by Sajitha. A | 2018 | 50,171 words
This page relates ‘Karaka (e): Sampradana’ of the study on the Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva from the 11th century A.D. The Vasudevavijayam is an educational poem belonging to the Shastra-Kavya category of technical Sanskrit literature. The Vasudevavijayam depicts in 657 verses the story of Lord Krishna while also elucidates the grammatical rules of the Ashtadhyayi of Panini (teaching the science of grammar). The subject-content of the poem was taken from the tenth Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.
Pāṇini defines Samprdāna as:
karmaṇā yamabhipraiti sa sampradānam (1/4/32).
The one who is intended by the Dānakriyā is termed as Sampradāna.
Bhartṛhari’s opinion on Sampradāna is:—
anirākaraṇāt kartustyāgāṅgaṃ karmaṇepsitam |
preraṇānumatibhyāṃ vā labhate sampradānatām ||
Sampradāna is that where desire to obtain is made by the Object or with its medium.
The main definition of the Sampradānakāraka i.e. karmaṇā yamabhipraiti sa sampradānam is exemplified in the verse,
kalānidheḥ santamasasya hantuḥ patyuḥ satāmāttarateranante |
samudriyātprādita modamābhyāṃ vidhorbhavantī smitacindrikā sā || (Vāsudevavijaya 3.10)
Vidhoḥ bhavantī smitacandrikā ābhyāṃ modaṃ prādita | Viṣṇu’s smile gave pleasure to them. Here prādita is an action of giving (Dānakriyā), and modaṃ is the Object. The persons connected with the Object are Devakī and Vasudeva who were denoted by the word ābhyām | and this is called Sampradāna. Hence it is used in the fourth case as per the rule caturthī sampradāne (2/3/13).
Another aphorism in correction with the Sampradānakāraka is rucyarthānāṃ prīyamāṇaḥ (1/4/33). In the verbs having the signification of the root ruc to like, the person or thing that is pleased or satisfied, is called Sampradāna.
The example for this rule in Vāsudevavijaya is:—
pratīpavṛttairgaruḍāśmadaṇḍasadhryagbhirindrāriṣu bāhudaṇḍaiḥ |
samyakṣu saktaiścariteṣu bhāntaṃ hṛde sameṣāmapi rocamānaiḥ || (Vāsudevavijaya 3.13)
Here hṛde rocamānaiḥ is the portion to illustrate this rule. It means ‘pleases the heart’. The word hṛd is used in the fourth case as it bears Sampradānatva. The association of the root ruc which intends hṛd leads to Sampradānatva of that word and it is used in Caturthī.
Another verse in Vāsudevavijaya, holds the example for these rules viz. ślāghahnuṅsthaśapāṃ jñīpsyamānaḥ (1/4/34), dhāreruttamarṇaḥ (1/4/35) and spṛherīpsitaḥ (1/4/36).
The verse is as follows:-
svamuttamarṇāya yathādharmaṇastasmai kumārān bata dhārayāmaḥ |
tasya smarantaḥ spṛhayāmahe na svajīvitāyāpi śapāmahe te || (Vāsudevavijaya 3.29)
In this context te śapāmahe, tasmai kumārān dhārayāmaḥ, svajīvitāya na spṛhayāmahe, are respective examples for the above mentioned rules.
In the first instance i.e. te śapāmahe, The verb śap to curse is extent here and by this it is intended to inform you i.e., te about the curse, so it is the Sampradāna. The rule means that in the case of the verbs ślāgha to praise, hnu to take away, stha to stand, and śap to curse, the person whom it is intended to inform of or persuade by those actions is called Sampradāna, ie. ślāghahnuṅsthaśapāṃ jñīpsyamānaḥ |
The rule dhāreruttamarṇaḥ (1/4/35) means that in the case of the root dhṝ to owe, the creditor is called Sampradāna. In tasmai kumārān dhārayāmaḥ, owes the sons for them. Here the verb, dhṝ is there and the creditor (tasmai) has got Sampradāna and Caturthīvibakti.
Likewise, spṛherīpsitaḥ (1/4/36) implies that in the case of the verb spṛh to desire, the thing desired is called Sampradāna. vayaṃ svajīvitāya na spṛhayāmahe means that we are not desired our life. Here the life is subject to desire and it is called Sampradāna and hence employs the fourth case affix and the form is as svajīvitāya |
The Sūtras like krudhadruherṣyāsūyārthānāṃ yaṃ prati kopaḥ, (1/4/37), rādhīkṣyoryasya vipraśnaḥ etc. are also illustrated in Vāsudevavijaya The remaining rules regarding this Kāraka are included in the table which is enclosed as an appendix. This will help to the easy and convenient reference of these rules.
There are many rules in respect of the fourth case are also employed in Vāsudevavijaya Those are also produced in the appendix for better reference. Now, one of the rules regarding the fourth case is going to discuss here as an instance.
Kriyārthopapadasya ca karmaṇi sthaninaḥ (2/3/14) is taken here for instance. It means that the fourth case affix is employed in denoting the Object (the Karman) of that verb, which is suppressed (Sthānin) in a sentence, and which has in construction (upapada) there with another verb, denoting action performed for the sake of the future action (Kriyārthā kriyā). In other words, when the sense of the infinitive of purpose performed by tumun and ṇvul is suppressed in a sentence, the Object of this infinitive is put in the Dative case.
Vāsudeva gives an example for this rule, in the verse—
Thus the rules regarding the Sampradāna and Caturthī are discussed here in this section. As in other cases and Kārakas, it can be found that some rules are omitted. The reason for the omission of the Sūtras is that similarity in application. Vāsudeva illustrated the rules with different derivation. The rules with similar application may be skipped as they were easy to learn by the common people. Otherwise, Vāsudeva gives some models and the rest can infer by the students themselves. However he employs most of the rules in their respective order and omits the aphorism very rarely.
The Vārtikās are also excluded by Vāsudeva and he illustrates only one or two Vārtikas. Thus it is inferred that Vāsudeva only intends to illustrate the Aṣṭādhyāyī and not Vārtikas. So he did not deal the Vārtikas except some of them.
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