by Dhrubajit Sarma | 2015 | 94,519 words
This page relates “Chandas (2): Jati type of metre (matrachandas)” as it appears in the case study regarding the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa. The Shrikanthacarita was composed by Mankhaka, sometimes during A.D. 1136-1142. The Mankhakosa or the Anekarthakosa is a kosa text of homonymous words, composed by the same author.
1. Vaitālīya Aupacchandasika
This metre belongs to the jāti class. There are nine varities of Āryā according to the Chandomaňjarī of Gaṅgādāsa viz. Pathyā, Vipulā, Capalā, Mukhacapalā, Jaghanacapalā, Gīti, Upagīti, Udgīti and Āryāgīti. The verses found composed in this metre are-XXV. 38, 41, 46.
Illustrations -Śrīkaṇṭhacarita., XII. 74-86.
Thus, a poet should use metres suitable for the (contextual) rasa. As for example, in all the books, having the reflections of the Purāṇas, showing the right path of duties, and mainly aiming at imparting advice, the metre Anuṣṭubh should be employed. As discussed, Maṅkhaka used this metre for more than two hundred times. Again, with the proper application of metres, befitting the context, compositions shine by becoming worthy of appreciation; just as virtuous people become worthy of appreciation with proper conduct with consideration to the situation. Regarding the use of various other metres also, Maṅkhaka seems to abide by the rules prescribed by the prosodists. The metre Vasantatilaka, should be used in contexts wherein there exists the admixture of the two rasas viz. Vīra and Raudra. Maṅkhaka rightly used this metre in canto XVIII. 1-54, to draw a pen-picture of the external expression of the agitation of the Gaṇas. On hearing the story of the gods’ distress, caused by the oppression, made by the demons, the Gaṇas became furious. Their eyes and cheeks were reddened with anger. Their tongues slipped when they spoke. Again, the metre Mandākrāntā shines in description of separation (of lovers) in rainy season and bad habit as opined by Kṣemendra. This metre also attains propriety in most cases in the verses of the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita.
Maṅkhaka used twenty nine metres in his Śrīkaṇṭhacarita. His capability has been proved from the use of so many metres in his poem. It has been observed by Kṣemendra, the prolific writer of the Suvṛttatilaka, an outstanding treatise on Sanskrit prosody that those who make effort in application of a single metre, or two or three (metres), are not to be considered as authorised persons (in application of metres), as paupers (present) in an occasion of festivity. Thus, considering from the point of view of Kṣemendra also, Maṅkhaka’s Śrīkaṇṭhacarita occupies a prominent place regarding the use of Sanskrit metres. As the pearls duly put in garlands of gold, become charming, similarly the metres used properly in the right context, become exceedingly graceful and so is the case with Maṅkhaka.
Footnotes and references:
ṣad viṣame’astau same kalāstāśca same syurno nirantarāḥ/
na samātra parāśritā kalā, vaitālīye’ante ralau guruḥ// Chandomañjarī., page 164
tatraivānte’adhike gurau syādaupacchandasikaṃ kavīndrahṛdyaṃ/ Ibid., page 165
caturaṃ śaśalakṣmaṇi kṣapāyā harati dhvāntasitetarottarīyaṃ/
upadeśamiti prasahya sakhyo racayanti sma tamobhisārikāṇāṃ// Śrīkaṇṭhacarita., XI. 32
pathyā vipulā capalā mukhacapalā jaghanacapalā ca/
gītyupagītyudgītaya āryāgītiśca navadhā”ryā// Chandomañjarī., page 157
sāmantabhadranayamapi bhajase padamanusarannasāmānyaṃ/
viśvamapāpo’hamiti śrīlaṅkakaṃ tadapi bodhayasi// Śrīkaṇṭhacarita., XXV. 41
viṣamakṣarapādaṃ vā pādairasamaṃ daśadharmavat/
yacchando noktamatra gātheti tatsūribhiḥ proktaṃ// Vṛttaratnākara, page 111
gaganamahīruhasitakusumaṃ jayati sa rajanibhujaṅgaḥ/
madhukaranikaravilāsamayaṃ prathayati yasya kuraṅgaḥ// Śrīkaṇṭhacarita., XII. 74
kāvyaśāstre’pi vṛttāni rasāyattāni kāvyavit/
Suvṛttatilaka, III. 8
upadeṣapradhāneṣu kuryātsarveṣvanuṣṭubhaṃ// Ibid., III. 9
suvrittaireva śobhante prabandhāḥ sajjanā iva// Ibid., III. 12
vasantatilakaṃ bhāti saṅkare vīraraudrayoḥ/
Ibid., III. 19
daittyodayāsavarasaṃ śravaṇānutarṣa-mārgeṇa te gaṇagaṇā vinipītavantaḥ/
rajyadvilocanakapolatalāḥ skhaladbhi-rvākyairvilolavalitabhru vikāramūhuḥ// Śrīkaṇṭhacarita., XVIII. 1
prāvṛtpravāsavyasane mandākrāntā virājate/
Suvṛttatilaka, III. 21
ekasminneva yairvṛtte kṛto dvittreṣu vā śramaḥ/
na nāma viniyogārhāste daridrā ivotsave// Ibid., III. 26
ratnānamiva vṛttānāṃ bhavatyabhyadhikā ruciḥ// Ibid., III. 37