Soma in Vedic Mythology and Ritual (study)

by Anjana Chakraborty | 2017 | 51,491 words

This thesis is called: A study of the evolution of Soma in vedic mythology and ritual. It represents a thorough discussion on the characteristics of Vedic Gods, Soma and Vedic rituals. As the ritual plays a very important role in Rigveda it is only natural that Soma, the plant, the juice of which is so much used in the ritual is deified as one of ...

Chapter 3(i) - The rite of ‘pressing of Soma’ (Abhisavana)

The morning pressing (pratah savana):

Following the recitation of the aponaptrya stoma by Hota, the Brahma utters three suktas beginning with ‘ambaye yanti’. Then takes place the rite of ‘pressing of Soma’ (Abhisavana). All that time Brahma offers the Abhisavana homa oblations with the Atharvan sukta beginning with ‘indra ju sasva...’. After the sunrise the Brahma performs the ‘Upamsugraha homa’ by reciting the mantrasuryo dyam...’. Then the Brahma consecrates the Soma which is collected in the dronakalasa, with the sukta beginning with—‘indraya somam’ and in the madhyandin savana with ‘dhrsat piba[1].

In the process of Soma pressing when the drops fall, the Adhvaryu or any other priest informs the Brahma uttering ‘Oh Brahman! The Soma is scattered’ at that time the Brahma touches the scattered Soma and pronounces the mantra ‘abhud devah savita...’. After that the Brahma, beginning with ‘ye agnaye apsvantah...’.

The Adhvaryu, the Pratiprasthata, the Prastota, the Udgata, the Pratiharta, the Brahma and the yajamana going back to one another holding from the back and marching forward from the havirdhana shala offer oblations to the scattered Soma drops with ‘drapsascaskanda...’[2] and with four mantras beginning with ‘yaste drapsah skandati...’[3]. Out of these four mantras, one i.e. ‘yaste drapsah..’ occurs in the Gopatha Brahmana only, a part of the second mantra occurs in the Rigveda[4]. About the rest of mantras no source is known. After these offerings the priests and the yajamana, take their respective seats in the south of the catvala[5]. The Brahma looks at the Udgata priest reciting three mantras (trica) beginning with ‘doso gaya...’[6].

The Prastota asks the permission of the Brahma saying ‘Oh! Brahman we shall chant the Pavamana stotra after your permission[7] in the lowest tone in the morning pressing, in the medium voice in the middle pressing and in the loud tone in the third pressing. The Prastota chant the stotrarasmirasi ksayaya jinva’ with three mahavyahrtisom bhurbhuvah’ and ‘svah’ after the shtoma in the three savannas respectively[8]. In the Ukthya and other types of Soma ritual including the Ahina, the performance takes place with ‘om bhur bhuvah svah janat brhat karad ruhanmahat chamom[9].

As indicated before (Vait Su. 16.6) that when the two rival yajamanas perform the Agnishtoma ritual at a time with a spirit of envy, the Brahma pronounces the following mantra repeated the shtoma bhagas of the rival and looks at the rival Brahma.

This mantra is:—

stuteṣe stutorje stutadevasya savituḥ save. |
bṛhaspatiṃ vaḥ prajāpati vo vasūn vo devān rudrān….
kṛṇotu vīyarm | [10].

Then he recites the stotra of the Sayam savana with two mantras ‘stutasya stutam and indriyavanto havamhe...’.

The Brahma sanctifies the Somakalasa designated as ‘putabhrita’ with the mantra ‘indrasya kuksih...’[11]. The Brahma makes the yajamana to pronounce the mantra ‘shyenosi[12] in the morning savana, ‘varsa asi...’[13] in the madhyandin savana and ‘ribhurasi...’[14] in the third or evening savana respectively after the bahispavamana stotra has been recited[15]. Then the recitation of the mantras of the Gop. Bra. is recommended by the Vaitana Shrauta Sutra on the authority of other authors of the Sutra literature[16]. The Adhvaryu asks the Agnidhra to bring the fire tospread the barhis and to prepare the Purodasa[17]. The Agnidhra places the fire in the three savannas from the Agnidhriya fire by means of burning coals in the first two savannas and burning sticks in the third or evening pressing[18].

The Agnidhra goes to all the fire places, facing towards east up to the Marjaliya, places a portion from the fire in all the fire holes and puts back the remaining fire in the Agnidhriya fire place[19]. He spreads the kusha grass on the Mahavedi up to the Uttarvedi beginning from the eastern line and puts the ajya on the Purodasa and other oblations (alamkurute)[20]. He pronounces the mantraye agnaya vihrita...’ looking towards the fire left in the ‘dikshnya’ fire place[21]. In the Madhyandin and Sayam savana the Adhvaryu takes his seat, going to the west of the Ahavaniya with ‘punarmaitvindriyam...’[22] and offers four oblations of Purodasa, first three oblations with ‘justo vace bhuyasam justo vacaspataye devi vag yadvaco madhumattam tasmin ma dhahsvaha. vace svaha. Vacaspataye svaha and the fourth with ‘sarasvatyai svaha’ remembering the mantra in his mind[23]. Some Acharyas hold the view that these offerings should be seven in place of four–four already prescribed and the other three with ‘sarasvate souaha’, ‘mahobhyah sammahobhyah svahah and rica stomam svaha’ respectively[24]. All the priests and the yajamana pray to the Aditya with ‘divaspristhe[25] after the preparation of the savaniya Pashuvapa[26], then go to the Ahavaniya fire with ‘ma pragama[27], go to the other fires and the Adityayupa with ‘agnaya sagara, ma himsista[28]. They all go to the Agnidhriya fire from north of the sadas. The yajamana goes to the Dhisnya fire from the east but the others go from the west[29].

All the priests and the yajamana, moving in the sadas bow to the Dhisnya fires reciting the mantradhisnyebhyo namo namah[30]. In the same way they bow to the fires named Drasta and Upasrota and the respective places of the Vedi i.e. catvala, utkara, samitra, avadhyagohah, astava, agnidhriya, acchavakavada, marjaliya, khara and other dhisnyas, where special rites are performed, pronouncing the mantra agnayah sagara stha..[31]. They all touch the barhisand both the gates of the sadas with ‘urvantariksamvihi’ the barhis and with ‘devi dvarau ma ma santaptam[32] and ‘lokam me loka krtau krnutam[33] both the gates[34]. After entering in the sadas they bow to the Anukhyata Aditya, reciting the mantra ‘anukhyatre namah’. After that they go around to the dhisnya fires by the northside standing and facing their own dhisnya fires, bow to the Brahma by pronouncing the mantra ‘upadraste namah[35]. They sit near the dhisnya fires facing these and recite the mantra ‘abhitvendrah...’[36].

When the concerned priests chant the stotra, the yajamana sitting near them and the Sadasya priest, sitting in the north of the Brahma recite the same mantra, ‘abhi tvindrah[37]. The Sadasya priest mutters the word ‘janat’ after the mantra, but only mentally. After the entry into the dhisnya fire hall, if somebody has to go out during the currency of the rite he does so by the eastern gate via north of his dhisnya fire. Those who donot have dhisnya fire (adhisnyavantah) have to go from the south of the Maitravarunas dhisnya fire following the same way[38]. The offering material of the savannas, purodasa etc. are consecrated by the mantras related to the deities, to whom the offerings are to be made according to the Deity[39]. The offerings to Indra and Vayu are offered with the mantras ‘vayurantariksasya[40] and ‘Indravayu[41] and the offering of Maitravaruna homa with ‘mitravarunau vrityah[42]. The Ashvinagraha homa is consecrated with the half mantra ‘Ashvina Brahmana[43].

The Adhvaryu issues directions (yajna) to the priests, namely Hota, Brahmanacchamsin, Pota and Agnidhra in the words ‘Hotar yaja’ etc[44]. Following the directions of the Adhvaryu, the Brahmanacchamsin priest offers the principal offerings with ‘indra tva vrsabham vayam[45], and the other two priests Hota and Agnidhra offer the oblations with ‘maruto yasya hi ksaye...’ and ‘maruto uksannaya vasannaya[46].About the recitation of the yajna mantras the Vaitana Shrauta Sutra explains that the last, middle and the first syllables of the yajna mantras are pronounced in the pluta tone with the vasat call[47]. In the morning pressing he selects the mantras having the antastha prana syllables. All the time the Brahma consecrates himself with the mantra ‘vagojahsaha ojomayi pranapanau[48] after the recitation of ‘vasat call[49]. The offerings of the ‘sukramanthincamasa homa’, which are related to Indra are made with the mantra ‘indra divah..’[50] and all the Anuvasat call offering are consecrated with a devanam[51]. The offerings of the twin duties, like Maitravaruna, Aindramaruta, and Tvastraagneya are consecrated with respective mantras[52]. The partaking of the Ida and the remanent Soma is followed according to partaking of Ida and Prasitra in Darshapurnamasa ritual[53]. The commentator clarifies that after the call has been given by the Adhvaryu, the partaking of the remanant Soma, which is kept in the lap of the Adhvaryu, the priests and the yajamana look at their shares with the mantra ‘Suryasya tva caksusa pratikse[54], holding in hand by the mantra ‘devasya tva savituh...’ and eat it with ‘agnihutasyendrapitasyendo.....gayatrena chandasa Brahmanavarsena’, by Gayatri metre in the morning pressing, by the Tristubha metre in the middle pressing and by the Jagati metre in the third pressing[55]. As regards the rite of filling of the spoons Vaitana Shrauta Sutra follows the Kausika Sutra.[56].

After the classification of the metres used in the three savannas of the Agnishtoma ritual, the Vaitana specifies the rules for the other Soma rituals for example, in the rituals which are completed in one day (ekaha), the metre of the mantra recited for partaking of the Soma remanant is Anustup. The Soma remainder left in the camasas used in the Sandhi stotras is partaken by reciting the mantra ‘Pamkti metre’. In Aptoryaman ritual, the metre for reciting the extra stotras is ‘Aticchandas’. After partaking the remanant Soma they all (yajamana and the priests) touch their hearts (atmanam) by reciting the mantra ‘sam no bhava hrda a pita indo piteva Soma sunave sakheya sakhya...’[57].

In relation to the rite of Apyayana, which the Vaitana follows the Kausika and quotes a shloka,[58] the commentator holds that this is taken from some Brahmana, which is not traceable. The Acchavaka camasa homa, dedicated to the Indra and Agni, is consecrated with proper mantra as uttering the respective name. The act of taking food is necessary before the completion is done in the Agnidhriya fire hall itself and after taking their meals the yajamana and the priests sit in the sadas and perform the Ritugrahahoma as directed by the Adhvaryu[59].

The Pota priest offers the Rituyajya homa oblations with first and the fourth mantras, the Agnidhra with second and the Brahmanacchamsin with the third mantra of the second sukta of the 20th kanda from the Atharva Veda The yajamana makes the Hota to offer the oblation on his behalf saying ‘hotaretad yaja’. In this yajna mantras the call of vasat is not pronounced[60]. In support of this view the Sutrakara gives a shloka, which according to the commentator belongs to some Brahmana. The second line of this verse occurs verbatim in the Apa. Shrauta Sutra. and Ashva. Shrauta Sutra.[61]. The shloka in the offering of twin Deities, Patnivata graham homas, Aditya and Savitrya graham homas the ‘vasat call’ is not used.

After the rituyajyas the Ritu homas begin. The consecration of the offerings of the Ritu homas is made by the Brahma according to the deities i.e. the offering of Agneya Garhapatya is consecrated with the mantra ‘agne grhapate..’. The partaking of Soma kept in the ritupatras is made either by smelling or by touching with lips or eating by mouth actually, with the mantra ‘ko si yasosi yasoda asi yasomayi dhehi[62]. The Soma, related to the narasamsa is taken silently and is consumed with the mantra ‘narasamsapitasya dev soma te nrohih....urmaih pitrbhirbhaksitasyephutobhaksa-yami[63] in the morning. In the middle and evening pressings the words ‘urvaih’ and ‘kavyaih’ are replaced in this mantra respectively[64]. The consuming of Soma remainder related to Narasamsa takes place five times. It is supported by a shloka which is given in full i.e. ‘pancaiva krtva camas am narasamesu bhaksayet’ which the commentator mentions as read in the Brahmana. However, this shloka is not found in any Brahmana text. A part of this verse occurs in the Apastamba Shrauta Sutra.[65]

After the ajya sastra of the Hota priest has been recited the Brahma consecrates the yajya homa related to Indra and Agni. The Brahma grants the permission for reciting the ‘Prauga Sastra’ asked by the Hota, in the words ‘pretirasi dharmane tva dharman jinva[66]. Thereafter he grants his consent for reciting the stotras of maitravaruna, Brahmanacchamsim and acchavaka with the parts of shtomas, ‘divetva divam jinva’ to Mitravaruna, with samdhirasyantariksaya tva ntariksam jinva, to Brahmanacchamsin and with pratidhirasi prthivyai tva prthivim jinva to Acchavaka[67]. After the praugasastra of the Hota, Vaisvadeva oblations are consecrated by the Brahma with the respective mantras ‘yadvidvamsah...’[68], after the prauga sastras of Maitravaruna, Brahmanachamsim and Acchavaka, the oblations designated as Maitravaruna, Aindra ana Aindragna respectively are consecrated by the respective mantras[69].

After Brahmanacchamsim shtoma, the pratihara shtoma is recited, the Hota making thrice the ‘him’ sound, calls the Adhvaryu for reciting the shtoma in the morning pressing by saying ‘samsava[70]. In the middle pressing with ‘adhvaryu samsavom’ and in the evening pressing with ‘adhvaryu sam samsavom’. The Ahava is required at the beginning of all sastras whether recited by the Hota, the Maitravaruna, the Brahmanacchamsin or the Acchavaka. In response to the Ahava of the Brahmanacchamsin and other priests the Adhvaryu alone pronounces the ‘pratigara’, ‘samsavo daiva’ for all, generally[71]. But at the end of the pada (avasane) is other modaiva, at the end of the half verse the pratigara is ‘om othamedaiva’ and at the end of the shastra it is ‘om’. In the chanting of the Uktha shastra the Pratigaras are, ‘om ukthasah’, ‘Ukthasa yaja’ and ‘Ukthasah’ in the morning middle and evening by the Adhvaryu for chanting the shastra, the Hota and other priests, concerned with it, chant the respective stotra with saman[72].

The rules for chanting the sastras are as followes: In the morning pressing the shastra is chanted in a low voice, in the middle pressing in a loud voice and in the evening still louder. The voice is successively raised till the shastras come to an end[73]. The chanting of other shastras takes place in the same way. The last shastra, ukthya mukha is chanted by mantras of the Atharva Veda, beginning with ‘a yahi susama hi te...’[74]. After this the Acchavaka shastra yajyahoma is performed and the remanants of Soma are partaken. The Adhvaryu performs ajya homa, with ‘agnih pratahsavane[75] in the morning with ‘syeno si[76] in the middle and with ‘yatha somah pratah savane[77] in the evening pressing.

The yajamana offers the Samsthita homa oblations, after coming from the eastern gate of the sadas, going through the south of the agnidhriya fire and from the west of the Ahavaniya fire sitting in the north of the Ahavaniya. After the samsthita homa oblations of every pressing, the Adhvaryu makes the yajamana to pronounce the mantra ‘mayibhargo mayi’.

This ends the morning pressing.

The Middle Pressing (Madhandin savana)

The Vaitana gives the rules regarding the entry into sadas by the yajamana and the priests, in the beginning of the middle pressing[78]. The priests and the yajamana enter the sadas, after coming out from the same at end of morning pressing. The yajamana enters and comes out by the eastern gate while the priest from the western[79]. The path followed in the samsthita homas should be followed in the Purastad homas also[80]. The pre-stated rite of pressing out the Soma (abhisavana) in the morning pressing is followed in the middle pressing also[81]. The yajamana and the priests enter into the sadas by going through the north of the havirdhanamandapa, for chanting the ‘madhyandin Pavamana stotra[82]. The Brahma, invited by the Prastota priest, for obtaining the permission for chanting the Pavamana shtotra, grants the permission with the part of the stoma, ‘vistambhosivrstyai tva vrstim jinva[83]. If any priest, not present at the time of walking in the dhisnya fires, he pronounces the mantra ‘pari tvagne[84], by coming in and facing his own dhisnya fire. This applies to the Brahma also. If the yajamana (dikshita) is not present in the vedi at the time of sarpana, at the time of sunset and sunrise he pronounces the mantra ‘agnaya upahvayadhvam[85]. The dadhigraha homa is consecrated by the Brahma with the mantra ‘srantam manye...’[86]. The remanant dadhi gharma is partaken by the yajamana and some of the priests with rasaprasani[87]. All kinds of liquids (rasa) are partaken with this twig of santa tree according to the partaking of gharma in the pravargya rite. The offerings of the Pashu purodasa in the middle pressing are consecrated with the relevant mantras[88] and the offerings of the Prasthita homa, with the mantras of Indra sukta, because these offering belong to the Deity Indra. After the invocation of the Ida and partaking of Soma remainder the yajamana gives the dakshina (sacrificial fee), to the priests. Two dakshina homas are performed in the Garhapatya and Saladveriya fires with ‘udutyam...’ and ‘citram devanam...’[89] respectively. The yajamana gives the cows in dakshina to the priests when the cows are being brought for dakshina, near the vedi, the yajamana taking the gold in his hand and sitting outside the sadas, pronounces the mantra ‘gavah...’[90]. The gold, which is taken in hand at the time of arrival of the cows, is given to the priest of the Atri-gotra (atriya) in dakshina[91].

He gives upabarhana to the Agnidhra priest[92]. The commentator translates the word upabarhana as silken cover, or cloth (kauseya acchadanam). The dakshina is given at the front of the Garhapatya fire, at the back of the sadas, at the interval of the Agnidhriya fire and the sadas, and the north of the catvala. At that time the Brahma consecrated the dakshinas with ‘sam vah srjatu’ and ‘samjagmana avibhusirasmin...’. Alternatively the views of Acarya Bhagali and Acarya Kausika are quotes who prescribe the recitation of mantras ‘yasyam purve bhutakrtah[93] and ‘ihedasatha...’ respectively. The last recipient of dakshina is pratiharta priest[94]. The Vaitana Shrauta Sutra does specify the quantum of dakshina which the other Shrauta Sutras do.

After the distribution of dakshina the Brahma consecrates the Marutvatiya homa and its shastra yajya with the mantra indro ma marutvan...[95]. On being asked by the Prastota for obtaining the permission to chant the shastra the Brahma grants his consent to the Hota, Maitravaruna, Brahmanacchamsim and Acchavaka by the four different portions of the same shtoma i.e. pravasyanhe tva aharjinva...rudranjinv respectively. The Mahendra yajya homa related to the Niskevalya shastra, of Hota and the yajya homas of other priests named Prasatr, Brahmanacchamsin and Acchavaka are consecrated with the mantras of Mahendra and Indra deities. The chanting of the shastras with sama pragathas is prescribed in the morning pressing, that is followed in the last two pressings also. But the Sutrakara here gives the explanation of the recitation adopted by the stotriyas that having recited the first rica in full and repeats its last quarter part (pada) makes a pause and repeats its last quarter part (pada) makes a pause and chants the second rica in half; making a pause he chants the second half of the rica, repeats its last pada and after a pause he chants the third rica in the same manner.[96] This style of reciting is applicable to the Brihat stotras also[97]. The voice (tone) of these stotras of Madhyandin pressing should be medium but high[98]. The chanting of Soma pragathas is followed with the relative tone and the style of chanting is the same as described before. The mantras from the Atharva Veda are recited in the samapragatha, beginning from ‘Udu tva madhumattamah’. In the Brahmanacchamsin shastra the Ukthamukha hymn, which has eleven mantras is chanted in a manner of clearly distinguishing the padas.

The Prayasa sukta of Brahmanacchamsin, which has six mantras is chanted in the style of ukthamukh by dividing the mantras in the padas reciting clearly. With the last mantra ‘evedam indram’ of the Prayasa sukta the shastra is completed. The last oblation of the middle pressing is offered with the mantra ‘rjisi vajri[99] and with partaking of the remanant Soma, related to the Acchavaka graham, the middle pressing comes to end.

The Third Pressing

The third pressing or the evening pressing commences with the Adityagraha homa. It is performed with the offering of Soma-juice taken from Aditya cup with recitating the mantras of two hymns[100] beginning with the mantra ‘yaddeva devahedanam...’. The rites beginning from Adityagraha homa up to the entry into the sadas for chanting the Pavamana stotra are followed according to the middle pressing. The Brahma consecrates the Asira (curd or the milk mixed with Soma) being mixed with putabhrita by the wife of the yajamana, with the mantra ‘asirnam urjam...’[101]. This rite is performed in the havirdhana mandapa. The Brahma grants the permission to the Prastota priest to chant the Pavamana stotra related to Ribhu (arbhava) with the stma bhagasuditirasyadityebhyastvaadityam jinva[102].

The Agneyapashuvadana homa is consecrated with the mantra related to the Agni deity. In relation to this homa the Vait. Shu. specifies the rules for other Soma rituals, especially for the consrcration by the Brahma i.e. in the Ukthya ritual to Indragni, in the sodasin to Indra only and in the Atiratra to Sarasvati[103] . The Vaitana classifies the duties of the Pashuekadasini homa, in which the animals of various colours and kinds, numbering eleven, are offered to Agni, Soma, Vishnu, Saraswati, Pushan, Brihaspati, Vishvedeva, Indra, Indragni, Savita and Varuna. The Brahma consecrates these offerings with the relative mantras[104]. The Savaniya purodasas of the principal offerings are offered according to the first two savannas. The yajya mantras for Prasthita homas of Brahmanacchamsin, Pota and Agnidhra are ‘indrasca soman pibatam, brihaspate etc. In the Prasthita homas related to the Hota which are offered to the deities Indra, Mitravaruna and Agni.[105] The mantras of the Atharva Veda related to the same deities are recited.

In the havirdhana shed the priests and the yajamana place the purodasa in the groups of three small portions each, on the ground to the south of their own camasas for their manes (pitakah) reciting the mantras ‘etatte pratatamaha[106]. Then after muttering the mantra ‘atra pitra[107] these portions are consecrated by the mantras ‘etam bhagam’, ‘etam sadhasthas’ and ‘syeno nricaksah[108]. After partaking the remanant offerings, the Agnidhra offers the ‘savitra graham homa’, Vasivadeva yajya homa and dhisnya homa respectively[109], the Agnidhra offers the ‘savitra grah homa’, Vasivadeva yajya homa and dhisnya homa respectively. There after he offers patnivrita homa whispering (upamshu) the mantra ‘ebhiragne...’[110]. The Brahma consecrates offerings with the concerned mantras. The Agnidhra consumes the remanant Soma of Patnivata graham (cup) either sitting on the lap of the nestr or near the dhisnya fire[111]. The Brahma grants the permission to the Hota for chanting the ‘Agnishtoma Soma stotra’ with ‘ojo si...’ pitrbhyastva pitrn jinva[112].

The brahma consecrates the rites of lovering the Dhruva with the mantra ‘dhruvam dhruvena[113], the Agnimaruta yajya homa with ‘pratityam caru...’[114] and the hariyajna homa with ‘a mandraih...’[115]. After the performance of these rites the priests—Brahma etc. come out of the Sadas and perform the Prayashcitta rite in the Agnidhriya fire[116]. The yajamana and the priests offer the chips ‘salakas’ in the Ahavaniya fire with the mantra ‘devakrtasyana...’[117] and with the mantras of two hymns named devahedana suktas of the Atharva Veda After taking the barley grains from the dronakalasha, with the help of big spoon (dirgha camasa), they offer them in the ashes[118]. After that they partake the curd in the Agnidhriya fire hall by reciting the mantra ‘dadhikravnah’. The patni samyajahoma oblations are offered, following the offerings of Pashubandha, in the Shalamukhiya fire hall. Then the distribution of ‘dakshina’ takes place according to the previous pressings. With the offerings of samistayajus and samsthita homas in the Ahavaniya fire the performance of ‘Third pressing’ comes to an end.

Footnotes and references:


Atharva Veda 7. 81. 2


Atharva Veda 18. 4. 28


Vaitana Sutra. 16. 17


Rigveda. 10. 17.12


Vaitana Sutra. 17. 1


Atharva Veda 6. 1


Vaitana Sutra. 17. 3




Vaitana Shrauta Sutra. 17.6


Vaitana Sutra. 17. 7


Atharva Veda 7. 116. 1


Atharva Veda 6. 48. 1


Atharva Veda 6. 48. 3


Atharva Veda 6. 48. 2


Vaitana Sutra. 17. 10


Vaitana Sutra. 17. 11


Vaitana Sutra. 17. 12


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 1


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 5


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 3


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 4 (=+)


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 4 (&F)


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 5 (&F)


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 6


Atharva Veda 13. 2. 37


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 7


Atharva Veda 13. 1. 59


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 8


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 9-10


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 11


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 13


Taittiriya Samhita. 3. 2. 4. 4


Taittiriya Samhita. 1. 1. 12. 1


Vait. Su. 18. 14


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 15


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 16


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 17


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 18


Vaitana Sutra. 18. 1


Atharva Veda 5. 24. 8


Atharva Veda 3. 20. 6


Atharva Veda 5. 24. 5


Atharva Veda 5. 26. 12


Vaitana Sutra. 19. 5


Atharva Veda 20. 1. 1


Atharva Veda 20. 1. 2-3


Vaitana Sutra. 19. 8


Gopatha Brahmana. 2. 3. 6


Vaitana Sutra. 19. 10


Atharva Veda 5. 24. 11


Vaitana Sutra. 19. 12


Vaitana Sutra. 19. 14-15


Gopatha Brahmana. 2. 1. 2


Vaitana Sutra. 3. 8-9




Kausika Sutra. 68-10;


Gopatha Brahmana. 2. 3. 6


Vaitana Sutra. 19. 20


Vaitana Sutra. 19. 21-23


Vaitana Sutra. 20. 3


Apastamba Shrauta Sutra. 12. 24. 2;

Ashvalayana Shrauta Sutra. 5. 5. 21


Gopatha Brahmana. 2. 3. 8


Aitareya Brahmana. 7. 34. 1


Vaitana Sutra. 20. 7-8


Apastamba Shrauta Sutra. 5. 6. 27


Vaitana Sutra. 20. 12-13


Gopatha Brahmana. 2. 2. 13


Atharva Veda 6. 115. 1


Vaitana Sutra. 20. 14


Vaitana Sutra. 20. 15


Vaitana Sutra. 20. 19


Vaitana Sutra. 20. 21


Vaitana Sutra. 20. 21


Atharva Veda 20. 3; 20. 4; 20. 5; 20. 71


Atharva Veda 6. 47. 1


Atharva Veda 6. 48. 1


Atharva Veda 9. 1. 11


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 10 (=+)


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 10 (&F)


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 11


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 12


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 13


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 14


Atharva Veda 7. 74. 1


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 15-17


Atharva Veda 7. 76.1


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 19;

Kausika Sutra. 21. 21


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 20


Atharva Veda 13. 2. 35


Atharva Veda 4. 21. 1


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 25


Vaitana Sutra. 21. 25


Atharva Veda 12. 1. 39


Vaitana Sutra. 22. 2


Atharva Veda 18. 3. 25


Vaitana Sutra. 22. 8


Vaitana Sutra. 22. 9


Vaitana Sutra. 22. 10


Atharva Veda 20. 12. 7


Atharva Veda 6. 11. 4; 6. 11. 5


Atharva Veda 29. 3


Gopatha Brahmana. 2. 2. 13


Vaitana Sutra. 22. 18-19


Vaitana Sutra. 22. 20


Vaitana Sutra. 22. 21


Atharva Veda 18. 4. 75


Kausika Sutra. 88. 18


Atharva Veda 6. 122. 1; Atharva Veda6. 123. 1; Atharva Veda7. 11. 2


Vaitana Sutra. 23. 1-3


Atharva Veda 20. 13. 4


Vaitana Sutra. 23. 5


Gopatha Brahmana. 2. 2. 13


Atharva Veda 7. 99. 1


Kausika Sutra. 127. 7


Atharva Veda 7. 122. 1


Vaitana Sutra. 23. 10.11


Rigveda 10. 37. 12


Vaitana Sutra. 23. 13

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