Malatimadhava (study)

by Jintu Moni Dutta | 2017 | 52,468 words | ISBN-10: 8120813057 | ISBN-13: 9788120813052

This page relates ‘Arthalamkaras (Figure of Sense)’ from the English study on the Malatimadhava of Bhavabhuti:—A Prakarana type of Drama in ten acts revolving around the love-story of Malati (from Padmāvatī) and Madhava (from Vidarbha). This study discusses the history of its author and the literary, social, religious, historical and cultural aspects of the Malatimadhava.

Part 2.3b - Arthālaṃkāras (Figure of Sense)

Bhavabhuti is expert in the use of arthālaṃkāras also. He has resorted to various arthālaṃkāras in the Mālatīmādhava which show his mastery in the employment of the figure of sense. Among the various arthālaṃkāras the favourite alaṃkāras of Bhavabhūti are the Upamā, Utprekṣā, Rūpaka etc. The frequent use of these arthālaṃkāras is a typical feature of Bhavabhūti’s dramatic style.

(a) Upamā (Simile):

The figure Upamā belongs to the arthālaṃkāra i.e. the figure of sense. This alaṃkāra is the mainspring of or pivot of all alaṃkāras based on similarity.[1] When similarity exists between two things expressed in a single sentence and there is no statement of difference between two things, it is called Upamā alaṃkāra or Simile.[2]

Simile is of two kinds:

  1. Pūrṇopamā i.e.Fully expressed simile or
  2. Luptopamā i.e Elliptical simile.[3]

It is a case of Fully expressed simile when all the four factors are mentioned—

  1. sāmānyadharma i.e. the common property,
  2. aupamyavāci i.e. the word indicative of similiarity,
  3. upameya i.e, the object of comparision and
  4. upamāna i.e. the standard of comparision.[4] .

It is one of Elliptical simile when either one or two or three of these factors are omitted.[5]

In the Mālatīmādhava, Bhavabhūti has composed a large number of verses in Upamā alaṃkāra.For instance the verse āścaryamutpaladṛśo vadanāmalendu ………….etc[6] shows that herein the face of Mālatī is compared with a shining moon. Here,the face of Mālatī is upameya, the shining moon is upamāna, fluidity is the common property and iva is expressive of similarity. Hence, the verse is an example of Pūrṇopamālaṅkāra i.e. fully expressed simile as here all four elements are present.

Other examples of Upamā alaṃkāra in the Mālatīmādhava are—

  1. Act I - 29, 39
  2. Act II - 1, 3, 10, 11,
  3. Act III -.5, 10, 16,
  4. Act IV -.4
  5. Act V - 6, 24, 28, 31, 34,
  6. Act-VI - 4, 6,5, 8, 12, 20,
  7. Act IX - 3,15, 49, 8
  8. Act X - 3, 12, 15 etc.

(b) Rūpaka (Metaphor):

The figure Rūpaka is the ascription of the rūpita i.e. upamāna taken as identified on the upameya without suppressing the later.[7]

This Rūpaka is of three types viz.,

  1. Paramparita Rūpaka (Effected through casual link),
  2. Sāṅga Rūpaka (Effected by the whole along with its parts),
  3. Niraṅga Rūpaka (the pure)[8] .

A beautiful application of Rūpaka alaṃkāra is found in the verse mlānasya jīvakusumasya vikāsanāni …………..etc[9] wherein Mālatī’s words are superimposed on nectar i.e. upamāna is taken as identified on the upameya i.e. Mālatī’s word and extreme similarity between these two lead to Rūpaka alaṃkāra. Another example of Rūpaka alaṃkāra is found in the act III. X.

(c) Utprekṣā (Poetical fancy):

When an object is imagined in a particular manner under the character of another object then it is known as the figure Utprekṣā.[10] It is of two kinds viz., Vācyā and Pratīyamāna Utprekṣā.[11]

A beautiful application of Utprekṣā is found in the verse līneva prativimbiteva …….etc [12] of Mālatīmādhava, where the poet has exhibited a world of his own poetic fancy and imagery. He has shown how Mādhava’s awakened memory places a vivid image of his beloved Mālatī before his mind’s eye which enraptures his soul, as though she were bodily present before him. This example is full of inexhaustible and high soaring imagination and matchless command over language.

The other examples of Utprekṣā alaṃkāra are—

  1. Act II - 11
  2. Act III - 16
  3. Act V - 6, 10, 20
  4. Act IX–1
  5. Act X - 12 etc.

(d) Apahnuti (Concealment):

The figure Apaḥnuti is the presentation of what is remote (upamāna) along with the suppression of what is relevant (upameya).[13] In the Mālatīmādhava, Bhavabhūti has applied this Apahnuti alaṃkāra very efficiently. An illustration of this figure in the Mālatīmādhava is found in the verse padmāvatī vimalavāri ……….etc[14] wherein Padmāvatī which is prkṛta or upameya is denied and the sky which is aprakrta or upamāna is established in its place. Thus, this verse is an example of Apahnuti alaṃkāra.

(e) Atiśayokti (Hyperbole):

The figure Atiśayokti or Hyperbole is said to occur when the identity of one with another is taken to be an established fact.[15] To accept the identity of the viṣayin with the viṣaya the real nature of which is suppressed is known as adhyavasāya. There is an example of Atiśaykoti alaṃkāra in the Mālatīmādhava.In the verse jagati jayinaste …………………..etc[16] it is said that there are various other objects in the world, the new digit of the moon and others, victorious and sweet by nature, which exhilarate the mind. But when Mālatī, the moonlight to Mādhava’s eyes, falls within the range of his eyes, that is to him the only occasion of exquisite delight in his life. Here Bhavabhūti has made the exaggeration of the saying made by Mādhava on the beauty of Mālatī owing to which the verse bears the example of Atiśayokti alaṃkāra.

The other examples of Atiśayokti alaṃkāra in the Mālatīmādhava are found in the—

  1. Act I–21
  2. Act X - 10

(f) Dṛṣṭānta (Exemplification):

Dṛṣṭānta or Exemplification is the reflective representation of a similar attribute.[17] It is mainly of two kinds Sādharmya Dṛṣṭānta (Similar Exemplification) and Vaidharmya Dṛṣṭānta (Dissimilar Exemplification).[18] A few examples of Dṛṣṭānta alaṃkāra are found in the Mālatīmādhava. The poet has aptly presented exemplification in the verse nirmāṇameva hi tadāvaralālanīyaṃ ………………..etc[19] which reveals the reflective correspondence between upameya and upamāna. In this verse it is said that the creation of god ought to be treated with respect; the natural place of a sweet-smelling flower is fixed on the head and not under crushing pestles. Here, a reflective correspondence is found between the creation of god and the sweet smelling flower. So, this verse contains an excellent example of Dṛṣṭānta alaṃkāra.

(g) Nidarśana (Illustration):

The figure Nidarśanā or Illustration occurs where there is the relation of things being possible or somewhat being impossible.[20] In this alaṃkāra two things impossible to be related become upamāna and upameya. In the Mālatīmādhava, Bhavabhūti has aptly presented exact use of the figure Nidarśanā or Illustration in the verse dhairyaṃ nidhehi hṛdaye hata ……..etc[21] wherein by way of illustrating the fight between the lion and the deer, Mādhava has aptly consoled his beloved Mālatī that the villain would die. Again this alaṃkāra is found in the last two lines of the verse kalayati ca himāmśorniṣkaṅkasya lakṣmī...............[22] where Mālatī’s cheek, which is lovely like the newly cut tusk of an elephant, is said to have attained the beauty of the spotless moon. This description suggests the resemblance of the two.

Some other examples of Nidarśanā alaṃkāra in the Mālatīmādhava are–

  1. Act II–32
  2. Act VIII - 3, 10 Act IX - 31etc.

(h) Vytireka (Disssimilitude):

The figure Vyatireka or Dissimilitude occurs where is spoken of the excellence of the upameya to the upamāna or the inferiority of the former to the latter.[23] That alaṃkāra is Vyatireka alaṃkāra when the upameya becomes superior to the upamāna. An effective use of Vyatireka alaṃkāra is found in the Mālatīmādhava in the verse jvalatu gagane rātro …….etc[24] wherein the excellence of upameya i.e. Mālatī is expressed than the upamāna i.e. the moon. Again, another example of Vyatireka alaṃkāra is found in the Act X -22 of the Mālatīmādhava.

(i) Parikara (Insinuation):

The figure Parikara or Significant is said to be the statement through adjectives or appellations, carrying a special significant sense[25] . In the Mālatīmādhava, the poet has made a wonderful use of Parikara alaṃkāra. As for instance in the verse stimitavikasita ……………………etc[26] the epithets or adjectives like ullasadbhrūlatānām etc are used to express a sense that Mālatī having such qualities is attracted by Mādhava. Another example of Parikara alaṃkāra is found in the act IX.28 of the Mālatīmādhava.

(j) Aprastutaprasaṃśā (Indirect Description):

When a particular from a general, a general from a particular or a cause from an effect,an effect from a cause or things similar from what resembles it, it is understood each of the former being in question and the later not so then it is Aprastutapraśaṃśā alaṃkāra.[27] The poet has nicely used Aprastutapraśaṃsā alaṃkāra in his Mālatīmādhava. For instance in the verse gamanamalasaṃ śūnyā dṛṣṭiḥ ……….etc[28] wherein it is suggested that Mādhava has pertained some change due to love which is prakṛta or upameya on the other hand the youth is the Aprastuta or upamāna and which is suceptible. Here, the principal object to be described is the greatness of youth and it has been implied through the different changes of Mādhava. So, there exists the figure Aprastutapraśaṃsā.

(k) Anumāna (Inference):

The figure Anumāna or Inference occurs where there is a realization in a charming manner of something to be established through some indicator.[29] An effective use of Anumāna alaṃkāra is found at various places in the Mālatīmādhava of Bhavabhūti. As for instance in the first half of the verse īrṣattiryagvalanaviṣmaṃ …..etc[30] contains the statement of the reason (sādhana) and the second that of the conclusion drawn from it. Hence, this verse is an example of anumāna alaṃkāra.

The other examples of the Anumāna alaṃkāra are—

  1. Act III–9
  2. Act IV - 2, 9
  3. Act VII - 5
  4. Act IX - 33 etc.

(l) Ᾱkṣepa (Paraleipsis):

The figure Ᾱkṣepa or Paraleipsis is the apparent denial or repudiation of the object intended to be spoken in order to attach some special importance to it.[31] Only one verse has been found in the Mālatīmādhava where Bhavabhūti uses this Ākṣepa alaṃkāra. For example the verse ślāghyānvayeti nayanotsavakāriṇīti ………etc[32] is an address of Mālatī on behalf of Mādhava. Here, Makaranda, who is a friend of Mādhava at first declares his intention of speaking something for Mālatī then he denies to tell anything about Mādhava, on account of which this verse is an example of Ākṣepa alaṃkāra.

(m) Virodha (Contradiction):

The figure is called Virodha or Contradiction when incongruity appears on the basis of genus or quality or action of an object.[33] An effective use of Virodha alaṃkāra is found in the verse paricedātītaḥ sakalavacanānāmaviṣaya ..............……..etc[34] Mādhava describes to his friend Makaranda that the emotion has been agitating his heart since he has been saw Mālatī in the Madana garden. It contains a beautiful description of love as it first overpowers a young man’s mind. Here is contradiction between the two actions of gladdening and afflicting. So, this verse is an example of Virodha alaṃkāra.

Some other verses of Virodha alaṃkāra in the Mālatīmādhava are—

  1. Act I - 8
  2. Act II–3
  3. Act III - 9
  4. Act IV–4
  5. Act V- 6 etc.

(n) Kāvyaliṅga (Poetical Cause):

The figure Kāvyaliṅga or Poetical Cause is that when a reason is expressed by a sentence or by a word.[35] Bhavabhūti has used Kāvyaliṅga alaṃkāra in the verse rāhoścandrakalāmiva ………….etc[36] wherein Mādhava talks to himself how he gets his beloved Mālatī through his good luck.

Some other examples of Kāvyaliṅga alaṃkāra in the Mālatīmāhava are–

  1. Act I- 19,
  2. Act IV–4
  3. Act V- 31
  4. Act VI- 14
  5. Act IX - 54 etc.

(o) Samuccaya (Conjunction):

When notwithstanding the existence of one sufficient to produce an effect, there are others causes which produce the same effect according to maxim of the threshing floor and the pigeons, then there is Samuccaya alaṃkāra.[37] A beautiful application of Samuccaya alaṃkāra is found in the Mālatīmādhava of Bhavabhūti. As for instance the verse anyonyasaṃbhinna …………….etc[38] wherein the words of Mālatī’s friend produce the effect i.e. Mālatī’s love to Mādhava while the enigmatical speech of Mālatī’s sister acts as the accessories in realizing the effect.

Besides, some other examples are found in the Mālatīmādhava Viz.,

  1. Act I - 17, 31, 34, 35, 41
  2. Act II–13
  3. Act III - 11, 8
  4. Act IV–3
  5. Act V - 20, 28, 15, 17
  6. Act VII–3
  7. Act VIII - 2, 12 etc.

(p) Sāra (Climax):

The figure Sāra or Climax is the successive rising in the excellence of things to the highest pitch.[39] In the Mālatīmādhava, Bhavabhūti has composed two verses in the figure Sāra or climax. In the verse tāmindusundaramukhīṃ suciraṃ...........etc[40] reveals that each succeeding object is described as excelling each preceding and the limit of excellence has reached the culminating point wherein the stupification of mind being the ultimate result. Hence this verse is an example of the figure Sāra or climax. The other example is found in the Act viz., Act IX.10 etc.

(q) Saṃdeha (Doubtful):

The figure Saṃdeha or Doubtful is the suspicion of the upamāna on the upameya, the said suspicion being depicted due to the genious of the poet.[41] . Bhavabhūti has composed one verse in this figure. In the 1st half of the verse sā rāmaṇīyanidheradhidevatā vā …………..etc[42] reveals the presence of Saṃdeha alaṃkāra. Herein in the first line a doubt as to whether Mālatī is the gardian deity of the treasure of beauty is first expressed. A second doubt is as to wheather she is the abode of the store of the essence of loveliness. Hence this verse is an example of Saṃdeha alaṃkāra.

(r) Viśeṣa (special):

When something depended on another is represented as present without it also when one object is stated to be present in many places and when somebody in bringing about one result, unexpectedly performs something else which is not possible then there is Viśeṣaḥ and it is thus three fold.[43] Bhavabhūti has composed one verse in the figure Special or Viśeṣaḥ. As for instance in the verse naveṣu lodhraprasaveṣu …………….etc[44] it has been stated that though Mālatī had died yet her same form is found at the same time in several things. Here Mālatī is represented as subsisting in the same form and at the same time in several things. Hence, the verse is a suitable example of the figure Viśeṣa.

(s) Yathāsaṃkhya (Symmetrical):

The figure Yathāsaṃkhya is the subsequent reference of the objects in the same order in which they have been already spoken of or stated.[45] The beautiful application of Yathāsaṃkhya alaṃkāra is found in the Mālatīmādhava viz., act VI.18, 9 etc. In the verse nairāśyakātaradhiyo hariṇekṣaṇāyāḥ................etc[46] affliction caused by disconsolation, anxiety of Mālatī are referred in the same order in which they have been already spoken or stated. Hence this verse is an example of Yathāsaṃkhya alaṃkāra.

(t) Svabhāvokti (Description of Nature):

The figure Svabhāvokti is the description of the action and physic of some object difficult to comprehend.[47] Thus, this figure occurs when an excellence relating to the natural qualities of a thing is described. There are various examples of Svabhāvokti alaṃkāra in the Mālatīmādhava. In the verse jalanibiḍitavastravya ktanimnonn atābhih............etc[48] Bhavabhūti gives a true picture of the banks of mighty streams which are crowded with ladies who have emerged from the stream just after their bath.Hence the verse is an example of Svabhāvokti alaṃkāra. Similarly, in the verse saṃsaktatruṭitvivartitāntrajāla................etc[49] the description of the path of the tiger is found which is difficult to comprehend.So, the verse is an example of Svabhāvokti alaṃkāra.

The other examples of Svabhāvokti alaṃkāra are——

  1. Act II- 12
  2. Act III–2, 17
  3. Act V - 4, 34
  4. Act VI–32
  5. Act X - 15 etc.

(u) Dipaka (Illuminator):

The figure Dīpaka or illuminator is the common relation with some attributes of both the direct and indirect objects.[50] In the Mālatīmādhava, Bhavabhūti has composed three verses in Dīpaka alaṃkāra. For instance, in the verse vrajati virahe vaicittayaṃ naḥ prasīdati.............etc’[51] Mālatī is connected with some attributes like vrajati, prasīdati, ramate, dadāti etc.So, the verse is an example of Dīpaka alaṃkāra. Similarly, in the verse jvalayati manobhavāgniṃ madayati hṛdayaṃ kṛtārthayati...........etc[52] Mālatī is related with some attributes viz., jvalayati, madayati, kṛtārthayati etc.Hence, the verse is an example of Dīpaka alaṃkāra. Another example is found in the act III.6.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

sādharmyamupamā bhede /
Kāvyaprakāśa,X.I

[2]:

sāmyaṃ vācyamvaidharmyaṃ vākyaikya dvayoḥ //
Sāhityadarpaṇa
,X.14

[3]:

pūrṇā luptā ca Kāvyaprakāśa,X.

[4]:

pūrṇā yadi sāmānyadharma aupamyavāci ca /
upameyaṃ copamānaṃ bhavedvācyam //
Sāhityadarpaṇa
,X.15

[5]:

luptā sāmānyadharmāderekasya yadi vā dvayoḥ /
trayāṇāṃ vānupādāne śrotyārthī sāpi pūrvavat //
Ibid.,X.17

[6]:

āścaryamutpaladṛśo vadanāmalendu/
sāṃnidhyato mama muhurjaḍimānametya//
jātyena candramaṇineva mahīdharasya/
saṃdhāryate dravamayo manasā vikāraḥ/
Mālatīmādhava,III.5

[7]:

rūpakaṃ rūpitāropādvi viṣaye nirapaḥnave /
Sāhityadarpaṇa, X.28

[8]:

tat paramparitaṃ sāṅgaṃ niraṅgamiti ca tridhā /
Ibid.

[9]:

mlānasya jīvakusumasya vikāsanāni /
saṃtarpaṇāni sakalendriyamohanāni//
ānandanāni hṛdayaikarsāyanāni/
diṣṭyā mayāpyadhigatāni vacomṛtāni //
Mālatīmādhava
,VI.8

[10]:

bhavetsambhāvanotprekṣā prakṛtasya parātmanā /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.40

[11]:

vācyā pratīyamānā sā prathamaṃ dvividhā matā / Ibid.

[12]:

līneva pratibimbiteva likhitevotkīrṇarūpeva ca/
pratyupteva ca vajralepaghaṭitevāntaranikhāteva ca /
sā naścetasi kīliteva viśikhaiścetodhuvaḥ pañcabhi/
ścintāsantatitantujālanibiḍarasyūteva lagnā priyā //
Mālatīmādhava
, V.10

[13]:

prakṛtam pratiṣidhyānyasthāpanaṃ syād apaḥnutiḥ
Sāhityadarpaṇa, X.38

[14]:

padmāvatī vimalavāriviśālasindhu/
pārāsaritparikaracchalato bibharti//
uttuṅgaśodhasuramandiragopurāṭṭa /
saṃghaṭṭapātitavimuktamivantarikṣam //
Mālatīmādhava
, IX.I

[15]:

sidhvatve’adhyavasāyasyātiśayoktirnigadyate /
Sāhityadarpaṇa, X.46

[16]:

jagati jayinaste te bhāvā navendukalādayaḥ /
prakṛtimadhurāḥ santyevānye mano madayanti ye //
mama tu yadiyaṃ yātā loke vilocanacandrikā /
nayanaviṣayaṃ janmanyekaḥ sa eva mahotsavaḥ //
Mālatīmādhava
,I.36

[17]:

dṛṣṭāntastu sadharmasya vastunaḥ pratibimbanam //
Sāhityadarpaṇa
, X.50

[18]:

ayamapi sādharmyavaidharmyābhyāṃ dvidhā //
Ibid.X. p.739

[19]:

nirmāṇameva hi tadādaralānīyam /
mā pūtanātvamupagāḥ śivatātirodhi //
naisargikī surabhiṇaḥ kusumasya sidhā /
mūrdhni sthitirna musalairavatāḍanāni //
Mālatīmādhava
, IX.50

[20]:

sambhavan vastusambandho’asambhavan vā’pi kutracit /
yatra bimbānubimbatvaṃ bodhayet sā nidarśanā //
Sāhityadarpaṇa
, X.51

[21]:

dhairyamnidhehi hṛdaye hata eṣaḥ pāpaḥ /
kiṃ vā kadācidapi kenacidanva bhāni //
sāraṅgasaṅgarabidhāvibhakumbhakūṭa /
kuṭṭākapāṇikuliśasya horeḥ pramādaḥ //
Mālatīmādhava
,V.32

[22]:

kalayati ca himāṃśorniṣkalaṅkasya lakṣmīm /
abhinavakaridantacchedapāṇḍuḥ kapaulaḥ / Ibid.,I.22

[23]:

ādhikyamupameyasyopamānānnyūnatā’athavā vyatirekaḥ /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.52

[24]:

jvalatu gagane rātro rātrāvakhaṇḍakalaḥ śasī/
dahatu madanaḥ kim va mṛtyoh pareṇa vidhāsyati //
mama tu dayitaḥ ślāghyastāto jananyamalānvayā /
kulamalinaṃ na tvevāyaṃ jano na ca jīvitam //
Mālatīmādhava
, II.2

[25]:

uktairviśeṣaṇaiḥ sābhiprāyaiḥ parikaro mataḥ /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.57

[26]:

stimitavikasitānāmullasadbhrūlatānām/
masṛṇamukulitānāṃ prāntavistārabhājām/
pratinayananipāte kiñcidākuñciānām /
vividhamahambhūvaṃ pātramalokitānām //
Mālatīmādhava
,I.27

[27]:

kvacidviśeṣaḥ sāmānyātsāmanyaṃ vā viśeṣataḥ/
kāryānnimittaṃ kāryaṃ ca hetauratha samātsamam//
aprastutātprastutṃ ced gamyate pañcadhā tataḥ aprastutapraśaṃsā syād /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.58.59

[28]:

gamanamalasaṃ śūnyā dṛṣṭihḥ śarīramsoṣṭhavam /
śvasitamadhikaṃ kiṃ nvaitatsyātkimanyaditoatha vā//
bhramati bhuvane kandapārjñā vikāri ca yovanam /
lalitamadhurāste te bhāvāḥ kṣipanti ca dhīratām //
Mālatīmādhava,I.17

[29]:

anumānaṃ tu vichittyā jñānaṃ sādhyasya sādhanāt /
Sāhityadarpaṇa, X.63

[30]:

īrṣattiryagvalanaviṣamaṃ kūṇitaprāntametat /
premodbhedastimitalulitaṃ kiṃcidākuñcitabhru //
antarmodānubhavamasṛṇaṃ stambhaniṣkampapakṣma/
vyaktaṃ śaṃsatyaciramanayordṛṣṭamākekarākṣam //
Mālatīmādhava, IV.2

[31]:

vastuno vaktumiṣṭasya viśeṣapratipattaye /
niṣedhābhāsa ākṣepo vakṣamāṇoktago dvidhā/
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.64

[32]:

ślāghyānvayeti nayanotsavakāriṇīti /
nirvyūḍhaasaohṛdabhareti guṇojjvaleti //
ekaikameva hi vaśīkaraṇam garīyo/
yuṣmākamevamiyamityatha kiṃ bravīmi //
Mālatīmādhava
,VI.17

[33]:

jātiścaturbhijātyādyairguṇo guṇādibhistribhiḥ/
kriyā kriyādravyābhyāṃ yad dravyaṃ dravyeṇa vā mithaḥ/
virudhamiva bhāsate virodho’asau daśākṛtiḥ//
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.67,68

[34]:

parichedātītaḥ sakalavacanānāmaviṣayaḥ/
punarjanmanyasminnanubhavapathaṃ yo na gatavān /
vivekapradhvaṃsādupacitamahāmohagahano /
vikāraḥ ko’apyantarjaḍayati catāpaṃ ca kurute //
Mālatīmādhava
,I.30

[35]:

hetorvākyapadārthatve kāvyaliṅgaṃ nigadyate /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.62

[36]:

rāhoścandrakalāmivānanacarīṃ daivātsamāsādya me /
dasyorasya kṛpāṇapātaviṣayādāchindataḥ preyasīm /
ātaṅkādvikalaṃ drutaṃ karuṇayā vikṣobhitaṃ vismayāt /
krodhena jvalitaṃ mudā vikasitaṃ cetaḥ kathaṃ vartatām //
Mālatīmādhava,V.28

[37]:

samuchchayo’ayamekasmin sati kāryasyasādhake /
khalekapotikānyāyāt tatkaraḥsyāt paro’apicet //
guṇo kriye vā yugapat syātāṃ yadvā guṇakriye //
Sāhityadarpaṇa, X.84

[38]:

anyonyasaṃbhinnadṛśāṃ sakhīnām/
tasyāstvayi prāganurāgacihnam //
kasyāpi ko’pīti niveditaṃ ca dhātreyikāyāścaturaṃ vacaśca //
Mālatīmādhava
,I.33

[39]:

utarottaramutkarṣo vastunaḥ sāraḥ ucyate /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.78

[40]:

tāmindusundaramukhīṃ suciraṃ vibhāvya /
cetaḥ kathaṃ kathamapi vyapavartate me //
lajjāṃ vijitya vinayaṃ vinivārya dhairyam/
unmathya manthara vivekamakāṇḍa eva //
Mālatīmādhava,I.18

[41]:

saṃdehaḥ prakṛteanyasya saṃśayaḥ pratibhotthitaḥ /
Sāhityadarpaṇa, X.35

[42]:

sā rāmaṇīyakanidheradhidevatā vā /
saundaryasārasamudāyaniketanaṃ vā //
tasyāḥ sakhe niyatamindusudhāmṛṇāla /
jyotsnādi kāraṇamabhūnmadanaśca vedhāḥ //
Mālatīmādhava
, I.21

[43]:

yadādheyamanādharamekaṃ cānekagocaram/
kiñcitprakurvataḥ kāryamaśakyasyetarasya vā //
kāryasya karaṇaṃ daivādviśeṣastrividhastataḥ /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.73

[44]:

naveṣu lodhraprasaveṣu kāntirdṛśaḥ kuraṅgeṣu gataṃ gajeṣu /
latāsu namratvamiti pramathya vyaktaṃ vibhaktā vipine priyā me //
Mālatīmādhava, IX.27

[45]:

yathāsaṃkhyamanūddeśa uddiṣṭānām krameṇa yat //
Sāhityadarpaṇa
, X.79

[46]:

nairāśyakātaradhiyo hariṇekṣaṇāyāḥ /
śrutvā nikāmakarūṇṃ ca manoharaṃ ca//
vātsalyamohaparidevitamudvahāmi /
cintāviṣāavipadaṃ ca mahotsavaṃ ca //
Mālatīmādhava
,VII.9

[47]:

svabhāvoktirdurūhārthasvakriyārūpavarṇam /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.92

[48]:

jalanibiḍitavastravyaktanimnonnatābhih parigatataṭabhūmiḥ snānamātrotthitābhiḥ rucirakanakakumbhaśrīmadābhogatuṅga stanabinihitahastasvastikābhirvadhūbhiḥ //
Mālatīmādhava
,IV.10

[49]:

saṃsaktatrutitavivartitānantrajāla /
vyākīrṇasphuradapavṛttarūṇḍakhaṇḍaḥ //
kīlālavyatikaragulphadaghnapaṅkaḥ /
prācaṇḍyaṃ vahati nakhāyudhasya mārgaḥ //
Ibid.,III.17

[50]:

aprastutaprastutayordīpakaṃ tu nigadyate /
Sāhityadarpaṇa,X.48

[51]:

vrajati virahe vaicittyaṃ naḥ prasīdati saṃnidho /
rahasi ramate prītyā vācaṃ dadātyanuvartate //
gamanasamaye kaṇṭhe lagnā nirudhya nirudhya maṃ /
sapadi śapathaiḥ pratyāvṛttiṃ praṇamya ca yācate /Mālatīmādhava,III.2

[52]:

jvalayati manobhavāgniṃ madayati hṛdayaṃ kṛtārthayati cakṣuḥ /
parimṛditacampakāvalivilāsalalitālasa haiḥ //
Ibid.,III.6

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