Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study)

by Debabrata Barai | 2014 | 105,667 words

This page relates ‘Nihnutayoni (2): Parapurapraveshasadrisha’ of the study on the Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara: a poetical encyclopedia from the 9th century dealing with the ancient Indian science of poetics and rhetoric (also know as alankara-shastra). The Kavya-mimamsa is written in eighteen chapters representing an educational framework for the poet (kavi) and instructs him in the science of applied poetics for the sake of making literature and poetry (kavya).

Part 6.1e - Nihnutayoni (2): Parapurapraveśasadṛśa

In a poetic composition where is substantial identity between two ślokas, but the diction is difference thus it is known as Parapurapraveśasadṛśa haraṇa.

C.f.

mūlaikyaṃ yatra bhaveratparikarabandhastu dūrato'nekaḥ|
tatparapurapraveśapratimaṃ kāvyaṃ sukavibhāvyam || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 64

It is the Rājaśekhara’s pure concepts which are added by old divisions. He we can seems that it may be developed the concepts Ānandavardhana’s classification of poetic theme.

C.f.

yasyārātinitambinībhirabhito vīkṣyāmbaraṃ prāvṛṣi
  sphu rjadgarjitanirjitāmbudhiravasphārābhravṛndākulam
|
utsṛṣṭaprasabhābhiṣeṇanabhayaspaṣṭapramodāśrubhiḥ
  kiñcitku ñcitalocanābhirasakṛdghrātāḥ kadambānilāḥ
||

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 64

Another example with same meaning as:

ācchidya priyataḥ kadambaku sumaṃ yasyāridārairnavaṃ
  yātrābhaṅgavidhāyino jalamucāṃ kālasya cihnaṃ mahat
|
hṛṣyadbhiḥ paricumvitaṃ nayanayornsastṛṃhadi sthāpitaṃ
  sīmante nihitaṃ kathañcana tataḥ karṇāvataṃsīkṛtam || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 64

Here in the first śloka described the queens are very happy to seeing the blooming of Kadamba flowers and the coming of rainy season. Because they believe that the king will not go for war during this time and will remain at home. The same idea also expressed in the second śloka and it excels the first śloka in diction. So it is an example for Parapurapraveśasadṛśa haraṇa.

Rājaśekhara also divided it into eight ways i.e.

  1. Huḍayuddha [huṇḍayuddha?],
  2. Pratikañcuka,
  3. Vastusañcāra [Vastusaṃcāra],
  4. Dhātuvāda,
  5. Satkāra,
  6. Jīvañjīvaka [Jīvañcīvaka?],
  7. Bhāvamudrā and
  8. Tadvirodhī [tadvirodhin].

a) Huḍayuddha :

upanibaddhasya vastuno yuktimatī parivṛttirhuḍayuddham |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 75

Means:

“In a poetic composition where an earlier idea based on certain resoning is transformitted into another with sufficient counter balances reasons. ”

For an example:

kathamasau na bhajatyaśarīratāṃ hatabivekapado hatamanmathaḥ |
praharataḥ kadalīdalakomale bhavati yasya dayā na vadhūjane || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 75

Another example with same meaning:

kathamasau madano na namasyatāṃ sthitavivekapado makaradhvajaḥ |
mṛgadṛśāṃ kadalīlalitaṃ vapuryadabhihanti śaraiḥ ku sumodbhavaiḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 75

Here in the first śloka substantiated the non-corporeal form of kāma by saying that he is cruel towards the sweet ladies by sending his arrows. Thus he deserves censure. In the second śloka, kāma is described to be adorable for he is striking the sweet ladies only with soft flowery arrow. There the idea expressed in the first śloka is reversed in the second one with substantial reason. Thus it is an example for Huḍayuddha haraṇa.

b) Pratikañcuka:

prakārāntare ṇa visadṛśaṃ yadvastu tasya nibandhaḥ pratikañcukam |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 75

Means:

“In a poetic composition when an earlier idea present in a śloka appears different due to a different mode of expression thus it is called Pratikañcuka haraṇa.”

C.f.

mādyañcakore kṣaṇatulyadhāmno dhārāṃ dadhānā madhunaḥ patantīm |
cañcvagradaṣṭotpalanālahṛdyā haṃsīva reje yāśiratnapārī [śaśiratnapārī?] || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 75

Another example with same meaning:

masārapāre ṇa babhau dadānā kācityurāṃ vidrumanālake na |
vallūravallīṃ dadhatevacañcvā ke līśuke nāñjalinā dhṛtena || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 75-76

Here in the both the ślokas liquor pots are described. They are compared to swan and parrot due to its difference in colour; the first one is made of Candrakānta and the other with Indranila respectively. This is an example for Pratikañcuka types of haraṇa.

c) Vastusañcāra:

upamānasyopamānāntaraparivṛttirvastusaṃcāraḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76

Means: when the standard of comparison used in the original śloka in changed and other standers are used thus it is called Vastusañcāra haraṇa. For an example:

aviralamiva dāmnā pauṇḍarīke ṇa baddhaḥ snapita iva ca dugdhastrotasā nirbhare ṇa |
kavalita iva kṛtsnaścakṣuṣā sphāritena prasabhamamṛtamegheneva sāndreṇa siktaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76

Another example with same meaning:

muktānāmiva rajjavo himarucermālāḥ kalānāmiva
  kṣīrābdhoriva vīcayaḥ klamamuṣa pīyūṣadhārā iva
|
dīrghāpāṅganadīṃ vilaṅdhaca sahasā līlānubhāvāñcitāḥ
  sadyaḥ premabharollasā mṛgadṛśo māmabhyaṣiñcandṛśaḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76

Here, in the both ślokas the comparison is of eyes but in the first śloka the eyes are compared with the lotuses and the second śloka it is shifted to the Jasmine. Thus it is an example of Vastusañcāra types of haraṇa.

250

d) Dhātuvāda:

śavdālaṅkārasyārthālaṅkāre ṇānyathātvaṃ dhātuvādaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76

Means:

“In a poetic composition when transformation of a Śabdālaṃkāra (figure of speech of word) into an Arthālaṃkāra (figure of speech of sense) is called Dhātuvāda haraṇa.”

For an example:

jayanti bāṇāsuramaulilālitāḥ daśāsyacūḍāmaṇicakracumbinaḥ |
surāsurādhīśaśikhāntaśāyino bhavacchidastryambakapādapāṃsavaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76

Another example with same meaning:

sanmārgālokanaprauḍhinirajīkṛtajantavaḥ |
jayantyapūrvavyāpārāḥ purāreḥ pādapāṃsavaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76

Here in the first śloka Śabdālaṃkāra Anuprāśa is shifted to the second śloka as Arthālaṃkāra Atiśayokti. But the idea remains in same. Thus it is an example of Dhātuvāda haraṇa.

e) Satkāra:

tasyaiva vastuna utkarṣeṇānyathākaraṇaṃ saṃskāraḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76

Means:

“In a poetic composition transferring of an older idea by means of elevation in a later śloka is called Satkāra haraṇa.”

For an example:

snānārdrārdraividhutakabarībandhalolairidānīṃ
  śroṇībhāraḥ kṛtaparicayaḥ pallavaiḥ ku ntalānām
|
apyetebhyo nabhasi patataḥ paṅkiśo vāribindun
  sthitvodgrīvaṃ ku valadṛśāṃ ke lihaṃsāḥ pibanti
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76

Another example with same meaning:

lakṣmyāḥ kṣīranidherudaktavapuṣo veṇīlatāgracyutā
  ye muktāgrathanāmasūtrasubhagāḥ prāptāḥ payobindavaḥ
|
te vaḥ pāntu viśeṣasaspṛhadṛśā dṛṣṭāściraṃ śārṅgiṇā
  helodrīvajaleyahaṃsavanitālīḍhāḥ sudhāsvādavaḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 76-77

Here in the first śloka the expressed idea is shifted to the second śloka in an elevated form. Thus it is an example for Satkāra haraṇa.

f) Jīvañjīvaka:

pūrva sadṛśaḥ paścādbhinno jīvañjīvakaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77

Means:

“When a śloka the first half is similar but the later half is unlike the original, we get the sub-division thus it called Jīvañjīvaka types of haraṇa.”

For an example:

nayanodarayoḥ kapolabhāge rucimadratnagaṇeṣu bhūṣaṇeṣu |
sakalapratibimbitendubimbā śatacandrābharaṇai(ṇe)va kācidāsīt || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77

Another example with same meaning:

bhāslatkapolatalaku ṇḍalapārihīryasanmekhalāmaṇigaṇapratibimbitena |
candreṇa bhāti ramaṇī ramaṇīyavaktraśobhābhiītavaṣeva niṣevyamāṇā || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77

Here the first śloka the hundred of moon that reflected in the eyes, cheeks and ornament of the heroine seems to be adorned with hundred of moons. But in the second śloka the leady with ornament reflecting the moon is said to excel moon in beauty. However the idea of the first halves of both ślokas remains the same, but the second śloka the face of leady is to be superior to moon. Thus it is an example of Jīvañjīvaka types of haraṇa.

g) Bhāvamudrā:

prāktanavākyābhiprāyanibandho bhāvamudrā |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77

Means:

“In a poetic composition when the sentences or idea of earlier poets are incorporated into later creations, thus it is known as Bhāvamudrā haraṇa.”

For an example:

tāmbulavallīpariṇaddhapūgāsvelālatāliṅgitacandanāsu |
tamalapatrāstaraṇāsu rantuṃ prasīda śaśvanmalayasthalīṣu || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77

Another example with same meaning:

niścetanānāmapi yuktayegado nūnaṃ sa enaṃ madano'dhitiṣṭati |
elā yadāśliṣṭavatīha candanaṃ pūgadrumaṃ nāgalatā'dhirohati || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77

Here in the second śloka the poet expresses the idea found in the first śloka of Kālidāsa. Thus it is an example of Kālidāsa. Thus it is an example of Bhāvamudrā types of haraṇa.

h) Tadvirodhī:

pūrvārthaparipanthinī vasturacanā tadvirodhī(dhinī) |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77

Means:

“In a poetic composition when earlier poets expressed the idea opposed by the later poet, thus arises the variety of Tadvirodhī haraṇa.”

For an example:

hāro vakṣasi dantapatraviśadaṃ karṇe dalama kaumudaṃ
  mālā mūrdhni dukūlinī tanulatā karpūraśuklau stanau
|
vakre candanabindurindudhavalaṃ bālaṃ mṛṇālaṃ kare
  veṣaḥ kiṃ sita eṣa sundari śaraccan_mra_ाttvayā śikṣitaḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77

Another example with same meaning:

mūrtirnīladuूkalinī mṛgamadaiḥ pratyaṅgapatriyā
  bāhu mecakaratnakaṅkaṇabhṛtau kaṇṭhe masārāvalī
|
vyālambālavallarīkamalikaṃ kāmtābhisārotsavo
  yatsatyaṃ tamasā mṛgākṣi vihitaṃ veṣe tavācāryakam
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 77-78

Here in the first śloka all the adjectives used to describe the prostitute is whitish whereas it is blackish in the second śloka. It is just opposite to first śloka. Thus it is an example for Tadvirodhī types of haraṇa.

In this way Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara classify the eight types of Parapurapraveśasadṛśa types of haraṇa of poetic themes, which is his purely invention to the Sanskrit poetics.

However Rājaśekhara advices after describing these thirty two types of appropriations that the real poetic skill lies in those who have the exact knowledge of the way that should be given up and adopted.

C.f.

śavdārthaśāsanavidaḥ kati no kavante yadvāṅmayaṃ śrutidhanasya cakāsti cakṣuḥ |
kintvasti yadvacasi vastu navaṃ saduktisandarbhiṇāṃ sa dhuri tasya giraḥ pavitrāḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 78

The Grammarian, Mīmāṃsaka and Nayāyikas have a profound knowledge of word and meanings. It is the learned scholars in whom the eyes are the entire discourse of literature and speech is original and presents novel insight that become the most eminent of poets words are honoured.

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