by Sadhu Gyanananddas | 2021 | 123,778 words
This page relates ‘Dependency on Parabrahman’ of the study on the Prasthanatrayi Swaminarayan Bhashyam in Light of Swaminarayan Vachanamrut (Vacanamrita). His 18th-century teachings belong to Vedanta philosophy and were compiled as the Vacanamrita, revolving around the five ontological entities of Jiva, Ishvara, Maya, Aksharabrahman, and Parabrahman. Roughly 200 years later, Bhadreshdas composed a commentary (Bhasya) correlating the principles of Vachanamrut.
Bhadreśadāsa mentions this fact and highlights it in his commentary of Kena-upaniṣad 1/2, which narrates Parabrahman as:
“The ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, the tongue of the tongue, the vital breath of the vital breath, the eye of the eye.”
And he concludes,
Bhadreśadāsa explores further:
“The ears can only hear because it is Parabrahman who has empowered them with the capacity of hearing. The mind can only think and perceive because Parabrahman has infused it with the power of thinking and perception. The body is enlivened not by the breath alone, but by Parabrahman who breathes life into that vital breath.”
Bhadreśadāsa explores that Parabrahman gives the power to all our inner and outer faculties so they can engage in their appointed works. The body and all its entities become mere jīva’ s instruments. Moreover, even the jīva cannot change its state without the wish and power (jñānaśakti, icchāśakti, and kriyāśakti) of Parabrahman (Svāminārāyaṇa has also mentioned it in Vacanāmṛta Gadhadā I/65).”
As mentioned in the SSS:
“By Parabrahman’s grace, the jīva acquires the ability to desire, know and act. In this way the jiva is so powerful in knowing, doing, and enjoying the objects yet it cannot do it independently. By the eternal permission of Parabrahman, it can function properly. (Aitareya-upaniṣad 3/1, Brahmasūtra 2/3/19-32, 2/3/33-40)
Is the Jīva a Component (Aṃśa) of Parabrahman?
“Therefore, jīvas residing in māyā; are also eternal, and they are not components of Parabrahman” (Vacanāmṛta Gadhadā III/10, p.600)
Then what about the Gītā’ s revelation:
“mamaivāṃśo jīvaloke jīvabhūtaḥ sanātano” (Gītā 15/7).
Svāminārāyaṇa explains in the Vacanāmṛta that jīvas who are called aṃśas of Parabrahman resist and collect their five indriyas and mind from the consumption of the senses and keep them suppressed. (Gadh. 2/8). This is the matter of debate discussion in the Brahmasūtras 2/3/43 and 2/3/63 (Aṃśadhikāraṇa), where Bhadreśadāsa argues that Parabrahman becomes in parts is the principle that contradicts śāstrika doctrines that show Parabrahman to be akhaṇḍa, niraṃśa, and niravayava. As a matter of fact, these texts reveal that the jīvas as being the aṃśa of Parabrahman means those jīvas are devotees of Parabrahman. They are called aṃśas to mention the virtue of jīvas attained from Parabrahman. This is indeed followed by the Bhāṣyakāra while commenting on the verse 15/7 of the Gītā. In this manner, the jīva is totally dependent on Parabrahman but by Parabrahman’s wish, the jīva possesses few rights to do its activities allowed by Him. in the conclusion we can say that the jīva is not entirely subordinate nor a captivated das. It has the freedom to make, unmake and remake its karmas, which are also provided by the immense grace of Parabrahman. 140