Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva (Study)
by Sajitha. A | 2018 | 50,171 words
This page relates ‘Taddhita (in Sanskrit grammar)’ of the study on the Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva from the 11th century A.D. The Vasudevavijayam is an educational poem belonging to the Shastra-Kavya category of technical Sanskrit literature. The Vasudevavijayam depicts in 657 verses the story of Lord Krishna while also elucidates the grammatical rules of the Ashtadhyayi of Panini (teaching the science of grammar). The subject-content of the poem was taken from the tenth Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.
Taddhita (in Sanskrit grammar)
The suffix ruled from derived Padās to derive a noun is Taddhita. There are several categories dealt with in this head such as Apatyādhikāra, Raktādyarthaka, Cāturarthika, Śaiṣika, Prāgdīvyatīya, Ṭhakadhikāra etc.
Vāsudeva illustrates all there rules in his poem and through these examples the readers will get with the Taddhita nouns. Now in this section, an attempt is made to bring forth some rules and their illustrations for Taddhita.
Here, for the first, an example for Apatyādhikāra taken for discussion. The rule dityadityadityapatyuttarapadāṇṇyaḥ (4/1/85) is illustrated in the verse,
samastavittāmadhijagmuṣaḥ svato yataḥ prajeśāḥ śrutimadhyagīṣata |
titikṣamāṇāpi samaṃ kṣamāpa taṃ nṛpībhavaddaityabharārditā vidhim || (Vāsudevavijaya 1.2)
Here, the word daitya is example for Taddhita noun. The affix ṇya comes, the proper names diti, aditi and āditya, and that which has the word pati as its final member. In the example, diteḥ apatyam = daityaḥ | diti+ ṇya =>diti+ ya =>daitya (taddhiteṣvacāmodaḥ)Vṛddhi for the initial vowel).
The rule strīpuṃsābhyāṃ nañsnañau bhavanāt (4/1/87) means that the affixes nañ and snañ come after the words and puṃs respectively.
The rule’s example is given in the following verse,
svānyāhata staiṇamurāṃsi yadviṣāṃ nityaṃ na codāyata yatparojanaḥ |
soṣūpyamāṇaṃ sa tamekajāgṛviṃ vāvaśyamano jagatāṃ śamastavīt || (Vāsudevavijaya 1.11)
H ere word straiṇam is used here as an example for this rule. strī+ nañ → straiṇam | (strīṇāṃ samūhaḥ)
The following verse, includes the illustrations for several rules regarding Apatyādhikāra.
tato visṛjyāśvapatādi śaurirdaityaripādābjavilātṛcetāḥ |
gargaṃ ca gārgyaṃ ca nanāma dākṣiṃ gārgyāyaṇādīṃśca munīṃsrivedān || (Vāsudevavijaya 1.62)
Here, firstly the word aśvapatam is given. It forms example for the rule aśvapatyadibhyaśca (4/1/64). The affix aṇ comes after words like aśvapati etc. as per this rule. aśvapatīnāṃ samūhaḥ āśvapatam | aśvapati + aṇ → āśvapati + a → āśvapata |
Another word is daitya which is an example for dityadityadityapatyuttarapadāṇṇyaḥ (4/1/85) | diti+ ṇya→ ditya→ daitya |
Then the rule gargādibhyo yañ (4/1/105) is illustrated as gārgya | The affix yañ comes in the sense of a Gotra descendant, after the words Garga etc. garga + yañ → gārgya → gargasya gotrāpatyam |
Then the word gārgyāyaṇa is an example for the rule yañiñośca (4/1/101). The affix phak is added to denote a descendant after a nominal stem formed by the affixes yañ and iñ | The word gārgyāyaṇa is used in the sense of gārgasya gotrāpatyam |/yuvāpatyam | garga + phak garga + yañ (gargādibhyo yañ) → gārgya → gārgya + + phak → gārgya + āyan + a (āyaneyīnīyiyaḥ phaḍhakhachaghāṃ pratyayādīnām (7/1/2) → gārgyāyaṇaḥ |
Another word dākṣim is used as an example for ataiñ (4/1/95) | dakṣasya apatyam dākṣi | dakṣa+ iñ → dākṣa+ i→ dākṣiḥ |
The rules regarding Apatyādhikāra are well explained and illustrated in Vāsudevavijaya These affixes are an inevitable part of the language; hence they cannot be excluded. Besides the Apatyādhikāras there are numerous affixes under several heads. Some examples for them generally have shown here. The rule nadyādibhyo ḍhak (4/2/97) is ordained that the affix ḍhak comes after the word nadī etc.
Example for this rule is given is the verse,
nādeyatoyāgamadurnivāraḥ paurastyapākāhatidṛṣṭakarmā |
krudhyannahetāvapi nātha sadbhyo mābhidruhattvāṃ sahasā sa kaṃsaḥ || (Vāsudevavijaya 3.32)
The word nādeya is used in the sense of pertaining to river.—nadyāṃ bhavam nādeyaḥ | As per the above stated rule the affix ḍhak is to be employed. Then, nadī+ ḍhak will be replaced by ey by the application of āyaneyīnīyiyaḥ phaḍhakhachathāṃ pratyayādīnām | nadī+ ey + a → vṛddhi to the initial vowel (kiti ca) | nādeya |
Vāsudeva has incorporated the subsequent rule’s example in the above verses itself. i.e. dakṣiṇāpaścātpurasastyak (4/2/98). The rule means that after the words dakṣiṇā, paścāt, and puras the affix tyakis added. Here the word paurastya is given as example for this. puras + tyak→ Vṛddhi to the initial vowel as per kiti ca → paurastya→ paurastya |
The first verse of the second Canto of Vāsudevavijaya, holds examples for Taddhita affixes. The verse runs as follows:—
kṛṣṇāṅghribhakterupacaskare'tho bhikṣūṃśca kāṣāyapaṭānabhakta |
kartavyamātre paṭimānamāṭīt sā devakī lākṣikapāṇipādā || (Vāsudevavijaya 2.1)
In this verse, the word kāṣāya is formed with a Taddhita affix aṇ as per the rule tena raktaṃ rāgāt (4/2/1). The rule ordains that the affix aṇ comes after the name of a colour in the sense of coloured thereby.
The verb rañj means to change the white colour in to another colour; that by which a thing is coloured is called rāgaḥ colour.
In the word kāṣāya, affix aṇis got added with the word kāṣāya | vṛddhi for the initial vowel (taddhiteṣvacāmādeḥ) | → kāṣāya | kaṣāyeṇa raktaṃ kāṣāyam |
Another rule exemplified here in the verse is lākṣārocanāśakalakardamāṭṭhak (4/2/2). The word lākṣika in the verse forms example for this. As per this rule, the affix ṭhak comes, in the sense of coloured there by, after the words lākṣa and rocanā etc. In the example, the word lākṣa has employed the affix ṭhak, lākṣā + ṭhak→ ṭhak is replaced by ika→ lākṣā + ika→ lakṣika |
In this manner Vāsudeva illustrates most of the rules regarding Taddhitas. But Vāsudeva has elided some of them as it is impossible to include all the Taddhita forms and rules in a poem. A large number of rules were there in Aṣṭādhāyī regarding this topic. However Vāsudeva tried to illustrate most of the rules on this section.