Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study)

by Debabrata Barai | 2014 | 105,667 words

This page relates ‘Acarya, Kavi and important persons mentioned in the Kavyamimamsa’ of the study on the Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara: a poetical encyclopedia from the 9th century dealing with the ancient Indian science of poetics and rhetoric (also know as alankara-shastra). The Kavya-mimamsa is written in eighteen chapters representing an educational framework for the poet (kavi) and instructs him in the science of applied poetics for the sake of making literature and poetry (kavya).

Appendix 1 - Ācārya, Kavi and important persons mentioned in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā

Āchāryas: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara used the word Ācāryas have been quoted in twenty three times by ‘ityācāyāyāḥ’. It may be possible that this word Rājaśekhara used for his ancient rhetoricians like Bhāmaha, Vāmana, Daṇḍin, Ānandavardhana etc.

a) śikṣā, kalpo, vyākaraṇaṃ, niruktaṃ , chandovicitiḥ jyotiṣaṃ ca ṣaḍaṅgāni’ ityācāryāḥ |
b) ‘tānīmāni caturdaśavidyāsthānāni, yaduta vedāścatvāraḥ ṣaḍaṅgāni , catvāri śāstrāṇi’ ityācāryāḥ |
c) ‘catuṣṭayī, gatirvṛttīnāṃ pravṛttīnāṃ ca deśānāṃ punarānantyaṃ tatkathamikava kārtsnyena parigrahaḥ’ ityācāryāḥ |
d) ‘na hi prakṛtimadhurā drākṣā phaṇitasaṃskāramapekṣate ’ ityācāryāḥ |
e) ‘kaḥ punaranayorbhedo yatkavirbhāvayati bhāvakaśca kavi’ ityācāryāḥ |
f) ‘bahuñjatā vyutpattiḥ’ ityācāryāḥ |
g) ‘kaḥ punarayaṃ pākaḥ’ ityācāryāḥ |
h) ‘kaḥ punarayaṃ pariṇāmaḥ’ ityācāryāḥ |
i) ‘padaniveśaniṣkampatā pākaḥ’ ityācāryāḥ |
j) ākhyāta paratantrā vākyavṛttirato yāvadākhyātamiha vākyāni’ ityācāryāḥ |
k) ‘kamarthaṃ punaranupadeśyayorbrāhmapārameśvarayorvākyamārgayorupanyāsaḥ’ ityācāryāḥ |
l) śrutiḥ, smṛtiḥ, itihāsaḥ, purāṇaṃ, pramāṇavidyā, samayavidyā, rājasiddhāntatrayī, loko, viracanā, prakīrṇakaṃ ca kāvyārthānāṃ dvādaśa yonayaḥ’ ityācāryāḥ |
m) ‘taddhi kāvyavidyāyāḥ parikaraḥ’ ityācāryāḥ |
n) kaviḥ prathamamātmananeva kalpayeta| kriyātme saṃskāraḥ, kva bhāṣā viṣaye śakto'smi kiṃ rucirlokaḥ parivṛḍho vā, kīdṛśi goṣṭh yāṃ vinītaḥ kvāsya va cetaḥ saṃsajata iti vuddhvā bhāṣāviśeṣamāśrayet’ ityācāryāḥ |
o) ‘tattraika padaharaṇaṃ na doṣāya’ ityācāryāḥ |
p) ‘tribhyaḥ padebhyaḥ prabhṛti tvaśliṣṭebhyo paraṇam’ ityācāryāḥ |
q) pāda evānyathātvakaraṇakāraṇaṃ na haraṇam apitu svīkaraṇam’ ityācāryāḥ |
r) ‘tadvaduktiharaṇam’ ityācāryāḥ |
s) ‘purāṇakavikṣuṇṇe vartmani durāpamṛspaṣṭaṃ vastu, tatacca tadeva saṃskartaṃु prayateta’ ityācāryāḥ |
t) ‘nanveṣa doṣaḥ kathaṅkāraṃ punarupanibandhanārhaḥ ? ’ ityācāryāḥ |
u) nimittaṃ tarhi vācyam’ ityācāryāḥ |
v) ‘vinaśanaprayāgayorgaṅgāyamunayoścāntaramantarvedī| tadapekṣayā diśo vibhajeta’ ityācāryāḥ |
w) ‘pāścātyaḥ paurastyastu pratihantā’ ityācāryāḥ |

v AMARA: Amara Siṃha, the composer of famous Sanskrit dictionary Amarakośa. He was one of the nine Jewels of Vikramāditya’s court. Amar Siāhas’ Kāvya (poetry) examined at Ujjain, cited by Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā

Ānanda: Ānadavardhana was the follower of Kāśmīra Śaiva sects. He also the court poet of king of Kāśmīra, Avantivarmā, which is indicated by Kalhaṇa in his work Rājataraṅgiṇī:

‘muktākaṇaḥ śivasvāmī kavirānandavardhanaḥ|
prathāṃ ratnākaraścāgāt sāmrājye'vantivarmaṇaḥ || ’

- Rājataraṅgiṇī

His famous poetical work name Dhvanyāloka, which is refer in the part of pratibhā and vutpatti analysis by Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara in his fifth chapter of Kāvyamīmāṃsā His time was probably 9th Cen. AD.

Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhar admires him by the saying:

‘dhvaninātigabhīre ṇa kāvyattvaniveśinā |
ānandavardhanaḥ kasya nāsīdānandavardhanaḥ || ’

Aparājiti: Aparājiti, probably the another name of Bhaṭṭalollaṭa. He is the son of Aparājita. In the saṭṭaka of Viddhaśālabhañjīkā of Rājaśekhara refer the name Aparājita, who possibly was the father of Aparājiti. The Rasasūtra commentary of Mammaṭa’s Kāvyaprakāśa refers his name and Hemehandra’s Kāvyānuśāsana (of Hemacandra) cited the two āryā ( śloka) of him.

In the IX chapter of Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā cited his view by saying:

‘astu nāma niḥsīmārthasārthaḥ kintu rasavata eva nivandho yukto na nīrasasya’ iti aparājiti |

Aumeyi: Sāhitya-vidyā-Vadhū. She is also the daughter of Umā (Pārvatī) and Lord Śiva.

Aupkāyana: It is one of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ.

Auśanas: He is the son of Maharṣi Bhṛgu and the political follower of Uśaṇas. He is also the first Ācārya of Nītiśāstra and well known by the name Dvaita Guru Śukra.

Avantīsundarī: A learned women poetess critic, with outstanding poetical merit of rhetoric Śāstra and also the wife of Rājaśekhara. However she has no several works on poetic but who has been quoted thrice times in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā

(i) ‘iyamaśaktirna punaḥ pākaḥ’ ityavantisundarī |

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 5

(ii) ‘vidagdhabhaṇitibhaṅginivedyaṃ vastuno rupaṃ na niyatasvabhāvam’ iti avantisundarī |

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 9

(iii) “ayamaprasiddhaḥ prasiddhimānaham, ayamapratiṣṭhaḥ pratiṣṭhāvānapam, apraktāntamidamasya
saṃvidhānakaṃ praktāntaṃ mama, guḍūcīvacano'yaṃ mṛdvīkāvacano'ham,
anādṛtabhāṣāviśeṣo'yamahamādṛtabhāṣāviśeṣaḥ, praśāntañjātakṛmidaṃ, deśāntarikarttakṛmidam,
ucchinnanibanddhanamūlamidaṃ, mlecchitakopanibandhanamūlamidamityevamādibhiḥ kāraṇaiḥ
śavdaharaṇe'rthaharaṇe cābhirameta” iti avantisundarī
|

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 11

She is also the daughter of Chauhān family.

Rājaśekhara says about her admire by the word ‘yathā nāma tathā guṇaḥ’ and praise herself in the Bālarāmāyaṇa as:

‘vināhavantīrnā nipuṇā sudṛśoratakarmaṇi’.

Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara composed the NāṭikāKarpūramañjari’ for the inclination for his wife’s.

Bārhaṣpatya: An Ācharya, who is known to be a follower of Bṛhaṣpati. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara only once time quoted Bārhaṣpatya’s opinion by saying ‘ vārtādaṇḍanītirdvevidvā’ (K.M-Ch-2). However, Rājaśekhara does not agree about his views and established five vidyās.

Bharata: Bharatamuni, is a well-known composer of Nāṭyaśāstra, which is a treatise on Dramaturgy. His also the one of the eighteen apprentices of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ. Rājaśekhara posits him as the founder of Nāṭaka or Rūpaka by saying ‘rupakanirupaṇīyaṃ bharataḥ’ (Kāvyamīmāṃsā Ch-2)

. However Rājaśekhara does not quoted his opinion anywhere from Bharata, but some of matters he was influenced by Bharata. i.e.

catvāri śrṛṅgāstrayo'sya pādā dve śīrṣe saptahastāso'sya |
tridhā vaddho vṛṣabho roravīti mahodevo martya(rtyāṃ) mā viveśa || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-III
- Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata: Ch-XXVII

In this mantra (stanza) Sāyana’s view on ‘yañjaparakaḥPatañjali on ‘vyākaraṇātmakaḥ’ (grammatical) and Bharata on ‘nāṭakātmakaḥ’ or ‘ kāvyātmakaḥ’ (dramatically or poetical). Rājaśekhar also admitted in this concepts of Bharata and divided Kāvya (poetry) into two types i.e. ‘sākāṅkhā’, ‘nirākāṃkṣā’ etc. Therefore Bharata also the former ālaṃkārika of RS who accepted the two types of Kāku in his Nāṭyaśāstra (N.S: Ch-27).

Bhāravi: An eminent poet Sanskrit literature for his Mahākāvya (Epic) Kirātarjunīya. According to Avantīsundarī, his real name was Dāmodara.

He was the first poet, who was done courage to create śloka by a single word:

‘na nonamunno nunno no nāmā nānānanā nanu |
nanno'nunno nanunnemo nānenā nannanunnanuti || ’

- Kirātārjuniya of Bhā ravi: XV/ 24

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā and other Alaṃkāraśāstra also cited his ślokas many times as an example.

Bhavānī: It is another name of Pārvatī, who was the creator of Sāhitya-Vidyā-Vadhū.

Chandragupta: In Indian history, a number of kings with same name these are particularly refer to Samudragupta’s son and Skandagupta’s father, the famous Chandragupta II. As in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā says about this name for purpose of examination of poet, so he may be one of the poets. However in this time we cannot found anyone poet who have been flourished in this name.

Citraśikha: In the Purāṇas Citraśikha mentioned as the king of Vidyādhara.

Citrāsundarī: She is the wife of Citraśikha.

Citrāṅgada: One of the eighteen pupils of Kāvya-puruṣa. In the first chapter of Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara posits him as the propounded of Chitrakāvya by saying: ‘citraṃ citrāṅgadaḥ. (K.M: Ch-I)

Dhīṣaṇa: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ. He was also known as Devguru. According to the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara, he was the composer of a treatise on Kāvyadoṣa (poetic demerit) by saying: ‘doṣādhikaraṇaṃ dhiṣaṇaḥ’ . (Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Ch-I)

Dhruvsāmini: She was the wife of Rāmagupta (elder brother of Samudragupta). Lastly she also married with Samudragupta by the killing of Rāmagupta.

Drauhiṇī: Son of Brahmā. It was another name of Bharata, the author of Nāṭyaśāstra

Dvaipāyana: He was the famous sage Vyāsadeva or Vedavyāsa. He is also the creator of eighteen Purāṇas, Mahābhārata and Brahmasūtras.

In the Kāvyādarśa of Daṇḍin says about him as:

‘martyayantreṣu caitavyaṃ mahābhāratavidyayā’

- kāvyādarśaḥ

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara cited his name in two times:

(i) ‘dvaipāyanastuśloka prathamādhyāyī tatprabhāvena śatasāhastrīṃsahitāṃ bhāratam |’

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 3

(ii) ‘ityuktavānuktiviśeṣaramyaṃ, manaḥ samādhāya jayopapattau |
udāracetā giramityudārāṃ dvaipāyanenābhidadhe nare ndraḥ || ’

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 11

Gaurī: It is another name of Pārvati. She is wife of Lord Śiva and daughter of Himālaya, who also gave birth to Sāhitya-vidyā-vadhū.

Gounādiya: another name of Maharṣi Patañjali. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhar talk about this name for the Patañjali, author of Mahābhāṣya. However the commentator of Mahābhāṣya, Ācārya Kaiyata also refer this name Gounāḍiya, but some of the historian does not agree about it. They think that Gounāḍiya was another person from Patañjali.

Haricandra: Haricandra was an ancient poet known for his prose Prabandharāja.

The poet Bānabhaṭṭa praise for him in his Harṣacarita as:

‘padavandhojjvalo hārī kṛtavarṇakramasthitiḥ |
bhaṭṭāraharicandrasya gadyavandhoृnapāyate || ’

- Harṣacaritaḥ - 2.4

In the tenth chapter of Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara said that Haricandra’s poetic examine held was at Ujjain.

Harṣa: King Harṣavardhana’s name is very much famous in the history of Sanskrit literature. He also a renowned poet and patron of Bāṇabhaṭṭa. His father name was Prabhakarvardhana and mother Yaśomati. His court was adorned by the various poets i.e. Bāṇabhaṭṭa, Mayūrbhaṭṭa and Divākara. Harṣavardhana was composed three works i.e. Ratnāvali, Priyadarśikā and Nāgānanda.

Kalidāsa: In the fourth and tenth chapter of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara mention the great poet Kālidasa. The fourth chapter he posit Kālidasa’s as the poet and critic by saying “na iti kālidāsaḥ”. We found that Rājaśekhara cited most of the stanza’s from different works of Kālidāsa.

He is the most famous poet of Sanskrit literature and his prose describe in the various poets i.e.

i) ‘nirgatāsu na vā kasya kālidāsasya suktiṣu |
prītirmadhurasāndrāsu mañjarīṣviva jāyate || ’

- vānabhaṭṭa - 3

ii) purā kavīnāṃ gaṇanāprasaṅge kaniṣṭhikādhiṣṭhitakālidāsaḥ |
adyāpi tattulyakaverabhāvā - danāmikā yārthavatī vabhūva || ’

- subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra - 7

iii) liptā madhudravenāsan yasya nivavaśā giraḥ |
tenedaṃ vartmavaidarbha kālidāsena śodhitam || ’

- daṇḍī - 9

Kāmadeva: One of the eighteen disciple of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ. According to Rājaśekhara he was composed the gratification-śāstra (Binod śāstra). However it is not confirmed that he was the Kāmadeva or the any other Ācārya.

Karṇa: One of the kings of the southern geographical part of India. In the fifteen chapter of Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara refer his name in a stanza.

Kauṭilya: In the second chapter of Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara refer Kauṭilya by the saying:

‘ānvīkṣikī, trayī, vārtā daṇḍanītayaścatastro vidyā’ iti kauṭilyāḥ |

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 2

He also well-known as Cāṇakya, chief minister of during the reign of Chandragupta Marya. He composed the work of Arthaśāstra. We found that, Rājaśekhara’s ‘ku mārī purātprabhṛti vindusaro'vadhi yojanānāṃ daśaśatī cakravartī kṣetram’ (kāvyamīmāṃsā - 17 ) is possibly influenced by the Kauṭilya’sdeśaḥ pṛthivī, tasyāṃ himavata  samudrāntaritamudīcīnaṃ yojanasahastraparimāṇamatiryaka cakravartī kṣetram |’.

Kāvya-puruṣa: He is the legendary son of Sarasvatī (goddess of learning) and propagator of Kāvya-vidyā. He also has known as by the name Sārasvateya. In the third chapter of Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara says that, Brahmā created Kāvyapuruṣa in the beginning of his creation.

If the poets able to comprehend the real depth of this legend gains happiness in this world and beyond the world, by saying:

‘ityeṣa kāvyapuruṣaḥ purā sṛṣṭaḥ svayambhuvā |
evaṃ nibhajya jānānaḥ pretya ceha ca nandati || ’

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 3

Khasādhipati: Rājaśekhara mentioned this name in the eighth chapter of his Kāvyamīmāṃsā. It seem that Khasādhipati was a historical persons, who defeated Samudragupta’s son and Chandragupta II’s elder brother Ramagupta and asked for a part of his kingdom with beautiful wife Dhruvasvamīni (or Dhruvadevi) in truce. Annoyed at this Chandragupta II in the disguise of Dhruvasvamini took his revenge on Khasādhipati, killed him and also his unworthy brother Ramagupta. Then he married with Dhruvasvamīni and took the reins of the kingdom in his own hands. Else ever, some of the scholars think, it may possible that the name Khasadhipati was placed on the name of Śakādhipati for the composing mistake.

Kubera: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara says as one of the eighteen disciple of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ. There Rājaśekhara established him as the founder of śabda and alaṃkāra by the saying: ‘ ubhayālaṃkārikaṃ ku veraḥ , who created an adhikaraṇa on ubhayālaṃkāra.

Kucumāra: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣa. He wrote the famous work of “Kucumaratantra”. In the Kamāsūtra of Vātsāyaṇa (K.S. 1-1-17) refer his name and Rājaśekhara in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā says his as the founder of Anupaniśadik work by saying: ‘aupaniṣadikaṃ ku camāraḥ’.

Kuduṅgeśvara: He probably one of the kings of Ujjayini. Rājaśekhara refer him in the fourteen chapter of his Kāvyamīmāṃsā. But it is uncertain that Rājaśekhara refer Kuduṅgeśvara and a king of Ujjayini was the same person or not.

Kumārdāsa: A born-blind great poet, who known for his epic Jānakiharaṇa.

According to the Suktimuktāvalī of Jalhaṇa, Rājaśekhara pries himself by the śloka as:

jānakīharaṇaṃ karttaṃु raghavaṃśa sthite sati |
kaviḥ ku māradāsaśca rāvaṇaśca yadi kṣamo || ”

Soḍḍhala also says about Kum ārdāsa in his famous writing by:

vabhuvuranyepi ku māradāsabhāsādayo hanta kavindavaste |
yadīyagīrbhiḥ kṛtināṃ dravanti cetāṃsi candropalanirmitāni || ”

In the first time Rājaśekhara says him as blind by saying:

‘yato medhāvirudraku māradāsādayo jātyāndhāḥ kavayaḥ śruyante |’

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā Rājaśekhara cited two times in the ślokas of Kumāradasa’s

Jānakiharaṇa:

(i) madaṃ navaiśvaryalavena lambhitaṃ visṛjya pūrvaḥ samayo vimṛśyatām |
jagajjajaghatsātaru kaṇṭhapaddhajtar ya vājिैrvājिtatṛjिrantakāḥ || ’

- jānakīharaṇaḥ - 12. 36, kā. mī - 8

(ii) ‘aṅgaṇe śaśimarīcilepane suptamindukaraku ñjasannibham |
rājahaṃsamasamīkṣya kātarā rauti haṃsavanitā'śrugadgadam || ’

(jānakīharaṇaḥ - 8. 85, kā. mī - 13)

Kuvinda: He was the king of Mathurā. However we may not know more this about his but who advocated the disuse of rough words like ṭaṅkāra etc.

Mānavāḥ: The followers Ācāryas of Manu known as the name of Mānavāḥ.

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara only one time refer their thought and says:

‘trayīvārttādaṇḍanītayastisro vidyāḥ’ iti mānavāḥ |

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 2

However Rājaśekhara does not agree about their concepts of three types of āvidyās and establish his own view by saying:

pañcamī sāhityavidyā” iti yāyāvarīyaḥ |

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 2

Maṅgala: A ācārya of Sāhityaśāstra, who has been cited at five different places in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā. In the first chapter of Mammaṭa’s Kāvyaprakāśa refer Maṅgala’s view as Abhāsya (practices) is the Kāvyahetu (causes of poetry). Therefore we found two ślokas in the ‘Saduktikasnamṛta’ named ‘Sūktisaṃgraha’ works.

There the first śloka is the pries for the Jain Lord (Jin):

yadākhyānāsaṅgāduṣasi punate vācamṛṣamo yadīyaḥ saṃkalpoृhadi sukṛtināmeva ramate |
sa sārvaḥ sarvañaḥ pathi nirapavāde kṛtapado jino jantunuccaiḥ damayatu bhavāvartapatitān || ”

And the second śloka is:

niṣkiñcanatvādvidhurasya sādhorabhyarthitasyārthijanasya kiñcit |
nāstītivarṇā manasi bhramanto nirgantumicchantyasubhiḥ saihava || ”

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara cited Maṅgalas five doctrine’s are:

  1. abhyāsaḥ’ iti maṅgalaḥ | - kā. mī. - 4
  2. ‘te ca dvidhā'rocakinaḥ satṛṇābhyavahāriṇaśca’ iti maṅgalaḥ | - kā. mī. - 4
  3. vyutpatti śreyasī’ iti maṅgalaḥ | - kā. mī. - 5
  4. ‘pariṇāmaḥ’ iti maṅgalaḥ | - kā. mī. - 5
  5. ‘supāṃ tiṅāṃ ca śravaḥ yeṣāṃ vyutpattiḥ’ iti maṅgalaḥ | - kā. mī. - 5

However this is does not agrees must of times about Maṅgala’s doctrine and establish his own views.

Medhāvirudra: A blind poet by birth, who known to his rhetoric work.

Rājaśekhara say about him with Kumāradāsa by:

‘yato medhāvirudraku māradāsādayo jātyāndhāḥ kavayaḥ śruyante |’

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 4

Namisādhu, the commentator of Rudraṭa’s Kāvyālaṃkāra (of Rudraṭa) in his commentary says that:

‘nanu daṇḍīmedhāvirudrabhāmahādikṛtāni santyevālaṃkāraśāstrāṇi |’

Meṇṭha or Bhattra [Bhatttara?]-Meṇṭha: An eminent poet, who probably belonging to Kaśmira. However his work Hayagrīvavadha is unavailable at this time but Ācārya Mammaṭa in the 7th ullasa of his Kāvyaprakāśa cited a stanza from this work.

Ācārya Rājaśekhara says about him as:

vakrokryā meṇṭharājasya vahantyā sṛṇirupatām |
aviddhā iva dhunvanti mūrdhaniṃ kaviku ñjarāḥ || ”

Nandikeśvara or nandi: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ. In the Kāmasūtra of Vātsāyaṇa refer him as the first propounded of Kāmasūtra (1.1.8).

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara posits his as the founder of rasa by saying:

‘rasādhikārikaṃ nāndike śvaraḥ

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 1

Pālyakīrti: A well-known Ācārya, who belonging to the Jain community. He composed a work on grammar, Śabdānuśāsana and also a well-known poetician.

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara ones time cited his view on:

‘yathā tathā vā'stu vastuno rupaṃ, vṛktaprakṛtiviśeṣāyattā tu rasavattā |
tathā ca yamarthaṃ raktaḥ stauti taṃ viraktovinandati |
maddhasthastutatrodāste’ iti pālyakīrtiḥ
|

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 9

However, Avantīsundarī does not agree about this view but Rājaśekhara accepted both of their views by the saying:

‘ubhayamupapannam’ iti yāyāvarīyaḥ |

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 9

Pāṇini: The famous grammarian of Sanskrit Literature. He is well known for his famous work Aṣṭhāyadhāyī and also known as Dākṣīputra.

Pāṇinīyaḥ: An Ācārya of Pāṇini and a well-known great scholar.

Parameṣṭhi or brahmā: One of the sixty-four disciples of Lord Śiva. He at first learned the Kāvyavidyā (poetics), and then advised it on the Sārasatya and other disciples.

Parāśara: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ.

According to Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara, who has composed a treatise on atiśayokti by saying the word:

atiśayaṃ parāśaraḥ

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 1

In the Purāṇas have been describes very much about the character of Parāśara. He was the son of Śakti and father of Vyāsadeva.

He also wrote another Smṛtiśāstra known as Parāsarasmṛti, which is the authority for the Kaliyuga:

kalau parāśaraḥ - smṛtiḥ |’

Patañjali: RS think that Patañjali and Gonardīya are the same person, but it is also a matter of dispute. He is the author of famous grammatical work Mahābhāṣya.

Piṅgala: The first ācārya of Chanda Śāstra (Metrics) and probably a younger brother of Pānīni.

In the tenth chapter of Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara says:

‘atropavarṣavarṣāviha pāṇinipiṅgalāviha vyāḍiḥ |
vararucipatañjali iha parīkṣitāḥ khyātimupajagmuḥ || ’

- kāvyamīmāṃsā - 10

Pracetā: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣa, he well-known for his composition on Svabhavokti. In the Purāṇas we also found ten pracetā.

Prācetasa: It is another name of Rāmāyaṇa’s author Vālmīki. He wrote the Mahākāvya Rāmāyaṇa (Ādikāvya) from the śoka (grief) of a pair of Krañca and saying it as the first śloka of Rāmāyaṇa :

niṣāda pratiṣṭhāṃ tvamagamaḥ śāśvatīḥ samāḥ |
yatkrauñcamithunekamavadhīḥ kāmamohitam || ”

- rāmāyaṇaḥ — 1 / 1

Pulastya: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ, who was very much known for his composition on Svabhavokti. He was also the son of Brahmā.

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara posits him as the propounder of Vāstava or svabhavokti adhikaraṇa by the saying:

vāstavaṃ pulastaḥ

(kāvyamīmāṃsā - 1)

Rājaśekhara: A well-known poet, critic and also a dramatist, who belonging to the Yāyāvara family. He wrote his magnum-opus Kāvyamīmāṃsā, which is the practical treatise of poets, divided into eighteen adhikaraṇas. His father’s name was Durduka and mother Śīlāvatī.

To see his scholarship various follower poets to gives him reverence on their works. i.e.

(i) “vālakaviḥ kavirājaḥ nirbhaya - rājasya tathopādhyāyaḥ |
iti yasya paramparayā ātmā māpātmyamāruḍhaḥ || ”

- bhaṭṭāparājita

(ii) “samādhiguṇaśālinyaḥ prasannaparipaktrimāḥ |
yāyāvarakaverarvāco munīnāmivṛvattayaḥ || ”

- tilakamañjarī

In the drama Bālabhārata, he declared himself as the incarnation of the poets Vālmīki, Meṇṭha and Bhavabhūtī by the stanza:

vabhūva vālmīkibhavaḥ purā kaviḥ tataḥ prapede bhuvi martyameṇṭhatām |
shitaḥ punaryo bhavabhūtire khayā sa vartate samprati rājaśekharaḥ || ”

- vālabhārataḥ - 1 / 12

Rudraṭa: A famous poet critic from Kāśmīra. He is known for his poetical work Kāvyālaṃkāra. According to the Namisādhu, a commentator of Rudraṭa’s Kāvyālaṃkāra (of Rudraṭa), his name was Satananda and father was Vamukabhaṭṭa:

śatānandaparākhyena bhaṭṭavāmukasūnunā |
sādhitaṃ rudraṭenedaṃ samrājā dhīmatā hitam || ”

- Kāvyālaṃkāra (of Rudraṭa)–41, commentary–18– 24

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara first time cited the doctrine of Rudraṭa’s Kāvyālaṃkāra (of Rudraṭa) on:

kāku rvakroktinami śavdālaṅkāro'yam’ iti rudraṭaḥ |

(kāvyamīmāṃsā - 6)

However Rājaśekhara opposition in this views and says:

abhiprāyavānpāṭha dharmaḥ kākuḥ sa kathamalaṅkāraḥ syāt |’

(kāvyamīmāṃsā - 6)

Beside this Rājaśekhara cited another ślokas from his work for the example of borrowing of Yamakālaṃkāra:

varadāya namo harate patati jano'yaṃ smarannapi na moharaye |
vahuścakranda hatā manasi ditiryenaidatyacakraṃ dahatā || ”

- kāvyamīmāṃsā — 11
- kāvyālaṅkāra — 3 - 4

Rūpa: An ancient poet. To whom nothing can be known certainly. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara only says that his poetic excellence examined in the Ujjain.

Sāhasāṅka or sasāṅka: The name of Vikramāditya or a poet. However in ancient history there are various kings are found who are known as the same name of Vikramāditya. In the Gāthāsaptaśati we found a śloka for Vikramāditya:

savāhaṇasuharasatosieṇa denteṇa tuha kare lakkham |
calaṇeṇa vikkamāittacaritraṃ aṇusikkhayaṃ tissā || ”

- Gāthāsaptaśati

However, in the Sūktimuktāvalī he is described as a lover of Sanskrit:

śūraḥ śāstrāvidherñjātā sāhasāṅkaḥ sa bhūpati |
sevyaṃ sakalalokasya vidadhe gandhamādanam || ”

Sahasrākṣa: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ. Who have to compose the first Adhikaraṇa, Kavirahasya of Kāvyamīmāṃsā according to Rājaśekhara and says:

‘kavirahasyaṃ sahastrākṣaḥ

(kāvyamīmāṃsā — 1)

Sāhitya-vidyā-vadhū: In the legend of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, she is the wife acquired for him by the Pārvatī.

Sārasvateya: The Kāvya-puruṣaḥ, son of Sarasvatī. There is also a reference to this legend in Bāṇabhaṭṭa’s Harṣacarita and Vāyupurāṇa.

Sarasvatī: Goddess of wisdom and learning. She is also wife of Prajāpati Brahmā and mother of Kāvya-puruṣa.

Sātavāhana: A king of Kuntala and famous poet of Sanskrit literature. He is known by the name Hāla, the author of Gāthāsaptasatī. In the Kathāsaritasāgara define the meaning of Sātavāhana as:

sātena yasmāduḍho'bhūttasmāttaṃ sātavāhanam |
nānmā cakāra kālena rājse cainaṃ nyaveśayat || ”

Śeṣa: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣaḥ, who is the composer of Śabdaśleṣa adhikaraṇa.

śavdaśle ṣaṃ śeṣaḥ

(kāvyamīmāṃsā — 1)

Śiśunāga: A king probably he founded the Śiśunāga dynasty in Varanasi.

Śrikaṇṭha: Another name of Lord Śiva. Who first time instructed Vaikuṇṭha and sixty-four disciples in the discipline of Kāvyavidyā and saying:

athātaḥ kāvyamīmāṃsiṣyāmahe yathopadideśa śrīkaṇṭhaḥ parameṣṭhivaiku ṇṭhādibhyaścatuḥ ṣaṣṭhaye śiṣyebhyaḥ |”

- kāvyamīmāṃsā — 1

Śriśarmagupta: The king Samudragupta’s elder son and elder brother of Candragupta II, who was killing the Śakhādhipati and liberated Dhrubasvāminī.

Śūdraka: A famous king and dramatist. Who is well-known for his drama Mṛcchakatika (Prakaraṇa).

For the praise of Śūdraka, Daṇḍin says:

śudrake nāsakṛjjitvā svacchayā khaṅgadhārayā |
jagad bhūyo'pyavaṣṭabdhaṃ vācā svacaritārthatā || ”

Sūra: One of the ancient poets, belonging to Buddhist community, known also by Āryasura. Who has composes the Jātakamāla.

Surānanda: One of the ancestral poets of Rājaśekhara. Who has born in the Yāyāvara family of which Rājaśekhara was a descendent.

About whom Rājaśekhara in his Bālarāmāyaṇa say:

sa mūrto yatrāsīd guṇagaṇa ivākālajaladaḥ
  surānandaḥ so'pi śravaṇapaṭu peyena vacasā
|
na cānye gaṇyamte taralakavirājaprṛbhataye
  mahābhāgastasminnayamajani yāyāvaraku le
|| ”

- vālarāmāyaṇaḥ [Bālarāmāyaṇa] — 1. 13

He also may be the court poet of Chadī kings and say Chadī mandalmaṇḍan:

nadīnāṃ mekalasutā nṛpāṇāṃ raṇavigrahaḥ |
kavīnāṃ ca surānandaścedimaṇḍalamaṇḍavaḥ || ”

- sūktimuktāvalī

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara refer his view by saying:

so'yamullekhavānanugrāhyo mārgaḥ” iti surānandaḥ |

- kāvyamīmāṃsā — 13

There we also found a śloka cited by Rājaśekhara from Surānanda:

sarasvatī sā jayati prakāmaṃ devī śrutiḥ svastyayanaṃ kavīnām |
anarghatāmānayati svabhaṅgayā yollikhya yatkiñcidihārtharatnam || ”

- kāvyamīmāṃsā — 13

Suvarṇanābha: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣa, who was composed the Samproyogik adhikaraṇa of Kāvyavidyā:

rītinirṇayaṃ suvarṇanābhaḥ

(kāvyamīmāṃsā —1)

In the Kāmasūtra of Vātsāyaṇa also says about this matter as:

suvarṇanābhaḥ sāmprayogikam’ |

(kāmasūtra - 1.1.13)

Śyāmadeva: Who was belongs to the contemporary of Rājaśekhara.

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā stated his opinion in thrice time but no other poet cannot refer his name anywhere:

(i) “kāvyakarmaṇi kaveḥ samādhiḥ paraṃ vyāpriyate” iti śyāmadevaḥ | (kā. mī. — 4)

(ii) “teṣāṃ pūrvaḥ pūrvaḥ śreyān” iti śyāmadevaḥ | (kā. mī. — 4)

(iii) “teṣāmuttarottarīyo(ro) garīyān ____________ ” iti śyāmadevaḥ | (kā. mī. — 5)

Udbhaṭa: A famous rhetorician critic of Alaṃkāraśāstra, belongs to Kāśmīra. However he has composed three works:

  1. Bhamāhavivaraṇa,
  2. Kumārasaṃbhava Kāvya and
  3. Alaṃkārasāra-saṃgraha.

But at present only one we can found. In the Rājataranginī, Kalhaṇa says that he has the sabhāpati (may be court poet) of king Jayapida and his salaries was one Lacks (hundred thousand) Dinner per day:

vidvāna, dīnāralakṣeṇa pratyahaṃ kṛtavetanaḥ |
bhaṭṭo'bhūdudbhaṭastasya bhūmibhartuḥ sabhāpatiḥ || ”

- rājataraṅgiṇī — 4.495

His doctrine known as the name of Audbhata and Rājaśekhara cited Udbhaṭa’s view’s two times in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā viz.

(i) “padānāmabhidhitsitārthagranthanākaraḥ sandarbho vākyam | “tasya ca tridhā'bhidhāvyāpāraḥ”

ityaudbhaṭāḥ |” (kā. mī. — 6)

(ii) so'yamitthaṅkāramullikhyopajīvyamāno niḥsīmā'rthasārthaḥ sampadyate | “astu nāma niḥsīmā'rthasārthaḥ | kintu dvirūpa evāsau vicāritasustho'vicāritaramaṇīyaśca [ iti ] | tayoḥ pūrvamāśritāni śāstrāṇi taduttaraṃ kāvyāni ” ityaudbhaṭāḥ |

(kāvyamīmāṃsā — 9)

Uktigarbhā: One of the eighteen disciples of the legendary Kāvya-puruṣa. He is supposed to have composed a treatise on Ukti adhikaraṇa. According to Rājaśekhara by saying:

auktikamuktigarbhaḥ’ .

(kāvyamīmāṃsā — 1)

Upamanya: One of the eighteen disciples of Kāvya-puruṣa.

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara posits him as the founder of Guṇa adhikaraṇa:

guṇaupādānikamupamanyuḥ

(kāvyamīmāṃsā — 1)

Upavarṣa: In the Kathāsaritasāgara of Somadeva declare that, he was the teacher (guru) of the grammarian Pānīni and Vararuchi.

In the tenth chapter of Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara says that Upavarsa’s poetic examine was held at Pātalīputra by saying:

śrūyate ca pāṭaliputre śāstrakāraparīkṣā —

atropavarṣavarṣāviha pāṇinipiṅgalāviha vyāḍiḥ |
vararucipatañjalī iha parīkṣitāḥ khyātimupajagmuḥ || ”

- kāvyamīmāṃsā — 10

Uśanas: Son of sage Bhṛgu. He is known as Sukrācārya and first ācārya of Nītiśāstra. The followers of Uśanas known as Auśanas.

Utathya: In the Ādiparva of Mahābhārata (66.4), he is the son of sage Aṅgīra, elder brother of Bṛhaṣpati, who obtaining instruction from Kāvya-puruṣa and composed a treatise on Arthaślesa by the saying in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā: ‘arthaśle ṣamutathyaḥ’. He also advice the Rājadharma to Mandhata in the Mahābhārata. (Śānti-90.91).

Vaikuṇṭha: It is another name of Lord Viṣṇu. Who is one of the sixty-four disciples of Śrikaṇṭha.

Vakpatirāja: An eminent poet of Prākṛta language, who known for his Prākṛta Mahākāvya, Gaudavaho.

For his pries Dhanapāla says:

dṛṣṭavā vākpatirājasya śaktiṃ gauḍavadhoddhūrāma |
vuddhiḥ śvāsoparuddheva vācaṃ na pratipadyate || ”

- tilakamañjarī

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara cited his views by saying: “na” iti vākpatirājaḥ | (kāvyamīmāṃsā — 12), there he disagree about views on ancient ācāryas.

Vālmīki: Which is another name of Prācetasa. Author of the Ādikāvya Śrimad Rāmāyaṇa. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara cited various ślokas from the Sundra-kānda and Kiṣkiṇḍhā-kāṇḍa of Rāmāyaṇa. (kāvyamīmāṃsā — 3 , 6 , 8 , 12 evaṃ 13)

Vāmanīyā: An ancient poet and critic, belonging to Kāśmīra and also wellknown for his famous work Kāvyālaṃkārasūtra. He was the mantrin of king Jayāditya. Rājaśekhara uses the word Vāmaniyā for the followers of Vāmana.

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā thrice time cited Vāmanas slokas:

(i) “kavayo'pi bhavanti” iti vāmanīyāḥ | (kā. mī. —4)

(ii) “tatra vivekinaḥ pūrve tadviparītāstu tato'nantarāḥ ” iti vāmanīyāḥ | (kā. mī. —4)

(iii) “āgrahaparigrahādapi padaistharyaparyavasāyastasmātpadānāṃ parivṛttivaimukhyaṃ pākaḥ” iti vāmanīyāḥ | (kā. mī. —5)

Vararuci: Possibly a number of literary men with this name occur in Indian history.

But there the one śloka referred to him as an grammarian and his work named Kaṇṭhāvaraṇa :

yathārthatāṃ kathaṃ nāmni mā bhūda vararuceriḥ |
vyadhatta kaṇṭhābharaṇaṃ yaḥ sadārohaṇapriyā || ”

- suktimuktāvalī

Varṣa: An ācārya of grammar and prior to Pānīni. According to Rājaśekhara his poetic examine held on Pātaliputra.

Vasudeva: In the historical evidance, there are two well-known kings named were Vāsudeva. But they are flourished in different times. It cannot be certain that between them which one Rājaśekhara refer in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā

Vyādi: A famous grammarian, who known for his work on grammar named Saṃgraha, composed with one lacks śloka. According to the tenth chapter of Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā, his poetic examine place was Pātaliputra and there his pries abloom in whole country.

Yāyāvarīya: The family of which the poet and critic Rājaśekhara was belongs. He was composed his Magnum-opus Kāvyamīmāṃsā in eighteen Adhikaraṇa. In this Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara cited fourth times in this name and established his own views by saying ‘iti yāyāvarīyaḥ’.

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