Rudra-Shiva concept (Study)

by Maumita Bhattacharjee | 2018 | 54,352 words

This page relates ‘Vajasaneyi-samhita (g): Malicious aspects of Rudra’ of the study on the Rudra-Shiva concept in the Vedic and Puranic literature, starting with the concept of God as contemplated by the Rishis (Vedic sages). These pages further deal with the aspects, legends, iconography and eulology of Rudra-Shiva as found in the Samhitas, Brahamanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads Sutras and Puranas. The final chapters deal with descriptions of his greatness, various incarnations and epithets.

2. Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā (g): Malicious aspects of Rudra

Rudra’s malicious nature is expressed by a number of attributes. As the slaughterer of enemies he is designated as Abhighnan.[1]

Mahīdhara derives the term abhighnan as:

abhihanti śatrūnityabhighnan

Or one who always slay the enemies.[2] Avabhedin[3] because he splits the enemies.[4] He is invoked as Ugra or fierce, Bhīma or terrible,[5] Vyādhin[6] or one who pierced the enemies.[7] The terms ugra and bhīma are illustrated by Uvaṭa respectively as ugra udgūrṇaḥ and bhīmo bhīṣaṇaḥ.[8] Since Rudra kills the one who remains in front, he is known as Agrevadha and Rudra is also called Dūrevadha as he slays the one standing far away.[9] He is also praised as Hantṛ and Hanīyas,[10] Śarva.[11]

Mahīdhara remarks that—

śṛṇāti hinasti pāpamiti śarvastasmai namaḥ.[12]

Here, it is said that reverence is paid to Śarva who kills or destroys all the sins.

Footnotes and references:


nama udguramāṇāya cābhighnate ca nama...|| Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā, 16.46


Mahīdhara, Ibid.


...namaḥ śūrāya cāvabhedine ca || Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā, 16.34


avabhinatti ripūnnīcairvidārayatītyavabhedī tasmai namaḥ || Mahīdhara, Ibid.


namaḥ śaṃgave ca paśupataye ca nama ugrāya ca bhīmāya ca...|| VS., 16.40


Ibid., 16.18


vidhyati śatrūniti vyādhī tasmai rudrāya namaḥ |Mahīdhara, Ibid.


Uvaṭa, Ibid., 16.40


agre puro vartamāno hantītyagrevadhaḥ tasmai | dūre vartamāno hantīti dūrevadhaḥ tasmai | Mahīdhara, Ibid., 16.40


...namo’grevadhāya ca dūrevadhāya ca namo hantre ca hanīyase ca namo vṛkṣebhyo harikeśebhyo namastārāya || Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā,16.40


...namo bhavāya ca rudrāya ca namaḥ śarvāya ca paśupataye ca namo nīlagrīvāya ca śitikaṇṭhāya ca || Ibid., 16.28


Mahīdhara, Ibid.

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