Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva (Study)

by Sajitha. A | 2018 | 50,171 words

This page relates ‘Dvandva-samasa (Compound)’ of the study on the Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva from the 11th century A.D. The Vasudevavijayam is an educational poem belonging to the Shastra-Kavya category of technical Sanskrit literature. The Vasudevavijayam depicts in 657 verses the story of Lord Krishna while also elucidates the grammatical rules of the Ashtadhyayi of Panini (teaching the science of grammar). The subject-content of the poem was taken from the tenth Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.

Pāṇini introduces the Dvandvasamāsa with the rule cārthe dvandvaḥ (2/2/29). Two or more words connected with each other by copulative particle ca are compounded. The resulting compound is dvandva.

The particle ca has four meanings. Samuccaya, Anvācaya, Itaretarayoga and Samāhāra.

samuccayānvācayetaretarayogasamāhāraścārthāḥ |
parasparanirapekṣasyānekasya ekasminnanvayaḥ samuccayaḥ |
anyatarasyāmānuṣaṅgikatve (nānvayo)'nvācayaḥ |
militānāmanvaya itaretarayogaḥ samūhaḥ samāhāraḥ |

In the first two meanings there is no mutual expectancy. The Subanta words can be identified thus they do not come under the heading of Samāsa.

The rule cārthe dvandva is illustrated by Vāsudeva in the verse,

viṣṭārapaṅktipadapaṅtikakupsu niṣṇaiḥcchandassu kaukkuṭikadhārmikakālpasūtraiḥ |
viprairanaukahanipātaravaśraveṇatrasyannahāsta sa gaṇaḥ sahaseha nandaḥ ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.30)

Here the word viṣṭārapaṅktipadapaṅkitakakupsu is the example.

After illustrating the rule cārthe dvandvaḥ Vāsudeva gives some examples for the rules regarding precedence (pūrvanipāta) in Dvandvasamāsa. A dvandvasamāsa is constituted of each member in the nominatives, they are therefore all upasarjana. Hence to regulate precedence precedence some rules are formulated in Pāṇinīya. So it is important to show some of these rules here.

The rules upasarjanaṃ pūrvam (2/2/30) and rājadattādiṣu param (2/2/31) are next two rules in Aṣṭadhyāyī after cārthe dvandvaḥ. Though they are not directly related to dvandvasamāsa, they are also included here itself as Vāsudevavijaya follows the Paninian order. The rule upasarjanaṃ pūrvam has mentioned already in the context of Avayaībhāva compound and hence it is not taken here for discussion.

The rule rājadantādiṣu param means the Upasarjana is to be put last in words rājadanta etc. is explained in Vāsudevavijaya in the verse.

natvā mṛdusmitadarekṣitarājadantaṃ dāmodaraṃ surasutāvayataḥsma rūpyau |
sāmājikairabhinutāvalakāṃ sa sainyairatyadṛtāvajagavāyudhapāriṣadyaiḥ ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.29)

The word rājadantaḥ is used in the verse to show the paranipātatva | Here in the word rājadantaḥ the rule for tatpuruṣa compound is ṣaṣṭhīand according to the rule prathamānirdiṣṭaṃ samāsa upasarjanam, the word used in the sixth case. i.e. danta is upasarjana. The rule upasarjanaṃ pūrvam gives directions to the precedence of the upasarjana whereas the rule rājadantādiṣu param restrict this and which leads to the paranipātatva of the uparsajana. Thus the word danta which termed here as upasarjana is to be placed last in the compound rājadantaḥ | dantānāṃ rājā rājadantaḥ |

Next, the rule dvandve ghi is for regulating precedence of upasarjanas in Dvandvasamāsa. In a Dvandva compound, a word that is termed ghi precedes when there are more than one ghi-termed words, one of them may be fixed upon as first member and the rest do not follow any fixed rule.

Vāsudeva has illustrated this rule in the verse:—

tasmin mahatyajavṛṣasphuri bhānucandrau devau yathā viyati nāka ivendravāyū |
goṣṭhe tathā vihitavātsakapālanau tau bhātaḥ sma bhūtimati cākrikarauhiṇeyau ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.40)

In this verse, the word bhānucandrau is a Dvandvasamāsa as per the rule cārthe dvandvaḥ | bhānuśca candraścabhānucandrau |

The technical term ghi is defined as śeṣo ghyasakhi (1/4/7) means, the rest of the words that end in short i and u are called ghi with the exception of the word sakhi | In bhānucandrau the word bhānu ends in short ukāra, and which is termed as ghi | Thus in the compound, the word termed as ghi i.e bhānu is to be placed first. Hence the form bhānucandrau |

The following rule is ajādyadantam which means, in Dvandva compound, a word which begins with a vowel and which ender with short a (a) to be placed first. The above verse itself holder the example for this rule also. In the word, ajavṛṣau, ajaścavṛṣaśca ajavṛṣau is the expansion. Here the word ajaḥ begins with a vowel and ends with short a | Thus as per the rule, the word ajaḥ precedes in the compound.

Vāsudeva includes more rules regarding the precedence of upasarjanas in the same verse. Another rule explained here is alpāctaram and this rule implies that a word with a lesser number of vowels is to be placed first in a dvandva compound. Example given for this rule is cākrikarauhiṇeyau | cākrikaśca rauhiṇeyaśca cākrikarauhiṇeyau | Here, the word cākrika holds a few vowels than rauhiṇeya, and hence it precedes in the compound.

In this word, Vāsudeva opines:

"cākrikarauhiṇeyāviti "alpāctaramiti' abhyarhitaṃ pūrvānnipatatītivā cākrikaśabdasya pūrvanipātaḥ |[2]

The Vārtika abhyarhitaṃ ca pūrvaṃ nipatatīti vaktavyam is also caused to the precedence of the word cākrika | A word for abhyarhita (honoured, respected) takes precedence in a Dvandva compound. Here cākrika is the more honoured word and thus this Vārtika can be applied here. That's why the word cākrika has the precedence here.

There is another rule ghyantādajādyadantaṃ vipratiṣedhena which means the rule ajādyadantaṃ supersedes dvandve ghi | In Vāsudevavijaya, the word indravāyū from the same verse forms an example for this. indraśca vāyuśca indravāyū | Here indra is a word begins with a vowel and ends with short a and at the same time vāyuḥ is a word ending with short u which termed as ghi | Thus both them have to be preceded. Then there acts the rule ghyantādajādyadantaṃvipratiṣedhena | Here, indra is ajādyadanta, so it supersedes the rule dvandve ghi (vāyuḥ) | Hence the the form indravāyū |

Thus there are many examples regarding Dvandva compound. The rules and their respective examples from Vāsudevavijaya are given in the appendix.

With regard to Samāsaprakaraṇa, it can be said that almost all rules are illustrated in Vāsudevavijaya But there are some exceptions. Vāsudeva excluded some of the rules in respect to the Samāsas. This may be because of his limitations to include all the examples in poetry. But Vāsudeva do justice to his effort to make aware of the grammatical rules to the students as well as scholars of Sanskrit. Though he has no intention to illustrate the Vārtikas, some of them contextually have illustrated.

Footnotes and references:


Vaiyākaraṇa siddhamtakaumudī, Pūrvārddhā, Vṛtti on the rulecārthe dvandvaḥ, pp. 586-587.


Vijayapal Sastri.op.cit.Vṛtti of the verse 5.40, p.109.

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