by Sajitha. A | 2018 | 50,171 words
This page relates ‘Lakara-artha’ of the study on the Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva from the 11th century A.D. The Vasudevavijayam is an educational poem belonging to the Shastra-Kavya category of technical Sanskrit literature. The Vasudevavijayam depicts in 657 verses the story of Lord Krishna while also elucidates the grammatical rules of the Ashtadhyayi of Panini (teaching the science of grammar). The subject-content of the poem was taken from the tenth Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.
In the Paninian system of grammar, the six tenses and four moods are represented by the common term lakāra. The six tenses and four moods, which belong to Sanskrit, right from the times of Vedas have been referred to by Pāṇini in the rule lasya (3/4/77). The ten lakāras characterised by the indicatory letters (ṭ and ṅ), are enjoined in the sense of particular tense and moods. The ten lakāras are Laṭ, Liṭ, Luṭ, Lṛt, Leṭ, Loṭ, Laṅ, Liṅ, Luṅ and Lṛṅ.
Out of these ten lakāras, first six are possessed of the indicatory letter ṭ and the remaining four are having the indicatory letter ṅ is added on to them. These two indicatory letters perform significant roles. Their significance can be understood with the help of two Meta-rules viz. ādyantau ṭakitau (1/1/46) and ṅicca (1/1/53). The first ṭÉeta-rule informs that the indication letter ṭ signifies that the augment (āgama) will come at the beginning of that of which it is enjoined. The second one states the indicatory letter ṅ denotes that the substitution (Ādeśa) will applied to the final letter.
The first lakāra laṭ is defined as vartamāne laṭ (3/2/123) which is to denote the present tense. The rule states that the affix laṭ comes after a verb to signify the present action. The present is that which is begun, but which has not yet come to an end. ārabdho'samāptaśca vartamānaḥ |
The rule for laṭ lakāra is brought out by Vāsudeva in the verse-
H ere the word bhavati which is used in the locative case and also is a form with the affix śatṛ | The affixes śatṛ and śānac are the substitutes of laṭ, when agreeing with what does not end with the first case affix. Here the śatṛ of the word bhavati is formed from the present comes of the root bhū | The root bhū get affixed with laṭ as per the rule vartamāne laṭ |→ bhū+ laṭ→ bhūl | Then this laṭ is substituted by śatṛ, bhū+ a (kartari śap)+ at (śatṛ) → bhū+ a + at → bhavat | (ato guṇe) In Saptamī the form will be bhavati |
The next lakāra i.e., liṭ is defined as parokṣe liṭ | (3/2/115). As per this rule, the affix liṭ comes after a verb in the sense of the past, before the commencement of the current day, and unperceived by the narrator.
Vāsudeva illustrates this rule in the following verse:—
In this verse, the word jahau is the example for liṭ | This is derived from the root ohāk tyage | Here in this word the unperceiveness is obvious as the sentence is sā nidrāyaśodāṃ jahau; the sleep abandoned Yaśoda. Hence here the use of liṭ is essential.
|ohāk + liṭ
|← parokṣe liṭ (liṭ is replaced by liṭ)
|hā + tip
|← parasmaipadānāṃ ṇalatususthalathusaṇalvamāḥ
|hā-ṇal = hāa
|tip replaced by ṇal
|hā hā a
|← liṭi dhātoranabhyāsasya (Reduplication of the root)
halādiḥ śeṣaḥ (the first consonant retains among the consonants of reduplicate and the remainders are dropped)
|← hrasvaḥ | (A short is substituted for the long visual of the reduplicate)
|ja hā a
|← abhyāse carca | (The car and jah are substituted for the jhal letters occurring in a reduplicate syllable
|ja hā au = jahau |
|← āta au ṇalaḥ vṛddhiśca
The lakāra luṭ to denote future tense is stated as anadyatane luṭ | The affix luṭ comes after a verbal root, in the sense of what will happen, but not in the course of the current day.
Vāsudeva's example for this rule is included in the verse.
Here, gopāyitā is the example given for the rule.
Lṛṭ śeṣe ca is the definition for the lṛṭ lakāra. The affix lṛṭ is employed after a verb, in the remaining cases, where pure and simple future is indicated, and also where there is in construction it, another verb express or understood, denoting an action performed for the state of the future action.
Example for this rule is incorporated in the verse—
Kariṣyan is the example given here and which is the form with the affix śatṛ to the root kṛ karaṇe |
|← lṛṭ śeṣe ca |
|kṛ sya tip
|← syatāsī lṛluṭoḥ
|kṛ i sya ti
|← ārdhadhātukasyeḍvalādeḥ |
|kar i sya ti
|← sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ |
|← ato roraplutādaplute |
|← lṛṭaḥ sadvā, tausat |
The leṭ lakāra can be witnessed in the Vedas only for Vedic usage.
The lakāra loṭ is defined by the rule loṭ ca (3/3/162). The affix loṭ also is employed after a root in the sense of vidhi (commanding), nimantraṇa (invitation for Śrāddha etc.) āmantraṇa (expressing permission to do as one likes), adhīṣṭa (politely expresses a wish), saṃpraśna (ask questions) or prārthanā (prayer).
Vāsudevagives example for this in the verse,
stuvatastasya santuṣya trātā sthaṇḍilaśāyinām |
āha kāruṇikassainaṃ vacaḥ saṃśṛṇu māmakam || (Vāsudevavijaya 6.84)
Here saṃśṛṇu is the example for loṭ which is used in the sense of vidhi (commanding or directing).
The laṅ lakāra is defined as anadyatane laṅ (3/2/111) and as per this rule the affix laṅ comes after a root employed in the sense of part before the commencement of the current day.
The following verse in Vāsudevavijaya gives example for this rule.
The word ait is given as the example for this rule. The word is derived from the root iṇ gatau | iṇ a luṅ→ iṇ tip |
|← adiprabhṛtibhyaḥ śapaḥ (elision of śap)
|ā i ti
|← āḍajādīnām (āṭ)
|a e ti
|← sārvadhātukardhadhātukayoḥ (guṇaḥ)
|← vṛddhireci (vṛddhiḥ)
|← itaśca (elision of i)
The lakāra liṅ is defined as vidhinimantraṇāmantraṇādhīṣṭasaṃpraśnaprārthaneṣu liṅ | The affix liṅ come after a verb when the Agent either commands (vidhi) assigns (nimantraṇa) invites (āmantraṇa) politely expresses a wish (adhīṣṭa), ask question (saṃpraśna) or prays.
Vāsudeva gives example for this in the verses-
Gaccheḥ is the example given here for liṅ | It is a command, hence as per this rule liṅ lakāra is employed.
|gam + liṅ
|← vidhinimantraṇāmantraṇādhīṣṭasaṃpraśnaprārthaneṣa liṅ |
|gam + sip
|gam + a + sip
|gam cha+ a + sip
|← iṣugamiyamāṃ chaḥ
|gatchasi, gaccha si
|← hasvasya piti kṛti tuk, stoḥ ścunā ścuḥ
|gaccha yās si
|← yāsuṭ parasmaipadeṣu
|gaccha i y si
|← ato yeyaḥ (guṇe) lopovyorvali
|(yalope), itaśca (itīkāralope)
The lakāra lṛṅ is defined as liṅnimitte lṛṅ kriyātipattau (3/3/139). Where there is a reason for affixing laṅ, the affix lṛṅ is employed in the future tense, when the non-completion of the action is understood.
Example for this rule in Vāsudevavijaya is given in the verse,
Yadi apaiṣyat tarhi na anaṅkṣyat is meant for this rule.
Besides, the meaning attached to the ten lakāras, these are falling down in several contexts and in several meanings. Those changes as well as mean changes and contexts were uncounted in the lakāratha section. Here, inorder to show the usage of some rules, some of them from Vāsudevavijaya has to be produced. The rules regarding this section are brought out in different Pādas of Aṣṭādhāyī. These rules were scattered is the second, third and fourth pādas of the third chapter. Vāsudeva illustrates these rules in the same order with that of Pāninīya.
The rule abhijñāvacane lṛṭ (3/2/112) is going to discuss here for the first. The rule ordains that when a word implying 'recollection' is in connection with it, a verb takes the affix lṛṭ in the sense of the past before the commencement of the present day. Generally the lṛṭ lakāra is used to denote the future tense, but at the same it will switched over to the sense of past.
This change according to this rule is brought out with an example in Vāsudevavijaya in the verse,
Here, the verb vijeṣyate is used in lṛṭ lakāra, but doesn't mean the future tense. It is used to denote the past (anadyatana bhūta) as there is an adjacent word which implies the sense of recollection. Here the word abhijñā is used in the verse, and as per the presence of this, word, there comes the lṛṭ lakāra in the sense of the past tense.
In the above verse the rule na yadi (3/3/113) is also illustrated. This rule is an extension to the above sated rule. This prohibits lṛṭ in the above mentioned conditions if there is a particle yat | The lṛṭ does not denote the meaning of past when there is the pressure of the particle yat even if there consumes the word employing recollection. In the verse, the word ajayaḥ is employed in the sense of past tense, and also used in laṅ | Even though there is a re-collective word abhijñā is present, the lṛṭ in the sense of past cannot be employed because it is the proximity of the word yat |
The rule haśaśvatorlaṅ ca (3/2/116) states that the affix laṅ comes after a verb when the particles ha and śaśvat are in connection with it, and when the verb denotes past action unperceived by the speaker, and before the commencement of the current day.
Example for the rule is given in the verse,
Here the verb aiyaḥ is used in laṅ | In fact, the verb used in the sense of bhūtānadyatana parokṣa | Generally liṭ is used to convey the sense of parokṣa and in the following example the lakāra laṅis employed because an Upapada ha is allowed here.
In this manner, Vāsudeva illustrates the rules regarding lakāras in his poem for the sake of students and scholars of Sanskrit Grammar. Through these illustrations one can easily and clearly grasp and practice the various meaning belonged to the lakāra. In the case of lakāras Vāsudeva devotes several verses in different cantos.