Jivanandana of Anandaraya Makhin (Study)

by G. D. Jayalakshmi | 2019 | 58,344 words

This page relates ‘Analysis of Buddhi (Queen of Jiva)’ of the study on the Jivanandana (in English) which is a dramatic play written by Anadaraya Makhin in the 18th century. The Jivanandana praises the excellence of Advaita Vedanta, Ayurveda (medical science) and Dramatic literature as the triple agency for obtaining everlasting bliss.

Buddhi, is the intellect of a human being and here it is personified as the wife of the hero, king Jīvarāja and hence is the queen.

Sage Bharata in his Nāṭyaśāstra provides four-fold division of the heroines as:

  1. divyā (divine),
  2. nṛpa-patnī (royal-consort),
  3. kulastrī (noble body) and
  4. gaṇikā (courtesan).

Again, he further divides them on the basis of their nature as:

  1. dhīrā (steady),
  2. lalitā (gay),
  3. udāttā (gallant) and
  4. nibhṛtā (grave).

In Jīvānandana Nāṭaka queen Buddhi as the nṛpa-patnī is dhīrā and udāttā.

The nṛpa-patnī is one, who has been crowned and is of high birth and character equal to that of the king; understanding the king’s character, she shares equally in his joys and sorrows and always desires the welfare of her husband. Bharata’s above given definition aptly suits queen Buddhi in every minute aspect.

Queen Bhuddhi’s entry with Jīva on the stage makes the minister admire her within himself.[1] On hearing the information received by him from the enemy-camp through Dhāraṇā, the queen is very much worried; and suiting her character as buddhi, she immediately asks about the next step to be taken.[2]

When the minister declares that Rasa and Gandhaka should be gained by worshipping lord Śiva and goddess Pārvatī, Buddhi decides to join her husband. She also joins in their narrations of the glory of lord Śiva and goddess Pārvatī

She puts in sharp questions to the minister, regarding the way of worshipping the divine couple (p.47):

kena punarupāyena tayoḥ prasādaḥ saṃpādanīyaḥ |

The place of worship (p.59):

devī-katamaṃ punardeśaṃ praviśya upāsanīyā ete |

And how to reach the place, Puṇḍarīkapura (p.60):

kathaṃ tatra praveśaḥ |

Suiting the dramatic tradition, queen Buddhi is portrayed as envious of Śivabhakti, about whom the king is vociferous. It is also natural that buddhi cannot easily accept bhakti as logical and reasonable. But here, only when buddhi is conjoined with bhakti, jīva can gain the grace of the Lord. Hence, the dramatist quite efficiently makes the character Buddhi never part with Jīva.

After returning successfully from their mission of obtaining Rasa and Gandhaka, Jīva and Buddhi meet Vijñāna.

Again, during this meeting, Buddhi asks searching questions to Vijñāna, regarding the power of Rasa and Gandhaka in driving out the enemy (End of Act III; p.177):

tat kathamidānīmetāvatāṃ rogāṇāṃ nigrahaḥ sukaraḥ |

She also appropriately asks the king about the availability of knowledgeable person who can correctly use them and is happy to know that Vijñāna Śarmā is the right person to handle them and use them in destroying the diseases (III.21/22; p.160):

buddhiḥāryaputra, kimete rasagandhakā ānyanirapekṣāḥ svayameva vipakṣakṣapaṇaṃ nirvahanti |
rājādevi divyauṣadhībhiḥ śodhitāḥ santo vividharasāyanadvārā uktasāmarthyā hyete |
devī—tadevaṃ saṃvidhānasamarthena kenāpi bhavitavyam |
rājā—vijṣānaśarmaiva ātra nirvoḍhā |

Again, she intelligently observes that Yakṣmā shows his ignorance in boasting about destroying Jīva since, when Jīva perishes, Yakṣmā too would perish (III. 34/35; p.174):

devī—āho ānātmanīnatvaṃ yakṣmahatakasya | yo'smāsu purānniṣkrānteṣu svayaṃ kutra sthasyāmīti ātmano'pi nāśaṃ na gaṇayati |

Buddhi’s participation in the swing-sport arranged by the minister in the royal gardens that evening, again highlights the capacity of the clever queen’s role in everystep of her life with her husband. Jīva has to relax before the severe ensuing war. Buddhi understands this and accedes to this plan of Vijñāna Śarmā.

The total involvement of Buddhi in the welfare of the kingdom is thus depicted by the playwright.

Footnotes and references:


kimapi niyamitāgraiḥ kuntalaiḥ snigdhalīlaiḥparilasadaparāṅgā dhārayantī dukūlam |
dhavalamupari bhartuścāmaraṃ dhūyamānaṃ viramayati kareṇa vyaktamākarṇanāya ||


I.38/39; p.46:
devī—(sodvegam) idānīṃ kiṃ kurmaḥ

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