Vernacular architecture of Assam

by Nabajit Deka | 2018 | 96,996 words

This study deals with the architecture of Assam (Northeastern India, Easter Himalayas), with special reference to Brahmaputra Valley. The Vernacular Architecture of Assam enjoys a variety of richness in tradition, made possible by the numerous communities and traditional cultures....

Bibliography

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Journals (English):

Adhikary, N. (2016). Vernacular Architecture in Post-earthquake Nepal. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 1-8.

Anderson, S. (1999). Memory without Monuments: Vernacular Architecture. (N. AlSyyad, Ed.) Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, XI (1), 13-22.

Antarikananda, P., Douvlou, E., & McCartney, K. (2006). Lession from traditional architecture: Design for a climate responsive contemporary house in Thailand. PLEA2006-The 23rd Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, 6-8 September,2006. Geneva, Switzerland: https://www.researchgate.net/publication.

Arvind Krishan, K. J. (1996). Indigenous Architecture of Two Indian Deserts and Modern Climate Responsive Solutions. Renewable Energy, 8 (1-4), 272-277.

Azarshahr, S. F., Motamadniya, A., & Basiri, M. (2013). New Technologies in Modern Architecture and its Interaction with Traditional Architecture. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, 1 (3), 70-80.

Bauer, W. W. (1959). Indian Vernacular Architecture: Wai and Cochin. Perspecta, 5, 36-48.

Bhatt, R. (2001). Indianizing Indian Architecture: A Postmodern Tradition. (N. AlSyyad, Ed.) Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, XIII (1), 43-51.

Bodach, S., Lang, W., & Hamhaber, J. (2014). Climate Responsive Building Design: Strategies of Vernacular Architecture in Nepal. Energy and Buildings, 81, 227-242.

Brunskill, R. (1983). Vernacular Architecture: A Review of Recent Literature. Architectural History, 26, 105-112.

Buchli, V., Clarke, A., & Upton, D. (2015). Editorial. Home Cultures: The Journal of Architecture, Design and Domestic Space, 1 (1), 1-4.

Chele, E.-S., Ricardo, M.-C., Ana, P.-M., & Teresa, M.-R. Bamboo, from Traditional Crafts to Contemporary Design and Architecture. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 51 (2012), 777-781.

Davidson, P. M. (2008). Exploring a Cross-Cultural Theory of Architecture. (N. AlSyyad, Ed.) Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, XIX (II), 51-68.

Das, P. C. (1996). Haidor Gazir Git: Some Observations on an Assamese Ballad. (N. Sarma, & K. K. Bhattacharjee, Eds.) Bulletin of the Department of Folklore Research, Gauhati University (4), 118-125.

Deka, N. (2017). Bharali Puja: A Distinctive Example of Acculturation and Social Change among Rabhas of Sonitpur. (A. Boro, Ed.) Journal of Folkloristics, IV, 37-48.

Dili, A. S., Naseer, M. A., & Varghese, T. Z. (2010). Passive environment control system of Kerala vernacular residential architecture for a comfortable indoor environment: A qualitative and quantitative analysis. Energy and Buildings, 42, 917-927. (2011). Passive control method for a comfortable indoor environment: Compparative investigation of traditional and modern architecture of Kerala in summer. Energy and Buildings, 43, 653-664.

Domer, D. (1989). The Old and New of Vernacular Architecture: A Review Essay. Journal of Architectural Education, 42 (4), 45-56.

Donald Watson, A. a. (1976). Indegenous Architecture as the Basis of House Design in Developinng Countries: A Case Study Evaluation of Traditional Housing in Bhutan. Habitat International: An International Journal, 1 (3/4), 207-217.

Engti, D. (2016, August). Traditional Administration Systems and Youth Institutions of the Karbi Community of NE India. Heritage Explorer, XV (8), Independence Day Special, 73-98. (A. Brahma, Ed.) Guwahati, Assam: Heritage Foundation.

Foruzananmehr, A., & Macel Vellinga. (2011). Vernacular architecture: question of comfort and practicability. Building Research and Information, 39 (3), 274-285.

Francesco Ruggiero, R. S. (2009). Re-interpretation of traditional architecture for visual comfort. Building and Environment, 44, 1886-1891.

Ghiasi, A. (2016). The Relatioship and Role of Vernacular Architecture in Achieving and Manifesting Sustainable Architecture. IIOABJ, 7 (Supplement 4), 75-82.

Glassie, H. (1984). Vernacular Architecture and Society. Material Culture16 (1), 4-24. (1990). Architects, Vernacular Traditions, and Society. Traditional Dwellings and Settlement Review, 1 (2), 9-21. (1995). Tradition. The Journal of American Folklore, 108 (430), 395-412.

Hay, F. S. (1924). The House and Geography. Journal of Geography, 23, 225-233.

Heil, S. E. (2001). Traditional Earthen Architecture in the Curriculum. Art Education, 54 (2), 33-38.

Hicks, D. (2005). Review of books 'Indonesian Houses: Tradition and Transformation in Vernacular Architecture' & 'Constituting Unity and Difference: Vernacular Architecture in a Minangkabau Village'. Indonesia (80), 203-207.

Hourigan, N. (2015). Confronting Classification-When and What is Vernacular Architecture? Civil Engineering and Architecture, 3 (1), 22-30.

Kalita, N. (2006). Wood Carvings of Sattras and Nam-ghars of Assam: With Special Reference to Bardowa Than. Journal of the Srimanta Sankaradeva Research Institute (http://www.atributetosankaradeva.org; Accessed on 2006-2015 Time-13:29:34). (2013-2014). Sankaradeva: Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. (D. Dewan, Ed.) Chihna, XXXIII (33), 57-64.

Kaups, T. G. (1987). Folk Architecture in Cultural and Ecological Context. Geographical Review, 77 (1), 52-75.

Kimura, K.-i. (1994). Vernacular Technologies Applied to Modern Architcture. Renewable Energy, 5, Part II (5-8), 900-907.

King, A. D. (1977). The Bengali Peasant Hut: Some Nineteenth Century Accounts. Art and Archeology Research Paper (12), 7078. (U. I. Centre, Compiler) Vernacular Architecture and its Conservation.

Krishan, A., Jain, K., & Tewari, P. (1996). Indigenous Architecture of Two Indian Deserts and Modern Climate Responsive Solutions. Renewable Energy, 8 (1-4), 272-277.

Mann, D. A. (1985). Between Traditionalism and Modernism: Approaches to a Vernacular Architecture. Journal of Architectural Education, 39 (2), 10-16.

Martin, F. L. (1986). Rivew of 'Common Places: Reading in American Vernacular Architecture' by Dell Upton; John Michael Vlach. Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, 27 (3), 331-332.

Mazrui, A. A. (1999). Built form and Three Cultural Tendencies: Nostalgia, Presentism and Anticipation. (N. AlSayyad, Ed.) Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, XI (1), 712.

Memmott, P., &Davidson, J. (2008). Exploring a Cross-Cultural Theory of Architecture. (N. AlSyyad, Ed.) Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, XIX (II), 51-68.

Mogey, J. M. (1940). Thatch. Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Third Series, 3, 134-137.

Mohanty, G. (Ed.). (2004, June &December). ADIVASI, 44 (1 & 2). Bhubaneswar: Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Research and Training Institute.

Neog, M. (2000). Sankaradeva and the Great Age in Literature and Fine Arts. (B. P. Chaliha, Ed.) Mahapurusa Jyoti-Journal of the Srimanta Sankaradeva Sangha, III. (http://www.atributetosankaradeva.org; Accessed on 1605-2015 Time-13:20:42).

Niroumand, H., Zain, M., & Jamil, M. (2013). Assessing of Critical Parameters on Earth Atchitecture and Earth Buildings as a Vernacular and Sustainable Architecture in Various Countries. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 89 (2013), 248-260.

Noble, A. G. (1991). Measuring Vernacular Buildings: A Field Course Unit. Material Culture, 23 (1), 1-14.

Oliver, P. (1983). Perfected for Needs: Vernacular Architecture in Education. Habitat International, 7 (5/6), 377-383. (1996). Vernacular Studies:Objectives and Applications. (N. A.-P. Bourdier, Ed.) Traditional Dwelling and Settlement Review, 8 (1), 12.

Ozkan, S. (2016). Cycles of Sustenence in Traditional Architecture. (N. AlSayyad, Ed.) Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, VII (1), 41-46.

Phukan, N. (Ed.). (2013). Kham Seng (A Journal of the Ban-Ok-Pup-Lik-Mioung Tai) (Vol. XXIII). Ban-Ok-Pup-Lik-Mioung Tai (Purbachal Tai Sahitya Sabha).

Rapoport, A. (1970). The Study of Spatial Quality. The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 4 (4), 81-95. (1971). 6.Human and Psychological Reactions. Architectural Science Review, 14 (4), 95-97. (1974). Symbolism and Environmental Design. Journal of Architectural Education, 27 (4), 58-63. (1987). On the Cultural Responsiveness of Architecture. Journal of Architectural Education, 41 (1), 10-15. (1998). Using Culture in Housing Design. Housing and Society, 25 (1-2), 1-20. (2000). Theory, Culture and Housing. Housing Theory and Society, 17 (4), 145-165. (2007). The Nature of Courtyard House: A Coceptual Analysis. Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, 18 (2), 5772.

Rowland, B. (1964). The World's Image in Indian Architecture. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 112 (5099), 795-809.

Roy, M. (2016). A Historiclcal Outline of the Rabhas of North Bengal. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR), 2 (3), 650-659.

Sangma, M. S. (2013-2014). Wood Carvings of the Garos. (D. Dewan, Ed.) Chihna, XXXIII (33), 129-132.

Sarkar, A. K. (2015). Indian Vernacular Planning. Civil Engineering and Urban Planning: An International Journal (CiVEJ), 2 (1).

Sarkar, A. (2013). Study of Climate Responsive Passive Design Features in Traditional Hill Architecture of Khyah village in Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India)-Series A, 94 (1), 59-72.

Sharma, S., &Sharma, P. (2013). Traditional Vernacular buildings are Ecological Sensitive, Climate Responsive Design-Study of Himachal Pradesh. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences (IJEBS), 1 (4).

Sharma, U. K., & Pegu, S. (2011). Ethnobotany of religious and supernatural beliefs of the Mising tribes of Assam with special reference to the 'Dabur Uie'. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 7 (1).

Simpson, W. (1888). Art.II-Some Suggestion of Origin in Indian Architecture. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain &Ireland, 20 (01), 49-71.

Singh, M. K., Mahapatra, S., & Atreya, S. (2009). Bioclimatism and vernacular architecture of north-east India. Building and Environment, 44 (5), 878-888.

Spiro, M. E., &D'andrade, R. G. (1958). A Cross-Cultural Study of Some Supernatural Beliefs. American Anthropologist, 60 (3), 456-466.

Srestha, M. N. (2009). Nepal's Traditional Settlement: Pattern and Architecture. Journal of Cultural Geography, 1 (2), 26-43.

Steane, M. A. (2004). Building in the Climate of the New World: A Cultural or Environmental Response? (N. AlSyyad, Ed.) Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, XV (II), 49-60.

Supic, P. (1982). Vernacular Architecture: A Lesson of the Past for the Future. Energy and Buildings, 5, 43-54.

Upton, D. (1983). The Power of Things: Recent Studies in American

Vernacular Architecture. American Quarterly, Vol.35 (3), 262-279Upton, D. (1991). Architectural History or Landscape History? Journal of Architectural Education, 44 (4), 195-199. (1990). The Traditional House & its Enemies. Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, 1 (2 (Spring)), 71-84. (1993). The Tradition of Change. Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, 5 (1), 9-15. (1996). Ethnicity, Authenticity, and Invented Traditions. Historical Archaeology, 30 (2), 1-7. (2002). Architecture in Everyday Life. Lierary History, 33 (4), 707-723.

Vellinga, M. (2006-2007). The Inventiveness of Tradition: Vernacular Architecture and the Future. Perspective in Vernacular Architecture, 13 (2), 115-128.

Watson, D., AIA, & Bertaud, A. (1976). Indegenous Architecture as the Basis of House Design in Developinng Countries: A Case Study Evaluation of Traditional Housing in Bhutan. Habitat International: An International Journal, 1 (3/4), 207-217.

Weaver, M. E. (1976). Notes on Thatch and Sod Roofing. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology, 8 (1), 70-71.

Wurster, W., &Bauer, C. (1959). Indian Vernacular Architecture: Wai and Cochin. Perspecta, 5, 36-48.

Zhai, Z. (J.), & Previtali, J. M. (2010). Ancient Vernacular Architecture: Characteristics, Categorization and Energy Performance Evaluation. Energy and Building, 42 (3), 357-365.

Journals (Assamese):

Boruah, B. K. (Ed.). (2009). PULANCHI, IX. Moranhat: Institute of Tai Studies and Research

2.. (Ed.). (2010). PU-LAN-CHI, X. Moranhat: Institute of Tai Studies and Research

3.. (Ed.). (2012). PU-LAN-CHI, XII. Moranhat: Institute of Tai Studies and Research

Das, D. (2010). Dimasa Janagosthi: Buranji aru Dharmiya Biswas. (U. R. Hakacham, Ed.) Asam Sahitya Sabha Patrika, 65th Year (1st (June)), 49-51.

Gogoi, H. (2010). Asamar Deori Janagosthir 'Deoghar': Eti Alokpat. (U. R. Hakacham, Ed.) Asam Sahitya Sabha Patrika, 65th Year (1st (June)), 44-48.

Gohain, D. (2012). Asamar Khamyang Janagosthi: Eti Parichaimulak Alochana. (B. K. Boruah, Ed.) PU-LAN-CHI, 12, 25-35.

Nath, T. (2009). Abibhakta Goalparar Keitaman Luptaprai Lokachar: Hattaki, Sauri aru Dhooni. (U. R. Hakacham, Ed.) Asam Sahitya Sabha Patrika, 64th Year (3rd), 52-57.

Saikia, C. (2008). Deori Sanskriti: Eti Abalokan. (R. Deka, Ed.) Asam Sahitya Sabha Patrika, 63rd Year (1st), 63-67.

Saikia, N. (2012). Tai Khamyang Samajat Mahilar Samajik-Sangskitik Bhumika. (B. K. Boruah, Ed.) PU-LAN-CHI, 12, 90-98.

Sarma, S. (2008). Darangi Garo Janagosthiya Lokar Samaj aru Sanskritit Ebhumuki. (R. Deka, Ed.) Asam Sahitya Sabha Patrika, 63rd year (1st), 95-102.

Other Sources (English):

Bodo, P. (2016, August). Traditional Village Administration System of Dimasa Kachari Society. Heritage Explorer, XV (8), Independence Day Special, 68-69. (A. Brahma, Ed.) Guwahati, Assam: Heritage Foundation.

Brahma, P. (2016, August). Traditional Administrative System and Youth Institution of the Bodos of Northeast Bharat. Heritage Explorer, XV (8), Independence Day Special, 81-83. (A. Brahma, Ed.) Guwahati, Assam: Heritage Foundation.

Das, B. K. (2001). Bamboo in the Field of Construction in Northeast India. Guwahati: Cane & Bamboo Technology Centre.

Marak, C. R. (2012, June). The Use of Bamboo, Cane, and Timber in A'chik Culture. (V. Deheja, Ed.) Marg: A Magazine of the Arts, 63 (4), pp. 52-65.

Marak, T. A., &JV, M. (2016, August). Nokpante: The Bachelors' Dormitory of the Garos. Heritage Explorer, XV (8), Independence Day Special, 111-113. (A. Brahma, Ed.) Guwahati, Assam: Heritage Explorer. (2017-18). Annual Achievement Report. Guwahati: Assam Tourism Development

Other Sources (Assamese):

Brown, N. (Ed.). (1851, August). Sathar Diya. The Orunudoi, VI (8), 124. O.T. Cutter for American Baptist Mission in Asam.

Cutter, O. (Ed.). (1946, July). Pani Barhar Bibaran. Orunodoi Sambad Patra, 1 (7). Sibsagor, Asam: American Baptist Mission.

Koch, N. (2016, August). Koch Janagosthir Paramparagata Samaj Byabastha aru Banthai Nokor Bhumika. Heritage Explorer, XV (8) , Independence Day Special, 116-118. (A. Brahma, Ed.) Guwahati, Assam: Heritage Foundation.

Shyam, A. (2014, Dec 20). Tai Khamyang Janagosthir Sabhyata aru Samskriti. Khow-Kham-II, 35-36. (A. Chowlu, Ed.) Sibsagar, Assam, India: Reception Committee of Poi Pee Mau Tai2109.

Shyam, C. (2014, Dec 20). Changghar. Khow-Kham-II, 32-34. (A. Chowlu, Ed.) Sibsagar, Assam, India: Reception Committee of Poi Pee Mau Tai-2109.

Shyam, L. (2014, Dec 20). Tai Khamyang Sakalar Chamu Parichay. Khow-Kham-II, 24-31. (A. Chowlu, Ed.) Sibsagar, Assam, Inida: Reception Committee of Poi Pee Mau Tai-2109.

Theses and Dissertations:

Datta, B. (1973). A Study of the Folk Culture of the Goalpara District of Assam. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of Folklore Research. Guwahati.

Boruah, K. (2005). Folk Literature and Culture of Majuli Area: An Analytical Study. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of MIL, Guwahati.

Burhagohain, R. (2015). Turungsakalr Lokasamskiti: Ek Bislesatmak Adhyan. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, GU Institute of North-East India Study, Guwahati.

Chaliha, H. K. (2010). Sonowal Kachari Sanskriti, Eti Adhyan. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of Assamese, Guwahati.

Chetia, B. (2013). Asamar Thengal Kachari Janagosthir Samajik aru Sanskritik Jiban: Eti Samiksatmak Adhyan. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Dept of MIL, Guwahati.

Chetia, J. (2011). Oitihashik Patabhumit Moran Janagosthir Parichai aru Tinisukia Jilar Moran sakalar Lokasanskriti. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of Assamese, Guwahati.

Das, N. C. (2013). Ujani Asamar Janagosthiya Lokabiswas: Eti Tulanamulak Adhyan. Un-published PhD Thesis,, Dibrugarhi University, Dept of Assamese, Dibrugarh.

Deka, B. (2014). Patidarang Anchalar Samaj Sanskitimulak Adhyan. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of MIL, Guwahati.

Gogoi, H. (2011). Asamar Deuri Bhasik Janagosthi: Ek Samajik-Sanskitik Adhyan. Un-published PhD Thesis, Dibrugarh University, Deptt. of Assamese, Dibrugarh.

Goswami, H. K. (1984). Rabhas: A Sociological Study. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of Political Science, Guwahati.

Hazarika, J. (2010). Sonowal Kacharisakalr Lokajiban: Ek Bislesanatmak Adhyan. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of Folklore Research, Guwahati.

Mozumdar, S. K. (1994). The Dimasas of Assam: A Study in Literature, Culture and Society. Gauhati University, Faculty of Arts, Guwahati.

Patar, R. D. (2004). Tiwa Janagosthir Samaj aru Sanskriti. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of Assamese. Guwahati.

Payeng, S. (2010). Sanskritization and Tribal Community: A Case Study of Mishing Community of Assam. Un-published PhD Thesis, Dibrugarh University, Deptt. of Sociology, Dibrugarh.

Rabha, R. C. (2009). Brahmaputrar Uttarparor Rabhasakalar Samajik aru Sanskitik Jiban. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of MIL.

Sarkar, G. (2013). Paschim Asamar Koch Rajbongshi Janagosthi: Eti Samajik-Sanskritik Adhyan. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of MIL, Guwahati.

Sarma, A. (2000). Material Culture of the Mising of Assam-Tradition and Change. Un-published PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. of Folklore Research, Guwahati.

Sonowal, R. (2014). Indigenous Kowledge System: A Study among the TaiKhamyangs of Sibsagar District in Assam. Un-published PhD Thesis, Dibrugarh University, Deptt. of Anthropology, Dibrugarh.

Swargiary, M. (2012-2013). Folk Architecture of the Bodos:Tradition and Change (With Special Reference to Barpeta District). Unpublished M Phil Dissertation, Gauhati University, Deptt. of Folklore Research. Guwahati.

Web and Internet Sources:

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buildtechindia.com. (2012, May 9). Retrieved Aug 18, 2017, from buildotech e-magazine: http://www.buildotechindia.com/vernacular-architecture-and-building-materials/

Chokshi, S. (2013, Aug 24). klecet.edu.in>upload>files>table5-link. (N.-I. Green Building Workshop, Producer, & IIT, Bombay) Retrieved June 12, 2015, from The Journey of Sustainability-the Indian Vernacular and beyond: 4.front1journey of sustainability-slidedownload.pdf

Colonial Assam. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb 26, 2018, from Wikipedia: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_Assam

Dongre, N. (n.d.). Institution of Youth Dormitories among Tribes of India. Retrieved May 27, 2017, from http://nldongre.com/magzin/72.pdf&ved=0: https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://nldongre.com/magzin/72.pdf&ved=0

Gilmore, J. C., & Reeves, T. (2012). Case Study: Oral History, Folklore, and Vernacular Architecture. (D. Boyd, S. Cohen, B. Rakerd, & D. Rehberger, Eds.) Retrieved Oct 21, 2016, from Oral History in Digital Age: http://ohda.matrix,msu.edu/2012/oral-historyfolklore-and-vernacular-architecture/.

Hira, M. C. (2003). Educational Development in Karbi Anglong District since Independence and its impact on the Society and Culture of the Karbis. PhD Thesis, Gauhati University, Deptt. Of Education. http://www.shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in.

Jabob, J. K. (2014). An Anthropological Study of Religion among the Rangdani Rabha of Assam. PhD Thesis, Don Bosco University, Department of North East India Studies. Guwahati: http://www.shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in (http://hdl.handle.net/10603/65001).

Kaushik, H., &Babu, K. R. (2009, Feb 20). Housing Report: Assam-type House. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from Assam-type House-World Housing Encylopedia-WHE: http://www.worldhousing.net/.

MECD. (n.d.). National Plan for Traditional Architecture. Retrieved Aug 21, 2017, from www.mecd.gob.es: https://www.mecd.gob.es/planesnacionales/dms

Nakamura, Y. (2015/0 1/ 23). Vernacular Architecture: The Issues of Definition. Retrieved 6 10, 2017, from https://nakamurayuko.wordpress.com/2015/01/23/vernaculararchitecture-the-issue-of-definition/

Narzary, D. (2016) A Descriptive Analysis of Karbi. PhD Thesis, Assam University, Deptt. Of Linguistics. Silchar: http://www.shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in.

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Read more-College History: Guwahati. (n.d.). Retrieved MARCH 1, 2018, from www.cottoncollege.org.in: www.cottoncollege.org.in/index_page.asp?slno=6 UNESCO. (2014, April 15). The Neolithic Settlement of Burzahom-UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (UNESCO, Producer) Retrieved sept 4, 2017, from World Heritage Conservation: whc.unesco.org/ententativelists/5917/

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Wikipedia. (n.d.). Green Building. Retrieved May 5, 2018, from Wikipedia: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_building

News Paper Articles:

Bayan, M. (2016, Feb 28). Prakritir Kolat Majulir Paryatan Nibas. Deobariya Sambhar (The Sunday supplement of Asamiya Pratidin), 9-10. (A. Das, Ed.) Guwahati: Sadin Printers.

Das, A. (Ed.). (2016, May 8). Bhumikampa Pratirodhi Ghar. Deobariya Sambhar (The Sunday supplement of Asamiya Pratidin), Rodali (12). Guwahati: Sadin Printers.

Gogoi, M. K., & Gohain, G. P. (2016, February 21). Taiphake Janagosthir Basagriha Changghar. Lokajiban in Deobariya Sambhar (The Sunday supplement of Asamiya Pratidin), 3 & 10. (A. Das, Ed.) Guwahati: Sadin Printers.

Hazarika, S. (2015, May 13). 'Assam-type house' our icon for safety. The Assam Tribune, 6. (P. Barua, Ed.) Guwahati: Assam Tribune Pvt. Ltd.

Rabha, M. (2015, October 11). Loka Jibanat Chang. Deobariya Sambhar (The Sunday supplement of Asamiya Pratidin), 9 & 15. (A. Das, Ed.) Guwahati: Sadin Printers.

Saikia, R. (2015, July 19th). Tangighar. Deobariya Sambhar (The Sunday supplement of Asamiya Pratidin), p. 3 & 15 Guwahati: Sadin Printers.

Uttar-Pubat Tibra Hoise Jalabayu Paribartanar Prabhab. (2015, Dec 21). UttarPurbanchal (Asamiya Pratidin), 14. Guwahati: Sadin Printers.

Dictionaries:

Ambrose, G., Harris, P., & Stone, S. (2008). The Visual Dictionary of Architecture. Switzerland: AVA Publishing.

Barua, H. C. (2015). Hemkosha. 16th. (D. Barua, Ed.) Guwahati: Hemkosha Prakashan.

Ching, F. D. (1995). A Vusual Dictionary of Architecture. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Palmer, A. L. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Architecture. Plymouth: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Parkar, J. H. (2004 (unabridged reproduction of 1910)). A Concise Dictionary of Architectural Terms. 12th. New York: Dover Publications, INC (www.DOVERPUBLICATIONS.COM).

Surjeet Publications. (1988). New Webster's Dictionary of the English Language (College Edition) (Fourth Reprint ed.). (E. G. Finnegan, Ed.) Delhi: Surjeet Publications.

Thames &Hudson. (1984). Dictionary of Art Terms (2003 ed.). London: Thames & Hudson Ltd.

Other Website & Software:

E-learning Software & Assamese Dictionary Software: Assamese Language and Software Development Centre (www.assamesesoftware.com), Guwahati.

Library Genesis/ LibGen: The Meta Library (http://gen.lib.rus.ec / http://freebooks.us.to / http://ebookfi.org / http://libgen.io / http://book4you.org/)

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