The Concept of Sharira as Prameya

by Elizabeth T. Jones | 2019 | 42,971 words

This essay studies the concept of Sharira as Prameya Based on Nyaya (shastra), which represents one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy. Although technically the word Nyaya signifies a syllogism, it basically represents the “science of reasoning”, and is primarily concerned with epistemology and logic. In Nyaya philosophy Sharira (“bod...

_NOTES

[1] A History of Indian Logic, Satish Candra Vdyabhūṣan, p.6

[2] Six systems of Indian Philosophy, p.3

[3] All orthodox schools of Indian Philosophy admit the reality of the Ātman or self as a permanent spiritual substance, Indian Philosophy,Jadunath sinha, Vol. 1, p.248

[4] Indian Philosophy, p. 257

[5] Indian Philosophy, vol.1, p.257

[6] Indian Philosophy, vol,1, p.255

[7] Every system of Philosophy is based on epistemology or theory of knowledge. Indian Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 2558 A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, p. 130

[8] A word can be described only negatively it can express its meaning only by reecting the opposite meaning. A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, p. 136

[9] Indian Philosophy, vol.1, p. 178

[10] A History of Indian Logic, p. 174

[11] The sankhya believes in the reality of twenty five principles, prakṛti, mahat, ahamkāra, manas, ten external sense organs, five tanmātras, five gross elements and puruṣa, Indian Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 103

[12] Indian Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 103

[13] Indian Philosophy, vol.1, p.882

[14] Indian Philosophy, vol. 1,p. 828

[15] A History of Indian Logic, P. 48

[16] Ibid, p.17

[17] Ibid, p, 49

[18] Kaudilya’s, Arthaśāstra, ed.V. Narain. 1.2.7, p.12

[19] pratyakṣānumānopamaśabdah pramāṇani, Nyāya Darśana, 1.1.3,, p. 11

[20] A History of Indian Logic, p. 40

[21] Nyāya Bhāṣya, p. 5

[22] pramāṇaprameyasamśayaprayoanadṛṣṭāntasiddhāntaavayavatarkkanirṇayavādaalpavitaṇdahetvābhāsacchalaātinigrahasthāna ānām tatvanānaniniśreyasādhigamah. 1.1.1, Nyāya Darśana, p. 1

[23] Pratyaksānumānopamānaśabdapramāṇāni.1.1.3,Nyāyadarśana, Satis Candra Vidyabhusana, P. 11.

[24] Indriyarthasannikarshotpannam nanamavyapadesyavibhicari vyavasayatmakam pratyaksam, 1.1.4, ibid, p. 12

[25] athatatpūrvakamtrividhamanumānam pūrvavaccheṣavatsāmānyatodṛṣṭam cha, 1.1.5, ibid, p.14

[26] prasiddhāsādharmyātsādhyasādhanam upamānam, 1.1.6, ibid, p.15

[27] āptopadeśaha śabdaha, 1.1.7, ibid, p. 16

[28] ātmaśarīraindriyarthabuddhimanapravṛttidoṣapretyabhāvaphaladuhkhāpavargāstu prameyam, 1.1.9, ibid, p. 19

[29] icchādveṣaprayatnasukhaduhkhanānani ātmanolingam,1.1.10, ibid, p.20

[30] ceṣṭendriyarthāśrayaha śarīram, 1.1.11, ibid, p. 20

[31] khrāṇarasanacakṣustvakśrotrāṇi indriyāni, 1.1.12, ibid, p. 21

[32] gandharasarūpasparsśaśabdah pṛdhivyādiguṇāha tadardhaha, 1.1.14, ibid, p.22

[33] Buddhihi upalabdhirnānamityanardhāntaram, 1.1.15, ibid, p. 22

[34] yugapanānānutpattihi manaso lingam, 1.1.16, ibid, p.23

[35] pravṛtihi vāgbuddhiśarīrārambha iti, 1.1.16, ibid, p. 23

[36] pravartanālakṣaṇā dośāha, 1.1.18,ibid, p. 24

[37] Punarutpattihi pretyabhāvaha, 1.1.19, ibid, p. 24

[38] pravrtidoṣaanitoardhaha phalam, 1.1.20, ibid, p.24

[39] bādhanālakṣaṇam duhkham, 1.1.21, ibid, p.25

[40] tadatyantavimokṣaha apavargaha, 1.1.22, ibid, p.25

[41] samānānekadharmopapattervipratipatterupalabdhyanupalabdhyavyavasthāttaśca viśeṣāpekṣo vimarśaha samśayaha, 1.1.23, ibid, p. 31

[42] yamardhamadhikṛtya pravarttate tat prayoanam, 1.1.24, ibid, p. 33

[43] laukikaparīkṣakāṇāmyasminnardhebuddhisāmyamsa dṛṣṭāntaha, 1.1.25, ibid, p.33

[44] tantrādhikaraṇābhyupagamasamsthitihi siddhāntaha, 1.1.26, ibid, p.34

[45] pratināhetudāharaṇopanayanigamanāni avayavāha, 1.1.32, ibid, p. 38

[46] avinātatatveardhekāraṇopapattitastatvanānārdhamuhaha trkaha, 1.1.40, ibid, p.46

[47] vimṛśya pakṣapratipakṣābhyāmardhāvadhāraṇam niṛṇayaha, 1.1.41, ibid, p. 48

[48] praāṇatarkkasādhanopālambhasiddhāntāviruddhaha pancāvayavopapannaha pakṣapratipakṣaparigraho, 1.2.1, ibid, p. 51

[49] Yadhoktopapannaścalajātinigrahastānasādhanopālambho jalpaha, 1.2.2, ibid, p.53

[50] sapratipakṣasthāpanāhīno vitaṇḍa, 1.2.3, ibid, p. 54

[51] savyabhicāraviruddhaprakaraṇasamasādhyasamakālātītā hetvābhāsa, ibid, 1.2.4, ibid, p.55

[52] aviśeṣābhihiteardhevakturabhiprāyādardhāntarakalpanā vākcalam, 1.2.12, ibid, p.61

[53] sādharmyavaidharmyābhyām pratyavasthānam jātihi, 1.2.18, ibid, p. 65

[54] vipratipattirapratipattiśca nigrahasthānam, 1.2.19, ibid, p. 66

[55] mPramāṇaprameyasamśayaprayoanadṛṣṭāntasiddhāntaavayavatarkanirṇayavādaalpavitandahetvabhāsacalaātinigrahasthānana niśreyasaadhigamah

[56] pratyakṣānumānopamānaśabdah pramāṇani, 1.13, Nyāya Sūtra, P.17

[57] ātmaśarīrendriyārthabuddhimanapravṛtidoṣapretyabhāvaphaladuhkhaapavargasthu prameyam, 1.1.9, Nyāya Sūtra, p.29

[58] Ātmaśarīrendriyārdhabuddhimanapravṛtidoṣapretyabhāvaphaladuhkhaapavargāatu prameyam.1.1.9, Nyāyadaśana, p.19

[59] nyāyadarśana 1-1-10, p.20

[60] A critical survey of Indian Philosophy, p.77

[61] Na anyadrṣtamsmaratianyaha.Nyāyasūtra, p.46

[62] Ceṣṭtendriyārthāśrayahaśariram. Nyāya sūtra P.47

[63] śarīram ayatvāpnoti yacchāpyutkrāmatīśvaraha gṛhītvaitāni samyāti vāyurgandhānivārāyat. 15.8, Bhagavadgīta, p. 98

[64] mānuṣamśarīrampārthivam, 3.1.23,Nyāya Bhāṣya, 245.

[65] Avayavāyavayaviprasngaiścaivamāpralayāt, 4.2.15, Nyāya Sūtra, p. 560

[66] Gandharasarūpasparśaśabdānamsparśaparyantāha prthivyah 3.1.62, āpteovāyūnām pūrvam pūrvamapohyākāśasyottarah

[67].1.63, Nyāya Darśana, P.365

[68] Nyāya Sūtra, 1.1.68, p. 321

[69] Āhamkārikatvaśruterna bhautikāni. 2.20, Sānkhyadarśana, p. 100

[70] karmendriyabuddhīndriyairāndaramekādaśakam. 2.19, Sānkhyadarśana, p.100

[71].Nyāya Sūtra, 1.1.38,

[72] Tvagavyatirekāt 3.1.55, Nyāya Darśana, p.211

[73] rasanagrāhyoguṇorasaha. sā ca madhurāmlalavaṇakadukaṣāyatiktabhedāt śadvidhaha. Tarka Samgraha, p.56

[74] Buddhihi upamabdhirnjānamityanarthāntaram. Nyāya Darśana, 1.1.15, p.22, PPBha.p. 171

[75] icchādveṣaprayatnasukhadukhanjānāni ātmano lingam. 1.1.10, Nyāya Darśana, p.20

[76] Nyāya Darśana, 3.1.7, P. 181

[77] Baudhadarsana-yat sat ksanikam—-Indian Philosophy, P 20

[78] Niyamehatvabhavadhyadhadarsanamabhyanunja/22/ Nyāya Darśana, P 388.

[79] Kseeravinasekarananupalabdhivat/13/ Nyāya Darśana-Pg-389.

[80] Kvachidvinasakaranaanupalabthehekvacichobdheranekantaha/2/ Nyāya Sūtra-Pg-392

[81] Nyāya Darśana p-404

[82] Pravrthinivrthi VS, P. 19

[83] Dukhajanmapravrthidosamidhyanananamuttarottarapayetadanandarapaayatapavargaha Nyāya Sūtra ll2ll

[84] PradurbhavatitodhanadharmakaityevamaadhyuktamdhoshaanaamitiNS l2l

[85] SDS, p.102

[86] Punarutpatthihipretyabhavaha Nyāya Sūtra[19]

[87] Carvakadarsanam, p. 32

[88] Aatmanityatvepretyabhavasiddhih, Nyāya Sūtra, p. [10]

[89] Pravrtidosajanitaarthahabhalam Nyāya Sūtra, p. [20]

[90] Sarvamkshanikamsarvamdukham Indian Philosophy, 47.

[91] Baadhanalaksanamdukkham 1/1/21, Nyāya Sūtra, 25

[92] Ksnepunyemartyalokamvinjani.Bhagavatgita.

[93] ātmaśarīrendriyārthabuddhimanapravṛtidoṣapretyabhāvaphaladuhkhaapavargastu prameyam. 1.1.9, Nyāya Darśana, p.192 Vide also introduction to kayacikilsa, Dwarakanath p.1

[94] Daturupakosam, p.482

[95] TK, p. 1

[96] ceṣṭāśrayo vā śarīram, ceṣṭā hi hitāhitaprāpti parihārārthā kriya, TBh, p. 169

[97] viṣayo dravyanukaadischa brahmaandaantha udaahrtaha, bhasaparicheda, p.37

[98] Nyāya Darśana, 3.2.65, P. 271

[99] Nyāya Darśana, 3.2.67, p.272

[100] nirbīa imāmūrtaya udpadyate bīapūrvikā tu śarīrotpattihi, Nyāya Darśana, p.272

[101] Yathā khalvidham śarīram thatuprāṇasamvāhinīnām…. Nyāya Darśana, p.27311 Nyāya Darśana, 3.2.71, p.274

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