Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study)

by Debabrata Barai | 2014 | 105,667 words

This page relates ‘Poetic conventions regarding to the Gold, Jewels and Pearls’ of the English study on the Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara: a poetical encyclopedia from the 9th century dealing with the ancient Indian science of poetics and rhetoric (also know as alankara-shastra). The Kavya-mimamsa is written in eighteen chapters representing an educational framework for the poet (kavi) and instructs him in the science of applied poetics for the sake of making literature and poetry (kavya).

Part 7.8 - Poetic conventions regarding to the Gold, Jewels and Pearls

In poetic composition there are two types of convention on gold and jewels-

  1. Poets are describe gold and jewels in all mountain and
  2. Jewels are describe in everywhere in the oceans.

However, in all mountains have not gold or jewels, but poetic convention allows this description. Then in the poetic convention the river Tāmraparṇī is the abode of pearls but it obtain from Oysters.

(1) Poetic conventions relating to gold and jewels:

In mythological believe mountains are the source of gold and from these gold’s flowed through the rain water and deposited on the bank of rivers. There gold is not limited to any Particular Mountain, but the poets describe the particular mountain Meru only abode of gold. When the supreme creator Brahma created this universe, the mountain Meru being as nucleus.

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā it is described in the centre of Jambudvīpa as:

madhyejambudvīpamādyo girīṇāṃ merurnāmnā kāñcanaḥ śailarājaḥ |
yo mūrttā(yo'matyā)nāmauṣadhīnāṃ nidhānaṃ yaścāvāsaḥ sarvavṛndārakāṇām ||

tamenamavadhīkṛtya devenāmbujajanmanā |
niryagūdhvamadhastācca viśvasya racanā kṛtā || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XVII, Pp- 91-92

In the Mahābhārata illustrated this also in a śloka the golden mountain Meru is blazing as if it were a heap of splendor[1].

Then Rājaśekhara also illustrated about it as:

nāgāvāsaścitrapotābhirāmaḥ svargasphātivyāptadikacaktavālaḥ |
sāmyātsakhyaṃ jagmivānamburāśere ṣa khyātastena jīmūtabhartā || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIV, Pp- 79

Here mountain is describes as the abode of gold. Naturally gold and jewels are found in the mountain area but in poetic convention the production of jewels to any particular mountain is prohibited. However, Bhāravi[2], Kālidāsa and Rājaśekhara also described the jewels at particular mountains.

In the Kāvyānuśāsana (of Hemacandra), Kālidāsa describes:

anantaratnaprabhavasya yasya hima na saubhāgyavilopi jātam |
eko hi doṣo guṇāsannipāte nimajjatīndo kiraṇoṣvivāṅkaḥ || ”

- Kumārasambhava of Kālidāsa: Canto–I/3

Then Rājaśkhara illustrated this about the Indranīla mountain i.e.

nīlāśmaraśmipaṭalāni mahebhamuktasūktāraśarīkaravisṛñji taṭāntare ṣu |
ālokayanti saralīkṛtakaṇṭhanālāḥ sānandamambudadhiyā'tra mayūranāryaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIV, Pp- 79

Thereafter, another types of convention regarding gold and jewels no one ālaṃkārika says about it. Though some of the matter can be found in various descriptions.

In the Kumārasaṃbhava says that the whole jewels are preserved by oceans i.e.

tasyopāyanayogyāni ratnāni saritāṃ patiḥ |
kathamapyambhasāmantarāniṣpatteḥ pratīkṣate || ”

- Kumārasambhava of Kālidāsa: Canto-2/37

This is also says that the oceans are the abode for gold and jewels.

(2) Poetic conventions relating to the pearls:

In poetic convention the Tāmraparṇī River is described as the abode of pearls but it is also obtained from other places.

In the Raghuvaṃśa Kālidāsa says:

tāmraparṇīsametasya muktāsāraṃ mahodadheḥ |
te nipatya dadustasbhai yaśaḥ svamiva saṃcitam || ”

- Raghuvaṃśa of Kālidāsa: Canto–IV/ 50

Then in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā says about the nobility of the pearls of Tāmraparṇī with comparison of pearls of other places as:

kāmaṃ bhavantu sarito bhuvi sapratiṣṭhāḥ svādūni santu salilāni ca śuktayaśca |
etāṃ vihāya varavarṇini tā_mra_parṇī nānyatra sambhavati mauktikakāmadhenuḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIV, Pp- 80

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Mahābhārata: I/ 15/ 5-6

[2]:

Kirātārjuniya of Bharava: II/ 8

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