Shishupala-vadha (Study)

by Shila Chakraborty | 2018 | 112,267 words

This page relates ‘influence of Kalidasa, Bharavi and Bhatti on the Shishupalavadha’ of the study on the Shishupala-vadha (in English) in the light of Manusamhita (law and religious duties) and Arthashastra (science of politics and warfare). The Shishupalavadha is an epic poem (Mahakavya) written by Magha in the 7th century AD. It consists of 1800 Sanskrit verses spread over twenty chapters and narrates the details of the king of the Chedis.

The influence of Kālidāsa, Bhāravi and Bhaṭṭi on the Śiśupālavadha

The poet Māgha collected the subject matter of Śiśupālavadha from the Mahābhārata, the Purāṇa, etc. It is surmised that the Śiśupālavadha is influenced by Kālidāsa, Bhāravi and Bhaṭṭi as there is incidental similarities among their creations.

In the kumārasambhava, canto two, the story of harassment of Gods by demon Tārakā is similar to the story of harassment of Gods by Ravaṇa, in the Śiśupālavadha canto one. Similarities can be realised through the comparison of two verses of the Śiśupālavadha and the Kumārasambhava.

We may compare the verses of the Kumārasambhava and the Śiśupālavadha accordingly.

“tatakṛtānugrahāprekṣī taṃ muhurdūtahāritaiḥ |
anukūlayatindro'pi kalpadrumavibhūṣaṇaiḥ ||” 2. 39 ||[1]

In Śiśupālavadha the verse is—

“purīmavaskandalunīhi nandanaṃ muṣāṇa ratnāni harāmarāṅganāḥ |
vigṛhyacakrenamucidviṣā valī ya itthamakhāsthyamahardivaṃ divaḥ ||”1.51 ||[2]

Misfortune of the Kings is indicated in the fifteenth canto of the Śiśupālavadha (81-96) like eleventh canto of the Raghuvaṃśa. (58-61) We can cpmpare this taking any two verses of the two epics.

In the Raghuvaṃśa, i.e—

“syenapakṣaparidhūsarālakāḥ sāndhyamegharudhirādravāsasaḥ |
aṅganā iva rajasvalā diśo no vabhūvuravalokana kṣamāḥ ||” 11. 60 ||[3]

And in the Śiśupālavadha

“kācit kīrṇā rajobhirdivamanuvidadhe bhinnavaktendulakṣī—
raśrīkāḥkāścidantardiśa iva dadhire dāhamudbhrāntasattvāḥ |
bhremurvātya ivānyāḥ pratidiśamaparā bhūmivat kampamāpuḥ
prasthane pārthivānāmaśivamiti purobhāvi nāryyaḥ śaśāṃsuḥ || 15. 96 ||[4]

The description of nature in Śiśupālavadha is similar to the description of the nature of Raghuvaṃśa and Kumārasambhava. There is major similarities between the seventy first verse of the fifth canto of the Raghuvaṃśa and twenty fifth verser of eleventh canto of the Śiśupālavadha. Again there is similarity between the eighth canto of the Kumārasambhava and ninth canto of the Śiśupālavadha.

The similarities can be realised when the verses are compared with each other.

“sandhyāyāpyanugataṃ ravervapurvandyamastaśikhare samarpitam |
yena pūrvamudaye puraskṛtā nānuyāsyati kathaṃ tamāpadi ||” 8.44 ||[5]

In the Śiśupālavadha

“vihitāñjalirjanatayā dadhatī vikasat kusumbhakusumāruṇatām |
ciramujjhitāpi tanuraujjhadasauna pitṛprasūḥ prakṛtimātmabhūvaḥ ||” 9. 14 ||[6]

The rushing ladies to watch the procession of wedding of Aja and Indumati is described in the Raghuvaṃśa (verse 5-16 of seventh canto). Such scene is also described in the Kumārasambhava (verse of seventh canto) in the context of the marriage between Śhiva and Pārbati. In the Śiśupālavadha the ladies also galloped to see Śrīkṛiṣṇa This rush is observed in the thirteenth canto of the Śiśupālavadha (30-48)

In the Raghuvaṃśa we get the following verse—

“prasādhikālamvitamagrapādamākṣiṇya kācid dravarāgameva |
utsṛṣṭalīlāgatirāgavākṣādalakkakāṃṅkāṃ padavīṃ tatāna ||” 7. 7 ||[7]

In the Śiśupālavadha we find the following lines

vyatanodapāsya caraṇaṃ prasādhikākarapallavādrasavaśena kācana |
drutayāvakaikapadacitritāvaniṃ padavīṃ gateva girijā harārghatām ||” 13.33 ||[8]

We observe the similarity between the two verses.

The similarity between the seventh canto of Raghuvaṃśa and the Kumārasambhava with thirteenth canto of Śiśupālavadha is mentioned below.

In the Raghuvaṃśa

“tāsāṃ mukhairāsavagandhagarbhaiḥ vyāptāntarāḥ sāndrakutūhalānām |
vilīlanetrabhramaraiḥ gavākṣāḥ sahasrapatrābharaṇā ivāsan ||” 7.11 ||[9]

And in the Śiśupālavadha

adhirukmamandiragavākṣamullasat sudṛśo rarāja murajiddidṛkṣayā |
vadanāravindamudayādrikandarāvivarodarasthitamivendumaṇḍalam ||” 13.35 ||[10]

Beside this more similarities between the Kumārasambhava and the Śiśupālavadha may be found in many other verses.

“uccairuccaiḥ śrāvastena hayaratnamahāri ca |
dehavaddha—mivendrasya cirakālārjjitaṃ yaśaḥ ||” 2.47 ||[11]

This above mentioned verse of the kumārsambhava is similar to the following verse of in the Śiśupālavadha

“purīmavaskanda lunīhi nandanaṃ muṣāṇa ratnāni harāmarāṅganāḥ |
vigṛhyacakrenamucidviṣā valī ya itthamakhāsthyamahardivaṃ divaḥ ||”1.51 ||[12]

We get the following verse of the Kumārasambhava

“tadīyāstoyadevaṣvadya puṣkarāvartakādiṣu |
abhyasyanti taṭāghātaṃ nirjjitairāvatā gajāḥ” ||2. 50 ||[13]

Similarity is found between the verses of the Kumārasambhava

and the following verse of the Śiśupālavadha

“vṛhacchilāniṣṭhurakaṇṭaghaṭṭanādvikīrṇālolāgnikaṇaṃ surādviṣaḥ |
jagatprabhoraprasahiṣpu vaiṣṇavaṃ na cakramasyākramatādhikandharam || 1. 54[14]

In the Kumārasambhava the verse is—

“pure tāvantamevāsya tanoti ravirātapam |
dīrghikākamalonmeṣo yāvanmātreṇa sādhyate ||” 2. 33[15]

In the Śiśupālavadha the verse is following one.

“spṛśan saśaṅkaḥ samaye śucāvapi sthitaḥ karāgrairasamagrapātibhiḥ |
adharma dharmodakavindumauktikairalañcakārāsya vadhūrahaskaraḥ ||” 1.58[16]

Again in the Kumārasambhava the verse is thus—

“sarvābhiḥ sarvadā candrastaṃ kalābhirniṣevate |
nādatte kevalāṃ lekhāṃ haracūḍāmaṇīkṛtām ||” 2. 34[17]

Similarly in the Śiśupālavadha we get the following one:—

“kalāsamagreṇa gṛhānamuñcatā manasvinīrutkayituṃ paṭīyasā |
vilāsinastasya vitanvatā ratiṃ na narmmasācivyamakāri nendunā ||”1.59[18]

Again in the Kumārasambhava

“tasyopāyanayogyāni rattāni saritāṃ patiḥ |
kathamaṇyambhasāmattārāniṣpatteḥ pratīkṣate ||” 2. 37[19]

Similarity is seen among the verses of the Śiśupālavadha and the Kumārasambhava.

“tapena varṣāḥ śaradā himāgamo vasantalakṣyā śiśiraḥ sametya ca |
prasūnaklṛptiṃ dadhataḥ sadartavaḥ pure'sya vāstavyakuṭumvitāṃ yayuḥ ||” 1.66[20]

Again in the Kumārasambhava we get—

tato bhūjaṅgādhipateḥ phanāgrairadhaḥ kathaṃcid dhṛtabhūmibhāgam |
śanaiḥ kṛtaprāṇavimuktirīśaḥ paryyaṅkavandhaṃ niviḍaṃ vibheda ||” 3.59[21]

Similarity is seen in the following verse of the Śiśupālavadha.

“athaprayatnonnamitānamatphaṇairdhṛte kathañcit phaṇināṃ gaṇairadhaḥ |
nyadhāyiṣātāmābhidevakīsutaṃ sutena dhātuścaraṇau bhuvastale ||” 1.13[22]

In the Kumārasambhava it is seen:

“bhavatsaṃbhāvanotthāya paritoṣāya mūrcchate |
abhivyāptadigantāni nāṅgāni prabhavanti me ||” 6. 59[23]

Similarity is seen among the verse of the śiśupālavadha—

“yugāntakālapratisaṃhṛtātmano jaganti yasyāṃ savikāśamāsata |
tanau mamustatra na kaiṭabhadviṣastapodhanābhyāgamasambhavā mudaḥ ||” 1.23[24]

It is seen in the Kumārasambhava

yogino yaṃ vicinvanti kṣetrābhyantaravarttinam |
anāvṛttibhayaṃ yasya padamāhurmanīṣiṇa: 6. 77[25]

Similarly same idea is found in the śiśupālavadha:

“udāsitāraṃ nigṛhītamānasairgṛhītamadhyātmadṛśā kathañcana |
vahirvikāraṃ prakṛteḥ pṛthagviduḥ purātanaṃ tvā puruṣa purāvidaḥ ||”1.33[26]

Like this more affinities between the Śiśupālavadha and the Kumārasambhava can be found. Even some similarities are found between the verses of the Abhijñānaśakuntala and the Śiśupālavadha. The feeling described in the Abhijñānaśakuntala tenth and eleventh verses of the first act is also found in the Śiśupālavadha verse number twenty fifth in the fifth canto.

In the Abhijñānaśakuntala

“na khalu na khalu bāṇaḥ santipātyo'yamasmin mṛduni mṛgaśarīre tularāśāvivāgniḥ |
kva vata hariṇakānāṃ jīvitañcātilolaṃ kva ca niśitanipātā vajrasārāḥ śārāste ||
tat sādhu kṛtasandhānaṃ pratisaṃhara sāyakam |
ārttatrāṇāya vaḥ śastraṃ na praharttumanāgasi || 1. 10-11[27]

Similarly the Śiśupālavadha

“alpaprayojanakṛtorutaraprayāsairudagūrṇaloṣṭalagīḍaiḥparito'nuviddham |
udyantamuddrutamanokahajālamadhyādanyaḥ śaśaṃ guṇamanalpamavannavāpa ||”5.25[28]

In the fourth act of Abhijñānaśakuntala the doubtful feeling between two friends expressed by kālidāsa and trying to prove that doubt as real with the cause of affection, such feeling is also described in the Śiśupālavadha verse no. eighteenth of sixth canto by Māgha.

The line is in the Abhijñānaśakuntala—runs thus:

“mā bhāāhi, siṇoho pāvaśaṅkī (mā vibhohi snehaḥ pāpaśaṅkī)

(Abhijñānaśakuntala, 4th act).

Similarly we found such feeling in the Śiśupālavadha. That verse is—

“tyajati kaṣṭamasāvacirādasūn virahavedanayetyaghaśaṅkibhiḥ |
priyatayā gahitāstvayi vāndhavairavitathāvitathāḥ sakhi! mā giraḥ ||” 6.18[29]

Seeing Duṣyanta śakuntalā fell in love at first sight. Priyaṃvadā arranged to express Śakuntalā’s love feeling through a love letter. We found the similarities with this part in Māgha’s Śiśupālavadha canto seven.

These lines of śakuntalā are—

“imasmiṃ suodarasiṇihe ṇaliṇīpatte ṇahehiṃ nikikhattavaṇaṃ karehi |
asmin śukodara stigghe nalinīpatre nakhairnikṣiṇtavarṇaṃ kuru ||” 3.10[30]

Verse in the Śiśupālavadha is

“kisalayaśakaleṣvavācanīyāḥ pulakini kevalamaṅgakenidheyāḥ |
nakhapadalipayo'pi dīpitārthāḥ praṇidadhire dayitairanaṅgalekhāḥ || 7.39[31]

This proves that Māgha was influenced by the Abhijñānaśakuntala of Kālidāsa. We also find that Māgha was deeply influenced by Kālidāsa in the field of of upamā (simile) similarities and description.

There is also similarities between the verses of the Bhaṭṭikāvya and the Śiśupālavadha we get in the Bhaṭṭikāvya

“na tajjalaṃ yanna sucārupaṅkajaṃ na paṅkajaṃ tad yadalīnaṣaṭpadam |
na ṣaṭpado'sau na juguñja yaḥ kalaṃ na guPñjataṃ tanna jahāra yanmanaḥ ||”2.19 ||[32]

Similarly we get in the Śiśupālavadha

“vanaspatiskandhaniṣāṇavālapravālahastāḥ pramadā ivātra |
puśpekṣaṇairlambhita locakairvāmadhuvrataprātavṛtairvratatyaḥ ||”4.35 ||[33]

In the Bhaṭṭikāvya

“dattāvadhānaṃ bhadhulehigītau praśāntaceṣṭaṃ hariṇaṃ jighāṃsuḥ |
ākarṇayannutsukahaṃsanādān lakṣye samādhiṃ na daghe mṛgāvit || 2.7 ||[34]

In the Śiśupālavadha

“saṃkīrṇakīcakavanaskhalitaikavālavicchedakātaradhiyaścalituṃ camaryyaḥ |
asmin mṛduśvasanagarbhatadīyaraŒghraniryyatsvana śrutisukhādiva notsahanteḥ ||”4.43 ||[35]

The following verse in seventh canto of the Śiśupālavadha is similar to the seventh verse of second canto of Bhaṭṭikāvya.

The verse is—

“dattāvadhānaṃ madhulehigītau praśāntaceṣṭaṃ iriṇaṃ jighāṃsuḥ |
ākarṇayannutsukahaṃsanādān lakṣe samādhiṃ na dadhe mṛgāvit ||”2.7 ||[36]

“vigataśasya jighat samaghaṭṭayat kalamagopavadhūrna mṛgavrajam |
śrutatadīritakomalagītakadhvanimiṣe'nimiṣekṣaṇamagrataḥ ||”6.49 ||[37]

Beside this in the Bhaṭṭikāvya

“kva strīviṣahyā karajāḥ kavakṣo daityasya śailendraśilāviśālam |
sampaśyataitad vyuṣadāṃ sunītaṃ bibheda taistannarasiṃhabhūrtiḥ ||”12.59 ||[38]

And in the Śiśupālavadha we found the similar feelings like the above verse. The verse is—

“saṭācchaṭābhinnaghanena vibhratā nṛsiha! saiṃhīmatanuṃ tanuṃ tvayā ||
sa mugdhakāntāstanasaṅgabhaṅgarairurovidāraṃ praticaskare nakhaiḥ ||” 1.47 ||[39]

The above verse proves that poet Māgha is influenced by Bhaṭṭi.

Poet Māgha followed Bhāravi step by step in the field of words imagination and mentality. In the following verses similarities are seen in the field of subject matter.

The verses in the Kirātārjunīya are—

tataḥ śaraccandrakarabhirāmaiḥ rutsarpiabhiḥ prāṃśumivāṃśujālaiḥ |
vibhrāṇamānīlarucaṃ piśaṅgīrjaṭāstaḍitvantamivāmvuvāham ||” 3.1 ||[40]

In the Śiśupālavadha

“dadhānama⁄bhīruhakeśaradyutīrjaṭāḥ śaraccandramarīcirociṣam |
vipākapiṅgāstuhinasthalīruho dharādhareŒdraṃ vratatītatīriva ||” 1.5 ||[41]

Again in the Kirātārjunīya we find the verse—

śriyaṃ vikarṣatyapahantyaghāni śreyaḥ paristauti tanoti kīrtim |
sandarśanaṃ lokaguroramoghaṃ tavātmayoneriva kiṃ na dhatte ||” 3.7 ||[42]

Similar theme is found in the Śiśupālavadha

“haratyaghaṃ samprati hotureṣyataḥ śubhasya pūrvācaritaiḥ kṛtaṃśubhaiḥ |
śarīrabhājāṃ bhavadīyadarśanaṃ vyanaktikālatritaye'pi yogyatām |” 1.26 ||[43]

Beside this we get the verse in the Kirātārjunīya

“nirāspadaṃ praśnakutūhalitvamasmāsvadhīnaṃ kimu niḥspṛhāṇām |
tathāpi kalyānakarīṃ giraṃ te māṃ śrotumicchā mukharī karoti ||” 3.9 ||[44]

Similarly same thing is seen in the Śiśupālavadha

“vilīkanenaiva tavāmunā mune! kṛtaḥ kṛtārthī'smi nivarhitāṃhasā |
tathāpi śuśruṣurahaṃ garīyasīrgiro'thavā śreyasi kena tṛṇyate ||”1.29 ||[45]

In this way in the Kirātārjunīya it is found—

“anubhāvavatā gurusthiratvādavisamvādi dhanurdhanañjayena |
savalayavyasane'pi pīṅyamānaṃ guṇavanmitramivānatiṃ praprede ||”13.15 ||[46]

Similarly it is seen in the Śiśupālavadha

“na nītamanyena natiṃ kadācit karṇāntikaprāptaguṇaṃ kriyāsu |
vidheyamasyābhavadāntikaıthaṃ śārṅgaṃ dhanurmitramiva dradīyaḥ ||” 3.20 ||[47]

Again in the Kirātārjunīya the verse is seen that—

“kṛtāvadhānaṃ jitavahirṇadhvanausurakkagopījanagīta niḥsvane |
idaṃ jidhatsāmapahāya bhūyasīṃ na śāmyamabhyeti mṛgī kadamvakam ||”4.33 ||[48]

Similarly in the Śiśupālavadha the verse is—

“vigataśasya jighatsamaghaṭṭayat kalamagopadhūrna mṛgavrajamṇ
śrūtatadīritakomalagītakadhbanimiṣe'nimiṣakṣaṇamagrataḥ ||” 6.49 ||[49]

Beside these verses there are many other verses where we find similarity between Śiśupālavadha and Kirātārjunīya in the field of subject matter.

Similarities is between Māgha and Bhāravi is also found for using one syllabic word and yamaka alaṃkāra.

Yamaka alaṇkāra (analogue) is used in the first verse of the fifteenth canto of the Kirātārjunīya, the same yamaka laṃkāra is used in the first verse of the nineteenth canto of the Śiśupālavadha. The verses are in the Kirātārjunīya

atha bhūtāni vārttaghnaśarebhyastatra tatrasuḥ |
bheje diśaḥ parityakkamaheṣvāsa ca sā camūḥ ||” 15. 1 ||[50]

In the śiśupālavadha the verse is:

“athottasthe raṇāṭavyāmasuhṛdveṇudāriṇā |
nṛpāṅdhra pauṣasaṅgharṣādagnivadveṇudāriṇā ||” 19.1 ||[51]

One syllabic word is used by Bhāravi in his epic. In the fifth verse of fifteenth canto. Like this Māgha also used one syllabic word in his epic in the third verse of the nineteenth canto.

The verse is in the Kirātārjunīya.

“sa sāsiḥ sāsusūḥ sāso yeyāyeyāyayāyayaḥ |
lalau līlāṃ lalo'lolaḥ śaśīśaśiśūśīḥ śaśan ||”15.4 ||[52]

Like this it is seen in the Śiśupālavadha .

The verse is—

“jajaujojājijijjājī taṃ tatī'titatā titut |
bhābho'bhīlābhibhūbhābhūrārārirarirīraraḥ | 19. 3 ||[53]

In this way many similarities is found. Bhāravi begin his epic with the word ‘śrī’ and ended with the word “Lakṣmī”, poet Māgha also used the word ‘śrī’ and ‘Lakṣmī’ in his following Bhāravi. In the first canto of the Kirātārjunīya it is described the misfortune of yudhiṣṭhira and with the help of Yakṣa the information of war is sent showing the wealth of yurdhodhana. Like this in the Śiśupālavadha with the help of Nārada the dangerous situation of Lords is described, with this description the information of war is sent by Nārada with the advice of Indra. In the second canto Bhīṣma, yudhiṣṭhira and Draupadī discussed about political matters in the Kirātārjunīya. Like this the second canto of the Śiśupālavadha political matter is consulted by Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Balarāma and Uddhava. In the Kirātārjunīya yudhiṣṭhira’ s words gave calmness to the tempted words of Bhīṣma and Draupadī.

The description of Indrakila mountain is described while describing the context of meditation of Arjuna. Likewise in the Śiśupālavadha the description of Raivatka mountain is described while describing the happy journey of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

In the Kirātārjunīya Maharṣi vyāsa acts as guide and in the Śiśupālavadha Devarṣi Nārada brought information from Indra and acted as a guide. In the Kirātārjunīya the description of nature is expressed by Yama in the forth and fifth canto and the six seasons are described in the respect of the Himalaya. In the Śiśupālavadha here also the six seasons are described in respect of Raivataka mountain. In the Kirātārjunīya recreation of celestial nymph is expressed in the seventh and eight canto. similarly in the Śiśupālavadha such description is expressed by Māgha following the verse of Bhāravi. In the ninenth and tenth canto of the Kirātārjunīya about evening, rising of sun, drinking of honey, sex, awakening of love, etc. are describd. Like that in the Śiśupālavadha such description are also expressed.

But the difference between the two epic, in the Kirātārjunīya the celestial nymphs is described as the cause that gives rise to a sentiment. But in the Śiśupālavadha the yādava lady is described as the cause that gives rise to a sentiment. In the eleventh canto of the Kirātārjunīya Śiva reproached Arjuna through ambassador. In the Śiśupālavadha, Śiśupāla also reproached Śrī Kṛṣṇa through ambassador. As in the Kirātārjuniyam Arjuna performed austered penance similarly in the Śiśupālavadha it reminds the sacrificial ceremony of yudhiṣṭhira and austere penance of Arjuna. In the thirteenth and fourtheenth canto of the Kirātārjunīya debate is found between Arjuna and Mahādeva in guise of a hunter is discussed. Similarly debate between Śiśupāla and Sātyakī is discussed in sixteenth canto of the Śiśupālavadha. In the fifteenth canto of Kirātārjunīya the literary merit is described through citravandha etc., discussion on account of the narration of war. Similarly it is seen in the eighteenth canto of the Śiśupālavadha. In the Kirātārjunīya wrangling between the opponent parties is seen befor the war. Same activities also expressed in the Śiśupālavadha. In the Kirātārjunīya fight between Arjuna and Mahādeva in guise of a hunter is described. Similarly in the Śiśupālavadha fight between Śiśupala and Śrī Kṛiṣṇa is described. So,there is no doubt that poet Māgha was influenced by Bhāravi and followed in evry step. But it can not be stated that poet Māgha exactly copied the epic of Bhāravi. the new creativity brought by poet Māgha in his epic gives the epic impeccability. It is said in Kāvyamīmaṃ sā “nāstya cauraḥ kavijanaḥ” | That poets are not copyist. Because copyist poets can not maintain the uniqueness of their creetion. One poet of a certain time generally is influenced by his former generations.

Poet Māgha is not exception from this.Again following Māgha poet srīharṣa created his epic the Naiṣadhacarita. Following verse of the Śiśupālavadha proves this matter.

“asurastvayā nyavadhi ko'pi madhuriti kathaṃ pratīyate |
daṇḍadalitasaraghaḥ prathame madhusūdanastvamiti sūdayanmadhu ||” 15.23 ||[54]

Poet Māgha has indicated Śrī Kṛiṣṇa using the name Madhūsudana, But in this verse it indicates the another meaning of Madhūsudana. Here it is said that the Śrī Kṛiṣṇa is named Madhūsudana not only for killing the demon Madhu Śrī Kṛiṣṇa named by Madhūsudan because he collected honey from honeycomb. In this way poet Māgha used one word with the different meanings. Poet Srī Harṣa used the same technique of Māgha.

In the Naiṣadhacarita we get—

“sakalayā kalayā kila draṃṣṭayā samavadhāya yamāya vinirmitaḥ |
virahiṇīgaṇacarvaṇasādhanaṃ vidhurato dvijarāja iti śrutiḥ” || 4.72 ||[55]

In this verse the word ‘dvijarāja’ is not used in the sense of the kings of Brāhmaṇas. Here it is used in the sense of the superiority of the teeth. In this way poet Srī Harṣa used the word pañca not in the sense of five but in the sense of phenomenon. From this description we come to know clearly the poet Srī Harṣa was influenced by Māgha. Using own word in the different descriptions and humorous expressions etc. poet Śrī Harṣa made his unique epic. Because of artistic skills poet Śrī Harṣa superseded poet Māgha.

For this it is said—

“udite naiṣadhekāvye kva māghaḥ kva ca bhāraviḥ |”

Poet Māgha is famous for composing single epic.

Though various verses are found in different places but it is not proved that these verses are written by Māgha.

“ekaḥ śavdaḥ suprayukkaḥ samyakjñātaḥ sarge lokeca kāmaghug bhavati” | (Śiśupālavadha, 4/17).

This sentence says Perhaps Māgha is influenced by Bhāravi. (Śruti vākya). He proves his skill composing his epic. From the above discussion it is proved that poet Māgha collected the subject matter from the Purāṇas and the Mahābhārata etc.

He composed his unique epic with his own skills for the readers.

The composition of the epic with the verses by the poet Māgha proves that gracefulness is the only motive of an epic.

“kṣaṇe kṣaṇe yannavatāmupaiti tadeva rūpaṃ ramanīyatāḥ | (Śiśupālavadha, 4 /17)

It is the uniqueness of Māgha with the compliment of some others (readers) it is considered that only the third canto of the Śiśupālavadha can be recognised an epic.

In this context two verses are reflected to here—

“uttālatālīvanasampravṛttasamīrasīmantitaketakīkāḥ |
āsedire lāvaṇasaindhavīnāṃ camūcaraiḥ kacchabhuvāṃ pradeśāḥ ||” 4. 72 ||[56]

“lavaṅgamālākalivataṃsāste nārikelāntarapaḥ pivantaḥ |
āsvāditādraakramukāḥ samudrādabhyāgatasya pratipattimīyuḥ ||” 3. 81 ||[57]

This is the completely the personal opinion of the criticizers. There is no doubt that poet Māgha has put on his full efforts in the creation of the cantos of the epic.

Considering from all sides we come to a decision that Poet Māgha’s Śiśupālavadha is rhetoric ally unique creation. There is no doubt about the importance of the epic Śiśupālavadha which is unblamable.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Suryakanta, (Ed.): kumārasambhava, p. 19.

[2]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p. 30.

[3]:

Gopal Raghunath Nandargikar,(Ed.): Raghuvaṃśa, p.347.

[4]:

Haridas Siddhantavigisha: Op.cit., p. 669.

[5]:

Suryakanta: Op.cit., p.122.

[6]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p. 350.

[7]:

Gopal Raghunath Nandargikar: Op.cit., p.193.

[8]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p. 527.

[9]:

Gopal Raghunath Nandargikar, Op.cit., p. 195.

[10]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p. 528.

[11]:

Suryakanta: Op.cit., p. 20.

[12]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.30.

[13]:

Surya Kanta: Op.cit., p.20.

[14]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.32.

[15]:

Surya Kanta: Op.cit., p.18.

[16]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.34.

[17]:

Suryakanta: Op.cit., p.18.

[18]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.35.

[19]:

Suryakanta: Op.cit., p. 19.

[20]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p. 39.

[21]:

Suryakanta: Op.cit., p. 35.

[22]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p. 9.

[23]:

Suryakanta: Op.cit., p. 79.

[24]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.14.

[25]:

Suryakanta: Op.cit., p. 82.

[26]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p. 20.

[27]:

Ramendra Mohan Bose, (Ed.): Abhijñānaśakuntala, p.40.

[28]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p. 202.

[29]:

ibid., p.236.

[30]:

Ramendramohan Bose: Op.cit., p.264.

[31]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.287.

[32]:

Maheshwar Anant Karandikar & Shailaja Karandikar (Ed.): Bhaṭṭikāvya, p.10.

[33]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.166.

[34]:

Maheshwar Anant Karandikar & Shailaja Karandikar: Op.cit., p.8.

[35]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.171.

[36]:

Maheshwar Anant Karandikar & Shailaja Karandikar: Op.cit., p.8.

[37]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.241.

[38]:

Maheshwar Anant Karandikar & Shailaja Karandikar: Op.cit., p.204.

[39]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.28.

[40]:

Srimadgurunath vidyanidhi, (Ed.): Kirātārjuniya, p.66

[41]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.4.

[42]:

Srimadgurunath vidyanidhi: Op.cit.,p.69.

[43]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.16.

[44]:

Srimadgurunath vidyanidhi: Op.cit., p.70.

[45]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.18.

[46]:

Srimadgurunath vidyanidhi: Op.cit., p.344.

[47]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.113.

[48]:

Srimadgurunath vidyanidhi: Op.cit., p.120.

[49]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.251.

[50]:

Srimadgurunath vidyanidhi: Op.cit., p.413.

[51]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.780.

[52]:

Srimadgurunath vidyanidhi: Op.cit., p.414.

[53]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit., p.781.

[54]:

ibid., p.607.

[55]:

Narayana Rama: Naiṣadhacarita, p.183.

[56]:

Haridas Siddhantavagisha: Op.cit.,pp.145-146.

[57]:

ibid., p. 146.

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