Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study)

by Debabrata Barai | 2014 | 105,667 words

This page relates ‘Meaning of Kavy-paka (maturity in poetic expression)’ of the English study on the Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara: a poetical encyclopedia from the 9th century dealing with the ancient Indian science of poetics and rhetoric (also know as alankara-shastra). The Kavya-mimamsa is written in eighteen chapters representing an educational framework for the poet (kavi) and instructs him in the science of applied poetics for the sake of making literature and poetry (kavya).

Part 3.8 - Meaning of Kāvy-pāka (maturity in poetic expression)

In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara’s discussion on Kāvya-pāka starts with the asking of meaning of Kāvya-pāka of ancient ācārya’s. Than Maṅgala replies, it is pariṇāma (maturity) of composing poetry.

Then he also gives the meaning of Kāvya-pāka as:

supāṃ tiṅāṃ ca śravaḥ yaiṣā vyutpattiḥ” iti maṅgalaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-V, Pp- 20

Means:

“it is the skill in the appropriate use of nouns and verbs.”

There Ācārya Bhāmaha also uses the similar views on this kāvya-pāka and says:

supāṃ tiṅāṃ ca vyutpattiṃ vācāṃ vāñchantyalaṃkṛtim |
tadetadāhuḥ sauśabdyaṃ nārthavyutpattirīdṛśī || ”

- Kāvyālaṃkāra (of Bhāmaha) of Bhāmaha: Ch-1/ 13

Means:

“The proper disposition of nouns and verbs constitutes the real ornaments of speech. That types Sauśabdya (beauty).”

In the Sarasvatīkaṇṭhāvarana Ācārya Bhoja says similar views.

C.f.

vyutpattiḥ suptiṅāṃ yā tu procyate sā suśabdatā |”

- Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja

But the Ācāryas opinion is differing from Maṅgala and defines Kāvya-pāka is nothing but Sauśabdya (correct and appropriate use of words); it is the unchangeability or inevitability of words.

This is competency of a kavi (poet) to select suitable words and put them into the appropriate places.

C.f.

padaniveśaniṣkampatā pākaḥ” ityācāryā |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-V, Pp- 20

This concept of Ācāryas about Kāvya-pāka also rejected by the Vāmana in his Kāvyālaṃkārasūṭra-vṛtti and says:

āgrahaparigrāhādapi padaistharyaparyavasāyastasmātpadānāṃ parivṛttivaimukhyaṃ pākaḥ” iti vāmanīyāḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-V, Pp- 20

Means:

“Insertion and deletion of words ultimately lead to the fixity of words. So the kāvya-pāka is a version of words (actually used) to interchangeably by means of their synonyms.”

Thus the experts or learned scholar defines in the appropriate use of words designate that as Śabda-pāka in which the words (actually used) are impossible to be substituted by their synonyms.

C.f.

yatpadāni tyajantyeva parivṛttisahiṣṇutāṃ |
taṃ śabdanyāyaniṣṇātāḥ śabdapākaṃ pracakṣate || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-V, Pp- 20

Furthermore, Avantīsundarī ridicules the views of Vāmana’s and extends the shape of kāvya-pāka as:

‘iyamaśaktirna punaḥ pākaḥ’ ityavantisundarī | yadekasminvastuni mahākavīnāmaneko'pi pāṭhaḥ paripākavānbhavati | tasmādrasocitaśabdārthasūktinibandhanaḥ pākaḥ |

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-V, Pp- 20

To Avantīsundarī, this is nothing but āsakti -lack of sākti and not Pāka. In the kāvya (poetry) of Mahākavi (eminent poets) the varied expressions in relation to one and the same thing attain perfect Maturity, the Kāvya-pāka, really speaking, consists in the arrangement or composition of words and senses proper to the development of rasa. There she including the modes of weaving or stringing together word and sense in consonance with appropriate propriety of Guṇa (excellence), Alaṃkāra (figure of words), Rīti (style) and Ukti (striking expression) is enjoyed or relished by connoisseurs of taste.

C.f.

guṇālaṅkārarītyuktiśabdārthagrathanakramaḥ |
svadate sudhiyāṃ yena vākyapākaḥ sa māṃ prati || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-V, Pp- 20

Ācārya Ānandavardhana in his Dhvanyāloka and Kṣmendra in his Aucityavicāracarcā use the term ‘Aucitya’ or ‘propriety’ in the position of Kāvya-pāka.

C.f.

aucityasya camatkārakāriṇaścārūcarvaṇe |
rasajīvitabhūtasya vicāraṃ ku rūte'dhunā || ”

- Aucityavicāracarcā of Kṣmendra: Ch- 1/3

There Vāmana also define Kāvya-pāka in his Kāvyālaṃkārasūṭra-vṛtti as:

guṇasphu ṭatvasākalye kāvyapākaṃ pracakṣate |
cūtasya pariṇāmina sa cāyamupamīyate || ”

- Kāvyālaṃkārasūṭra-vṛtti of Vāmana: Ch- 3/2/14

Means:

“Poetry is said to be ripe only when all the gunas are fully manifest; then it may be compared to the ripening of the mango.”

Rājaśekhara support the views of Avintīsundarī and quote a well-known verse in its favors.

C.f.

sati vaktari satyarthe śabde sati rase sati |
asti tanna binā yena parisravati vāṅmadhu || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-V, Pp- 20

Means:

“The aesthetic charm inherent in literature does not arise out of the presence of words and meanings; it requires Pāka (maturity of expression). The kāvya-pāka (maturity of poetic expression) adds perfections to a poetic composition.”

Thus Rājaśekhara identifies the definition of Kāvya-pāka as:

tasmādrasocitaśabdārthasūktinibandhanaḥ (naṃ) pākaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-V, Pp- 20

Means:

“To use Śabda (words) for aesthetic essence and for their quotable and epigrammatic density, while composing is Pāka (maturity of expression).”

It is still subject to usage of what is establishes by the sanction of the Sahṛdaya.

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