The backdrop of the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa

by Dhrubajit Sarma | 2015 | 94,519 words

This page relates “Rasa (10): Bhava” as it appears in the case study regarding the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa. The Shrikanthacarita was composed by Mankhaka, sometimes during A.D. 1136-1142. The Mankhakosa or the Anekarthakosa is a kosa text of homonymous words, composed by the same author.

Apart from various kinds of rasa, Bhāvas are also found to be delineated on a few instances, in the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita. According to Viśvanātha, it becomes a case of Bhāva, wherein there is predominance of the vyabhicāribhāvas and attachment towards gods and the like is suggested.[1] Viśvanātha opines that attachment towards gods, sage, preceptor and king, which cannot be treated as the rati towards generating the rasa proper due to its not being nourished by the corresponding vibhāvas, comes to attain the status of the Bhāva.[2] Mammaṭa exhibits similar kind of approach towards Bhāva.[3]

The veneration towards gods is to be found in canto I. The very name of the canto i.e. namaskāravarṇana suggests that it is consisting of salutation towards Lord Śiva and other gods and goddesses. The canto starts with the glorification of the fire in Śiva’s third-eye and the poet shows his devotion to Gaurī, Caṇḍikā, Brahmā, Hari, Lakṣmī, Sarasvatī, Gaṇeśa, Skanda, Kāmadeva and Ardhanārīśvara.

Canto III also contains verses where, love towards the deity is manifested in the verses viz. vyanakti yatrodakatarṣukairvṛtaṃ[4]….., vivṛṇvatī kautukatantusaṅtatiṃ[5].…., pinākino mūrtiṣu[6] ….., vaśaṃvadaḥ śaṃsita[7] ….., avāmanānekasamīpa[8] ….., sa yatra bhargaḥ[9] …..,bibhartimārtaṇḍavapuryadantike[10]..…, purasthatīrthapratiyātanā[11] ….. and kaṭākṣite śāradayā[12] …... Herein this canto, Maṅkhaka pays homage to the gods and goddesses viz. Mahādeva, Hari, Lakṣmī, Sāradā. Mahādeva has been referred to here by the word Kapaṭeśvara that lives in water in a wooden form.

Along with these, Maṅkhaka pays tribute to the deities in canto IV, V, XVI, XVII; again, also in the verse niḥsaṃkhyāmartyamaṅkhastuti[13] …... of canto XXIV and in canto XXV, in the verses, viz. iti sa śravanottaṃsaṃ māṅsalaṃ[14] ….., tigmānaladṛśaḥ khaṇḍaparaśoḥ[15] ….., svayaṃ maulīndupīyūṣapūraiḥ[16] ….., prabandhena jagadbandhumupaślokya[17] ….., aho dhanyo’smi yasyeyaṃ[18] ….., mahatkaṣṭamaho hitvā[19] ….., mānuṣyajnma vaiduṣyaṃ[20].…., ityādibhiḥ prakaraṇairbudha[21] ….., ikṣukṣīrasadharmanirmala[22] ……. etc.

In all these verses, found in different cantos, Maṅkhaka’s deep devotion and reverence to gods and goddesses is manifested. Not only this, Maṅkhaka’s sense of love and affection towards other superiors such as king, good men and great poets, scholars, preceptor, grandfather, father and elder brothers are also noticed. Maṅkhaka is of the opinion that it is a matter of pity that the poets eulogize a human being such as a king, who suffers from deafness on account of pride; leaving aside Lord Śiva who has ears everywhere.[23] Thus, it seems that Maṅkhaka is not personally inclined to worship a mortal like king, however, he praises a king in limited instances and probably he does so, not to incur wrath and displeasure of his patron and cleverly refrains from pointing out any defect on his part.

Thus, the poet shows his affection towards king willingly or unwillingly in canto III, in the verse, viz. na jātu yasminvasudhā[24] …..Similar instances are—arālayabhrūkuṭi[25]..., jvalatpratāpāgnisamakṣa[26] ….., anukṣaṇāneka[27] ….. and vitīrya puṣpasraja[28] …... Maṅkhaka refers to the power of Harṣa, the king of Kashmir who was defeated by Sussala, that Sussala won a triumph everywhere over his foes, that the power of Sussala became unbearable to his opposite army etc. In the same canto, Sussala is praised as a ‘king of gods’ i.e. ‘Indra on earth’, in the verse, niveśite sussalabhūbiḍaujasā[29] …... In the verse anantaraṃ sussala[30] ….., Maṅkhaka mentions king Jayasiṃha, without any expression of admiration, however there are two verses[31] written in lofty terms about king Jayasiṃha, in canto XXV viz. ekaṃ śrījayasiṃhapārthivapatiṃ and bhubhāraḥ prathamena….., but as mentioned by Jonarāja[32], in commentary, these two verses, in praise of Jayasiṃha were composed not by Maṅkhaka, but by Devadhara.

Again, in canto XXV, there are also some verses, which Maṅkhaka composed in praise of a king to comply with the request by Tejakaṇṭha, an ambassador of Aparāditya (king of Koṅkaṇa), sent to Kashmir. Those verses are viz. yadvakreṇa pathā[33]…., tvatkhaḍgena jagattrayaikaguruṇā[34] …., vyathodrekādekā[35] ….., vaidhavyopahatāḥ[36] ….., priyānprati marau[37] …., bhinnabhrūvalanākule[38] ….. and tvadyātrāsamavetadurdharagateḥ[39].…..

The poet, in canto II named sujanadurjanavarṇana, exhibits his regards towards good men and great poets. Again, his love for scholars has been revealed in the last canto i.e. XXV.

Maṅkhaka, the poet shows profound reverence to his preceptor in canto III, in a verse viz athodbhūttasya[40] ….., where he states that, it is due to his guru’s grace that he is able to comprehend and acquire knowledge of the scriptures, as interpreted by Jonarāja.[41]

In canto XXV also, in a kulaka (consisting of verses ranging from stanza 26-30), Maṅkhaka offers tribute and deep sense of gratitude towards his guru Ruyyaka. Maṅkhaka expresses love for his grandfather, father and elder brothers in so many verses.

In canto III, in forty seven number of verses (from 31-78), again, in canto XXV, in the verses (from 15-20), in the last verse[42] of the poem also, Maṅkhaka shows his love for them by referring to so many good qualities possessed by them.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

sañcāriṇaḥ pradhānāni devādiviṣayā ratiḥ/
udbuddhamātraḥ sthayī ca bhāva ityabhidhīyate//
Sāhityadarpaṇa., III. 260

[2]:

………yatra prādhānyenābhivyaktā vyabhicāriṇo devamunigurunṛpādiviṣayā ca ratirudbuddhamātrā vibhāvādibhiraparipuṣṭatayā rasarūpatāmanāpadyamānāśca sthāyino bhāvā bhāvaśabdavācyāḥ/
Ibid., III, page 282

[3]:

ratirdevādiviṣayā vyabhicārī tathā’ñjitaḥ bhāvaḥ prokttaḥ/
Kāvyaprakāśa., IV. 35

[4]:

Śrīkaṇṭhacarita., III. 9

[5]:

Ibid., III. 10

[6]:

Ibid., III. 11

[7]:

Ibid., III. 12

[8]:

Ibid., III. 13

[9]:

Ibid., III. 14

[10]:

Ibid., III. 15

[11]:

Ibid., III. 16

[12]:

kaṭākṣite śāradayā dayāmṛtadravārdradṛṣtyā śrutiśaṣkulīpadaṃ/
na śāstrabhogānaśanavratakriyāsahiṣṇu bālā api yatra bibhrati//
Ibid., III. 19

[13]:

Ibid., XXIV. 44

[14]:

Ibid., XXV. 1

[15]:

Ibid., XXV. 2

[16]:

Ibid., XXV. 3

[17]:

Ibid., XXV. 4

[18]:

Ibid., XXV. 5

[19]:

Ibid., XXV. 6

[20]:

Ibid., XXV. 7

[21]:

ityādibhiḥ prakaraṇairbudhasādhuvādā-nādāya cetasi dadhatparitoṣamudrām/
taṭkāyapustakamathārpayati sma tasmai pūjākṣaṇe trijagatīgurave harāya//
Ibid., XXV. 150

[22]:

Ibid., XXV. 151

[23]:

Jonarāja comments on Śrīkaṇṭhacarita., XXV. 6, page 336—īśvarādanyasya stutikṛtaḥ śocanīyā iti vyatirekoktyā svasyeśvarastutyā dhanyatvamupabṛṃhayatietanmahatkaṣṭaṃ sarvataḥ śrutiṃ haraṃ tyaktvā badhiro manuṣyeṇa stūyate/

[24]:

Ibid., III. 18

[25]:

Ibid., III. 47

[26]:

Ibid., III. 48

[27]:

Ibid., III. 49

[28]:

Ibid., III.50

[29]:

Ibid., III. 62

[30]:

Ibid., III. 66

[31]:

ekaṃ śrījayasiṃhapārthivapatiṃ kāśmīramīnadhvajaṃ tasyopāsitasaṅdhivigrahamalaṅkāraṃ dvitīyaṃ stumaḥ/
bhūbhāraḥ prathamena pannagapateḥ ksmāṃ rakṣatā vārito nīto’nyena kṛtārthatāṃ pravacanairbhāṣyopadeśāśramaḥ//
     Ibid., XXV. 61

[32]:

iti bhāgavatācāryadevadharaślokadvayaṃ/
     Ibid., XXV. 61, page 346

[33]:

Ibid., XXV.120

[34]:

Ibid., XXV. 121

[35]:

Ibid., XXV.122

[36]:

Ibid., XXV. 123

[37]:

Ibid., XXV. 124

[38]:

Ibid., XXV. 125

[39]:

Ibid., XXV. 126

[40]:

athodbhūttasya kaniṣṭhasodaraḥ sa maṅkhako yasya śiśoratanvata/
śirasyupoḍhā gurupādareṇavaḥ sarasvatīkārmaṇacūrṇanaipuṇam//
     Ibid., III. 63

[41]:

gurumukhāddṛṣṭasarvaśāstrārtha ityarthaḥ/
     Ibid., III. 63, page 42

[42]:

piturbibhrāṇasya smararipupurīpaurapadavīṃ niyogena svapne padamupagatena śravaṇayoḥ/
prabandhaṃ saṅdhāyetyadhikavibudhaślāghyaniragha-kramaṃ maṅkhaḥ saukhyaṃ kimapi hṛdaye kandalayati//
Ibid., XXV. 152

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