Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva (Study)

by Sajitha. A | 2018 | 50,171 words

This page relates ‘Karaka (d): Karana’ of the study on the Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva from the 11th century A.D. The Vasudevavijayam is an educational poem belonging to the Shastra-Kavya category of technical Sanskrit literature. The Vasudevavijayam depicts in 657 verses the story of Lord Krishna while also elucidates the grammatical rules of the Ashtadhyayi of Panini (teaching the science of grammar). The subject-content of the poem was taken from the tenth Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.

Pāṇini’s definition for Karaṇa or the instrument is sādhakatamaṃ karaṇam (1/4/42). The Kāraka which serves as means of the accomplishment of a given action more than any other participants in it is termed as Karaṇa or instrument.

According to Bhartṛhari Karaṇa is defined —

kriyāyāḥ pariniṣpattiryadvyāpārādanantaram |
vivakṣyate yadā tatra karaṇatvaṃ tadā smṛtam ||
[1]

He also clarifies that it cannot be concluded that this particular thing can only be regarded as Karaṇa.

vastutastadanirdeśyaṃ na hi vastu vyavasthitam |[2]

A thing becomes an instrument acting to the intention of the speaker.

Vāsudeva illustrates the rule sādhakatamaṃ karaṇam (1/4/42) in the verse,

bhaktyai parikrītamupādadānaṃ vapuḥ śiśūnāmucitaṃ pitā tam |
tatpreritātmā navarāṅkavatvakparyaṅkikāyā jagṛhe karābhyām ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 3.36)

The main statement is pitā taṃ navarāṅkavatvakparyaṅkikāyāḥ karābhyāṃ jagṛhe; here, the word karābhyāṃ is used in the third case as it is the Instrument or Karaṇa. In this example the word that which acts as an especially auxiliary is kara, so that it has got Karaṇatva according to this rule and hence it is used in the third case as per the rule kartṛkaraṇayostṛtīyā (2/3/18). The only aphorism which is illustrated by Vāsudeva for Karaṇakāraka is sādhakatamaṃ karaṇam (1/4/42) and the rest of the rules were dealt with the third case (Upapadavibhakti).

Now, the illustrations for the application for the third case in the Vāsudevavijaya are taken for study.

The rule apavarge tṛtīyā (2/3/6) means that when the accomplishment of the desired object is meant to be expressed, the third case affix is employed after the words denoting the duration of time or place.

This rule is discussed thus as:—

tasmin kṣaṇena nihate muditāḥ sma tūrṇamāvirmithohamavayanti vanāya tasmai |
svargāya kāssvabhuvamastuvatāpi vīṇāprakvāṇagītiravasaṃhitavāṅnigumphāḥ ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.53)

Vāsudeva gives an example for this rule as kṣaṇena nihate sati. Here, the word kṣaṇa denotes the duration of time. Similarly, the accomplishment of the desired object is expressed. Hence the third case is employed after the word kṣaṇa i.e. kṣaṇena |

Another rule for the employment of the third case is sahayukte'pradhāne (2/3/19).It means that when the word saha (with) is joined to a word, the insignificant takes the third case. Here the sense of the word in the third case is not the principal.

The rule is explained by Vāsudeva in the verse:—

stambaghnabāhuparighān surasainikānāṃ daṇḍyān jahi sma khalu gauriti māmayācat |
dhātrā sahāvatatareha yato dayārdraḥ panthā hyamuṣya mudamātanute mamāyam ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.64)

Here the sentence gauḥ (bhūmiḥ) dhātrā saha mām ayācat means that, ‘the Goddess of Earth along with Brahmā requested me’. Here the Earth is the principal thing, whereas dhātā is its companion. At the same time the word saha is joined with this. Hence the companion of the principal thing joined with the word saha i.e. dhātā is got employed the third case as per this rule.(dhātrā).

Then the rule yenāṅgavikāraḥ (2/3/20) is given an example in the verse,

mukhe harau māyiṣu māyikaprathāṃ prayujya nistabdhatayā sa vihvalaḥ |
niyuddhalipsāmiva pāṇinā kuṇiḥ mahābhujenopagataḥ pitāmahaḥ ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.73)

Meaning of this rule is runs as by whatsoever limb, being defective, is pointed out the defect of the person, after that the third case affix should be employed. Here the example for the same is pāṇinā kuṇiḥ which means ‘having crooked or withered arm’. Here whatsoever by reason of being a member of the body is defective is indicated here. Hence, there employed the third case affix.

Vāsudeva exemplifies the rule itthaṃbhūtalakṣaṇe | (2/3/21).Any mark or attribute, by which is indicated the existence of a particular state or condition, is put in the third case to express this relation.

Example for this rule is given in the verse:—

sandhyāpayodaruci lohitake pratīcyāḥ prācyā mukhe'vatamasodayakālake ca |
kalyāṇaveṇudalaśṛṅgamilanninādaiḥ goṣṭhaṃ vibhurviviśivān sagaṇaḥ purāvat ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.66)

Here avatamasaṃ ninādaiḥ upalakṣitaḥwhich means ‘the slight darkness is indicated by the sounds’. Hence the word nināda is a mark or attribute to indicate the state of slight darkness. Thus it is used in the third case.

Another rule sarvanāmnastṛtīyā ca is illustrated in the verse:—

ucchūnavīryāḥ santyanye'pyasurāstatpurassarāḥ |
hetunānena durge'tra vrajyāṃ cakṛma no kila ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 6.19)

The rule means, after a Sarvanāman, when it signifies the cause of an action and the word hetu is used with it, the sixth as well as the third case affixes are employed. In this example asurāḥ santi iti anena hetunā durge atra vayaṃ vrajyāṃ na cakṛma means that the presence of the demons is the cause for not going to the forest. At the same time the word hetu is used. Thus here employed the third case as hetunā |

Pṛthagvinānānābhistṛtīyānyatarasyām is another rule regarding the third case illustrated by Vāsudeva. It means, when joined with the word pṛthak, vinā and nānā, the third case affix is employed optionally as well as the fifth and the second.

In the verse:—

dvāpareṇa balo nānā tālasaṅghaṃ vidhūnayan |
pacelimaṃ phalastomamalpānmuktamapīpatat ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 6.25)

By the association of the word nānā (without) the word dvāparais used in the third case (dvāpareṇa).

Rule pṛthagvinānānābhistṛtīyānyatarasyām advocates three cases when accomplishment by the Avyayas vinā and nānā. Both of these are used to denote the meaning without. Vāsudeva in this verse has made one of this application as dvāpareṇa nānā.

These are example given for the Instrumental Kāraka and third case in Vāsudevavijaya Here it can be seen that the omitting of some rules regarding the third case by the author and the unemployment of Vārtikās are also noteworthy. The rules, hetau, saṃjño'nyatarasyāṃ karmaṇi etc. are not illustrated.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

K.A.Subramania Aiyer.op.Cit.v.90.

[2]:

ibid, v.91.

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