu became the battle-ground, where the armies of these three kings fought several sanguinary battles. An attempt is made in the present article to trace the course of these wars, without which no reconstruction of the history of Vijayanagara can be said to be complete.


The first Gajapati invasion of Vijayanagara took place during the reign of Mallikarjuna. Gangadhara describes the cause and the occasion of this invasion in his Gangadasa-pratapavilasam: -

‘On the death of Pratapa Devaraya, the Purandara of Vijayanagara, his son Mallikarjuna Raya ascended the imperial throne. Having heard of this, the Sultan of the Deccan and the Gajapati, both of whom had been formerly defeated (by Pratapa Devaraya) marched upon (Vijayanagara) with a large army consisting of elephants, horses, and men.’

Special attention must be paid to two points in this extract. (i) The Sultan of the Deccan and the Gajapati were formerly defeated by Pratapa Devaraya, i.e., Deva Raya II. (ii) They marched upon Vijayanagara after his death, taking advantage of the accession of his youthful son.

The Cause of this invasion is evidently the desire to take vengeance on Vijayanagara for the defeats which these monarchs had sustained at the hands of Devaraya II. When and where did Devaraya defeat them? Devaraya’s victory over the Sultan of the Deccan is described by Abdul Razak, the Persian ambassador, who was living in Vijayanagara at that time; but no information is available pertaining to his victory over the Gajapati. Where did Devaraya come into conflict with the Gajapati? As no inscription of the Gajapati (Kapilesvara) bearing an earlier date than A. D. 1452 is found in the Telugu country, it is not likely that he should have been’ defeated at any place within the boundary of the Vijayanagara empire. There is reason to believe that about 1344 A. D. the authority of Devaraya II extended to Rajamundry, if not actually to the southern frontier of the kingdom of Orissa. He appears to have come into conflict with Kapilendra somewhere in Kalinga, and inflicted a defeat upon him. What were the circumstances under which Devaraya advanced to the southern frontier of the kingdom of Orissa? To answer this question in a satisfactory manner, I am obliged to embark upon a lengthy discussion of the policy which the Rayas of Vijayanagara adopted towards their neighbours in the north-east, as it is in pursuance of this policy that Devaraya II led his armies to the frontiers of Orissa.

The Kakatiya kingdom spread over almost the whole extent of the Telugu country. When this kingdom fell, all the important noblemen asserted their independence in their respective estates. Then ensued a period of struggle when each petty chieftain attempted to extend the boundaries of his principality at the expense of his neighbours. As a consequence of this struggle, all the weak principalities disappeared yielding place to a few small but powerful kingdoms. These were: 1. In the extreme north-east was the kingdom of Pithapuram which was established by a certain Namaya Nayaka of the Koppula family. It extended from Simhachalam in the Vizagapatam district to the river Godavari. 2. To the south of it lay the kingdom of Korukonda; it was established by Kunaya Nayaka who was probably one of the subordinates of Prataparudra. The tract of territory which came under his sway corresponded roughly to the present Godavari district. 3. To the south of this was the kingdom of Kondavidu which was established by ProlayaVema, one of the officers of Prataparudra. He succeeded in seizing the country between the Krishna and Kandukur in the Nellore district, and the Bay of Bengal and the Srisaila mountain. His kingdom corresponded to the whole of the present Krishna and Guntur districts and portions of Godavari, Nellore and Kurnool districts. The capital of this kingdom was originally Addanki in the Ongole taluka of the Guntur district, but later it was shifted to Kondavidu in the Narsaraopet taluka. 4. To the north-west of Kondavidu lay the Velama kingdom of Rachakonda. Singama, one of the Nayaks of Prataparudra, seized the hilly tract corresponding to the Nalgonda district in the present Nizam’s Dominions, and established his authority over this region. His capital was the famous fort of Rachakonda from which the kingdom derived its name. 5. The kingdom of Vijayanagara extended to the south and west of Kondavidu and Rachakonda. Although the founders became at first masters of the small kingdom of Vira-Kampiladeva, they did not fail to appropriate a part of the dominions of their old master, Prataparudra. They subjugated the districts of Raichur, Cudappah and large portions of Anantapur, Kurnool and Nellore districts. The kingdom of Vijayanagara was very powerful on account of the wealth of its rulers, and the extent of territory over which they ruled.

These kingdoms did not remain on friendly terms, as the conditions under which they came into existence were still exercising a powerful influence upon them. They continued to fight against one another, as they had fought against the small states which they suppressed. In the course of the present study, I propose to trace the history of the struggle between two of these kingdoms viz., Kondavidu and Vijayanagara.


The kingdom of Kondavidu was founded, as noticed already, by Prolaya-Vema about 1330 A. D. 1 He came of a respectable Reddi family of the Nellore district, and he carved a small kingdom for himself on the east coast during the period of confusion that followed the overthrow of the Kakatiya monarchy by the Mussa1mans. It is said that Prolaya-Vema declared his independence at Vinukonda, a place of considerable military importance in those days. This is not improbable, although no evidence of a reliable character is available in support of this statement. From the fact that Addanki–now a village in Ongole taluka–was his original capital, it is reasonable to infer that at the time of his declaration of independence, Vema was the master of Kammanadu, in which this town is situated. Vema was obliged to fight incessantly with his neighbours, both to maintain the stability of his kingdom and to extend its boundaries. In these wars he was strongly supported by his brothers Anna and Malla, and his cousin Nuka. With the aid of these, he was able to maintain his own against a host of enemies whom he had to face.

Prolaya-Vema must have at first come into contact with the ruler of Vijayanagara as an ally. He seems to have joined Kanya or Kapaya Nayaka in driving the Mussalmans out of the Telugu country. It is frequently stated in the inscriptions that Vema defeated the Mussalmans and restored to the Brahmans the agraharas ‘which had been taken away by the wicked Mlechcha kings from the time of the king Vira-Rudra of the Kakati Vamsa.’ Who were the Mussalmans whom Vema defeated? And when did he achieve this victory? As his victory over the Mussalmans is mentioned for the first time in an inscription dated 1345 A. D., he should have defeated them before that year. As Ala-ud-Din Hasan Gangu did not establish his power until A. D. 1347, he could not have been the Mlechcha king whom Vema defeated. The Muhammadan historians throw some light upon the subject: ‘At this time’ (1344 A. D.), says Barni, ‘Kanya Nayak who was in the vicinity of Warangal rose in rebellion, in concert with the zamindars of that country, and Malik Makbul, the naib fled, and came to Delhi. Warangal came into the possession of the Hindus, and ceased to be included in the imperial dominions." Vema appears to have been one of the zamindars who joined Kanya or Kapaya Nayaka to drive the Mussalmans out of the Telugu country. As Kanya also obtained help from Harihara who was governing at this time, the province of Kampili, as a subordinate of Sultan Muhammad, it is evident that Vema and Harihara should have figured as the allies of Krishna or Kanya Nayaka.

The struggle between Vijayanagara and Kondavidu seems to have commenced even during the reign of Harihara I himself. As the kingdom of Kondavidu which lay on his north-eastern frontier effectively prevented the expansion of his dominions towards the Krishna, it was only natural that he should have attempted to remove the obstacle. Though no outbreak of hostilities between the two kingdoms is recorded, Vema appears to have sustained some loss of territory in the west during the last years of his reign. The district of Vinukonda was included in his dominions ever since he laid the foundations of his kingdom. But it passed into the hands of the king of Vijayanagara some time before A.D. 1352. The circumstances under which this district changed hands are not known. It is not likely that this transfer of territory was effected by peaceful means.

No information is available regarding the relations between the two kingdoms during the reign of Bukka I. But, as Anapota, the son and successor of Vema, was obliged to shift his capital from Addanki to Kondavidu, it may be surmised that he was forced to take this step owing to the increasing pressure on his southern frontier. Harihara II who succeeded his father in 1377-8 displayed great activity in extending the boundaries of his kingdom. He brought Udayagiri, the most important province of the kingdom, which had remained under the quasi-independent authority of Kampana I and his sons, under the effective control of the central government by appointing his son, prince Devaraya, as the governor of the province. Ever since he took charge of his new office, Devaraya evinced keen interest in the affairs of Kondavidu, probably with the object of launching an attack at a favourable moment. He seems to have strengthened his position by marrying the daughter of a Chola prince called Nuka; whose estate lay in the district of addanki, in the extreme south of the Reddi kingdom. A favourable opportunity presented itself soon. Ana-Vema who ascended the throne of Kondavidu after the death of his brother Anapota, died about A. D. 1382, and was succeeded by his incompetent nephew, Kumaragiri, who was more at home in the company of scholars and dancers than among his soldiers. The task of defending the kingdom fell upon his brother-in-law and minister, Kataya-Vema. Though Vema was a capable general and a brave soldier, he could not resist the advance of Vijayanagara armies from the south and the west. The territory extending from Srisailam to Tripurantakam was lost between 1482 and 1485, and the district of Addanki together with the coastal strip extending as far as Motupalli appears to have been lost at the same time. A peace-was probably concluded at this stage; for Kataya-Vema was busy fighting along the Kalinga frontier from 1385 to 1391. It was during this period that he subjugated the forts of Makledi., Kimmur, Bendapudi, Vajrakuta; Ramagiri and Viraghotta. If war had continued on the southern frontier during these years, Kataya-Vema could not have gone on an expedition of conquest, leaving the home districts of the Reddi kingdom at the tender mercies of the armies of Devaraya. It was probably by the terms of this treaty, that a daughter of Harihara II was given in marriage to Kataprabhu, a son of Kataya-Vema. As a consequence of this treaty, Kumaragiri seems to have ruled in peace for the rest of his reign.

There appears to have been considerable strife at Kondavidu during the last years of Kumaragiri regarding the question of succession. He had a son called Vira Annapota who predeceased him. There was much uncertainty about the person who should succeed him. Kataya-Vema who guided the destinies of the kingdom, hoped to succeed his brother-in-law. Although he was intimately connected with the royal family, he could not claim the throne; as he was not a kinsman of the king on his father’s side. Consequently his right to succeed Kumaragiri on the throne of Kondavidu appears to have been questioned by several people, especially Pedakomati Vema, a descendant of Macha, an elder brother of Prolaya-Vema. Kumaragiri attempted to solve the problem by effecting a division of the kingdom between the two rival claimants. He gave Kataya-Vema the northern districts of his kingdom with the city of Rajamundry as his capital, and appointed Pedakomati-Vema as his successor on the throne of Kondavidu. This method of deciding the dispute satisfied neither of the parties, and it gave rise to a good deal of trouble in the future.

In the meanwhile Kumaragiri died in 1403 A. D., and Pedakomati-Vema seized the throne of Kondavidu at once. Kataya-Vema could not prevent his rival from taking this step, as he was in a helpless condition, just at that time. Devaraya on whose help he must have counted was not in a position to render him any sort of assistance.

Harihara II seems to have fallen ill just about this time, and was not expected to survive. Each of his three sons, Virupaksha, Immadi Bukka, and Devaraya, whom he appointed as governors of some of his important provinces, entertained hopes of succeeding him. On hearing the news of his illness, they hastened to the capital with their armies in order to watch their respective interests in person. Harihara died on 16th August 1404, and this was the signal for the outbreak of a civil war. At first Virupaksha appears to have been successful, but after a rule of a few months, his reign came to an end about the middle of A. D. 1405. He was succeeded by Bukka II whose rule lasted until November 1406, when he was succeeded by Devaraya.

Pedakomati-Vema, who, as we have already noticed, ascended the throne of Kondavidu, was anxious to increase the extent of territory under his sway, as he felt that he was unjustly deprived of some of the wealthy districts of the kingdom. Kumaragiri had bestowed the rich districts between the Krishna and the Godavari on Kataya-Vema, and Devaraya wrested from his predecessor much territory in the south and the west. Therefore, the extent of the kingdom which he came to rule was very limited indeed. Naturally, he was desirous of extending its boundaries. The time appeared very auspicious for undertaking such an enterprise. The kingdom of Vijayanagara was in the throes of a civil war. The sons of Harihara were more interested in plotting against each other than in providing for the defence of the realm. Even the garrisons which usually protected the frontier fortresses, were withdrawn to strengthen the hands of one or other of the claimants in their attempts to seize the throne.

Pedakomati-Vema knew that, if he wanted to recover the lost districts of his ancestral kingdom, he should strike at once. But he did not want to tackle the giant alone. Therefore he looked for an ally, with whose assistance he could reasonably feel certain that he would win victory. He seems to have found the sort of ally that he wanted in Feroz Shah, the sultan of Kulbarga. The sultan who ascended the throne in 1397, had already established his fame as a warrior by leading a successful attack upon Vijayanagara in 1399. Therefore, he seems to have entered into an alliance with the sultan and made arrangements for delivering simultaneous attacks upon the dominions of their common enemy. In accordance with this agreement, the allies marched upon the Vijayanagara kingdom in 1406 A.D.

Pedakomati-Vema seems to have placed the army under the command of Malla, a descendant of Perumala, an younger brother of Prolaya-Vema. The army, at first, appears to have marched upon Udayagiri which it captured. Then it marched south and occupied the districts of Pottapi-nadu and Pulugula-nadu. Thus, the king of Kondavidu not only reconquered the territory which was lost during the reign of his predecessor, but subjugated the province of Udayagiri together with some of the outlying districts in the south.

Devaraya was quite helpless against the Reddi activity. In the first place, his position on the throne was not yet secure; and his enemies were conspiring to remove him from their path by assassination. Secondly, he was obliged to bestow all his attention on the movements of the Bahmani Sultan who, as already noticed invaded the Vijayanagara territory at the same time as the Reddis.

Although the events of this war have been recorded by two Muhammadan historians, Ferishta and Syed Ali, it is not possible to accept their accounts as true, as they differ from each other on important points.

Even regarding the causes of this war, our authorities differ. According to Ferishta, Feroz Shah had undertaken this invasion to punish Devaraya for having laid waste several towns and villages in the Mudkal district. In this connection Ferishta narrates one of the most interesting of his romantic tales, which frequently occur in the course of his history. In one of the villages of the Mudkal district, it is said, there lived a damsel of exquisite beauty called Nehal or Perthal. Her Brahman tutor, considering her worthy to be the wife of a great monarch, proceeded to Vijayanagara and gave such a description of her beauty to the Raya that he was at once smitten with love for the girl. He offered to marry her, and bestow rich gifts upon her parents. The Brahman returned at once to the village, and communicated the happy news to the family. Although her parents were overjoyed at their good fortune, the girl stoutly refused to have any dealings with her royal suitor. When Devaraya was apprised of this situation, he resolved to abduct the object of his passion, in spite of the remonstrance of his officers, and although she was residing in the territory of his neighbour, Feroz Shah Bahmani. He despatched towards the village where the girl was residing five thousand picked troopers, with instructions to bring her and her family; but on the approach of this cavalcade, not knowing the cause of its arrival, the girl together with her parents fled to distant parts. Therefore, the messengers of Devaraya were considerably disappointed, and they gave vent to their feelings by plundering several towns and villages on their way. But the usual thing happened; the Muhammadan officer who was in charge of this district having defeated them put them to flight. When Feroz Shah heard of this occurrence, he at once mobilised his troops and marched straight upon Vijayanagara without meeting any opposition on the way.

Syed Ali who was also a contemporary of Ferishta gives a much less romantic account in his Burhan-i-ma ’asir. According to him, Feroz Shah who conceived ‘the idea of waging a religious war against the infidels of the country of Vijayanagara, despatched an army in that direction. When they arrived there, the troops opened the hand of slaughter and plunder, and threw the fire of chastisement among the infidel inhabitants of the country.’

Nor do we find any agreement about the events connected with the war. According to Ferishta, Feroz Shah marched straight upon Vijayanagara without meeting any opposition. As Devaraya dared not oppose the Mussalmans, he shut himself up within his capital. The Sultan laid siege to it, and even got possession of some of the streets, but was repulsed by the Carnatic infantry. Being encouraged by this slight success, Devaraya came out of the fort and offered battle to the Mussalmans. The Mussalmans suffered much and their king was even wounded, but ultimately they defeated and drove away the infidels. Feroz Shah gave up, for the time being, the idea of besieging the city. Placing ten thousand horse under the command of his brother, Khan Khanan, he commanded him to devastate the country around Vijayanagara. He despatched one of his officers to capture Bankapur, and he himself sat before the gates of Vijayanagara, to watch the movements of Devaraya. Devaraya attacked the camp of Feroz Shah more than once, but was repulsed. Then he gave up the idea of attacking him; but sent ambassadors to the kings of Malwa, Khandesh and Guzerat soliciting aid from them. In the meanwhile Bankapur was captured and the Khan Khanan returned to the camp bringing in his train 60,000 Hindu captives whom he had captured during the course of his raid. Then Feroz Shah left Khan Khanan with an army to oppose Devaraya, and marched towards Adoni with the object of besieging the fort. As Devaraya did not obtain any assistance from Malwa, Khandesh and Guzerat, he sued for Peace, and obtained it on the condition that he should bestow the hand of his daughter on the Sultan in marriage, and allow him to keep the fort of Bankapur with its dependencies as the marriage portion of his wife.

The account of Syed Ali differs considerably from the above. ‘By force of arms they conquered several of the districts of Bhanur and Musalakal. The Sultan having appropriated the fixed sum of thirty-three lakhs, returned to his capital with immense booty.’

It is evident from this that Ferishta and Syed Ali differ very much from each other about the causes, the events and the manner of termination of this war. Syed Ali appears to have been unaware of some of the sensational episodes of this war; the wooing of Perthal, the siege of Vijayanagara, and Feroz Shah’s wedding with the Raya’s daughter are not even alluded to by him. It is strange that he should be ignorant–if it had actually happened–of Feroz Shah’s marriage with the daughter of the king of Vijayanagara, especially as it should have been recorded with pride in the works of the Muhammadan writers of the age. From theaccount of Syed Ali, Feroz Shah’s invasion appears to be no more than an ordinary frontier raid. But at the present state of our knowledge, it is not possible to discover the truth concerning the various events connected with this war.

Whatever might be the nature of the war, there can be no doubt about one thing. Devaraya was kept during this time so busy that he could not even think of recovering the eastern districts of the kingdom, which Pedakomati-Vema had conquered.


Taking advantage of the temporary security of his southern and western frontiers, Pedakomati-Vema seems to have made an attempt to wrest the kingdom of Rajamundry, which was formerly included in his ancestral dominions, from Kataya-Vema. How far he was successful in this attempt, it is not poossible to ascertain at present. Kataya-Vema seems to have paid a visit to Ahobalam, which was included in Devaraya’s dominions, in 1410. The visit was probably not unconnected with his desire to secure the assistance of Devaraya against Komati-Vema. Whatever be the object of the visit, the Vijayanagara armies soon made their appearance on the southern frontier of Kondavidu. Devaraya seems to have made careful preparations for launching an attack upon Pedakomati-Vema. He secured the alliance of the Velamas of Rachakonda who were the hereditary foes of the Reddis. There had been constant warfare between them, ever since they founded their respective kingdoms. Singa II, and his uncle Mada defeated Anapota Reddi at Dharanikota. Singaya Mada inflicted defeats on Ana-Vema and Kumaragiri. Therefore, Vedagiri, who was then ruling, showed no hesitation to join Devaraya in striking a blow at the enemy of his family.

Pedakomati-Vema was not without allies. Feroz Shah, the sultan of Kulburga who was eager to extend his dominions eastwards, willingly promised him support. Moreover, the Choda prince, Annadeva, who had probably thrown off the yoke of Kataya-Vema, also became his enthusiastic ally. The various powers of southern Deccan grouped themselves into two camps, and were ready for commencing the war by A. D. 1411 or 1412.

The hostility of the Velamas kept Pedakomati-Vema busy on his western frontier. In the meanwhile, Devaraya I easily expelled the Reddi garrisons from Udayagiri and other forts. By 1413 A. D. he was able to recover, more or less completely, the territory which he had lost during the early years of his reign. He seems to have appointed his son, Ramachandra Raya, who assisted him in conquering the Reddi dominion in the past, as the governor of the fort of Udayagiri. Having thus arranged for the protection of the frontier region, he seems to have sent his armies to the north.

The war then began in right earnest. During the first phase of this war, Devaraya and his allies seem to have suffered many reverses. Kataya-Vema appears to have been defeated and killed, and the Velamas, though successful at the beginning, were effectively checkmated by Pedakomati-Vema. Vedagiri attacked Macha, a brother of Vema, who was governing the fort of Dharanikota, and having vanquished him, severed his head, and out of the skull had a spittoon fashioned. This savage act so enraged Pedakomati-Vema, that he resolved to avenge the death of his brother in any case. Therefore, he seems to have attacked the Velamas with the help of his ally, Feroz Shah. He succeeded in slaying Vedagiri in battle, and being unable to forget the savage treatment offered to the corpse of his brother, he cut off the head of the Velama chief, and had a spittoon made out of it. This inflamed the anger of the kinsmen of Vedagiri; but they could not do any harm to Pedakomati-Vema, as he was strongly supported by the Bahmani Sultan.

Meanwhile, Feroz Shah, having enabled Pedakomati-Vema to wreak his vengeance upon the Velamas, proceeded against the fort of Panugal, belonging to Devaraya, and laid siege to it. Although he invested the place for two years, he was no nearer taking it than at the beginning. The outbreak of a famine in his camp reduced the strength of his army to some extent. To complete his discomfiture, a large army consisting of the Vijayanagara and the Velama forces made its appearance on the scene, and the sultan in an attempt to drive them away suffered a defeat. The Mussalman army was very nearly destroyed, and the sultan was obliged to beat a hasty retreat.

The Velamas, having driven away the Bahmani Sultan from their neighbourhood, turned their attention to Pedakomati-Vema whom they wanted to punish for his conduct towards Vedagiri. A large Velama force, under the leadership of Linga, an younger brother of Vedagiri, invaded the Reddi kingdom. Pedakomati-Vema was not in a position to expel them. He was almost friendless. His ally, the Sultan, was defeated by his enemies and driven away; and there was no chance of getting any help from that quarter. The Choda chief, Annadeva, who caused a revolution in the affairs of the kingdom of Rajamundry, was crushed by Allada, one of the generals of Kataya-Vema. Komati-Vema was now surrounded by powerful enemies. Allada, who established himself at Rajamundry in the place of Kataya-Vema, attacked him from the north, and inflicted a defeat upon him at Ramesvaram. Devaraya I appears to have been annexing the Reddi territory adjacent to his kingdom. The Velamas, who invaded his kingdom from the west, defeated him in a battle and slew him.

The death of Pedakomati Vema was fraught with disastrous consequences to the kingdom of Kondavidu. Racha-Vema, who succeeded him, had none of the qualities which could enable him to steer the ship of state successfully during a stormy period. He was a tyrant, and by his cruel and oppressive government, he soon forfeited the love of his subjects. After a short reign of four years, he was assassinated about 1424 by one of his victims. The kingdom which Prolaya-Vema founded, was thus brought to an inglorious end after a stormy existence of a century. What was left of the Kondavidu kingdom was annexed by Devaraya II, who, thus, realised the ambition of his ancestors; for by the annexation of the dominions of the Kondavidu Reddis, he extended his kingdom to the river Krishna, its natural frontier.

1 A copper-plate grant of Prolaya-Vema dated A. D. 1330 is mentioned in the Kaifiyat of Varivaru (L. R. 57. p. 131); but as the original of the inscription has not yet been discovered, the evidence of the Kaifiyat cannot be accepted without doubt. However, it is not improbable that Vema should have begun to rule by that year; for according to an epigraph of Nekarikallu Anna-Vema granted the village of Narasimhapuram to the god Santana Narasimha in A. D. 1332. Prolaya-Vema was also Known as Ana-Vema as shown by the Harivamsam of Yarra Preggada. In Part ii. 3: 1; 9: 1, of this work, he is addressed as Annama-Vema.

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