Gati in Theory and Practice

by Dr. Sujatha Mohan | 2015 | 88,445 words

This page relates ‘Importance of Gati in Uparupakas’ of the study on the Theory and Practice of Gati (“gait”) which refers to the “movement of a character on the stage”, commonly employed (as a Sanskrit technical term) in ancient Indian Theatrics and the Dramatic arts, also known as Natya-shastra. This thesis explores the history and evolution of Gati and also investigates how the various Gatis are employed in regional performance traditions.

Importance of Gati in Uparūpakas

Uparūpakas are minor varieties of rūpakas. Gati plays an important role in these varieties. Here gati can be found as movements, gaits, group formations, rhythmical patterns, dance, imitating other beings, etc.

Bharata has also enumerated another variety of drama other than these ten, which is known as nāṭika. Kohala must have described about the other forms of dramas, which were known as uparūpakas. Bharata himself says Kohala will add the rest of the topics in uttaratantra. śeṣamuttaratantreṇa kohalastu kariṣyati[1]

Nāṭika, mentioned by Bharata, later paves way for the uparūpakas. Considering nāṭika enumerated by Bharata as a form of minor drama, the other uparūpakas should have evolved in due course. During the 9th and 10th centuries, a number of short, dramas were written with more of entertainment elements. About eighteen to twenty varieties of these, referred to as ‘uparūpakas’, minor theatrical forms, are described in works of dramaturgy, attesting the freedom, imagination and experimentations which the classical writers, often criticized for their rule-ridden and tradition-bound minds, indulged in.[2]

Music was an important element in these dramas.[3] The textual portions, when sung, created more interest in the audience. Though the dhruvā songs were important aspects in rūpakas, the musical elements in uparūpakas were useful to determine the rhythm of the gait in entry and exit and other movements in the main play as well. The change in Sanskrit theatre from rūpakas to uparūpakas is marked by the increasing usage of music and dance. Thus, these two arts took an important place in the performance of these minor forms of theatres.

Post-Bharata authors have mentioned many varieties of uparūpakas. They are:

  1. nāṭikā,
  2. troṭaka,
  3. saṭṭaka,
  4. bhāṇikā,
  5. ḍombikā,
  6. rāsaka,
  7. nāṭyarāsaka,
  8. daṇḍarāsaka,
  9. prasthānaka,
  10. nartanaka,
  11. hallīsaka,
  12. rāgakāvya,
  13. ullopyaka,
  14. preksaṇaka,
  15. sallāpaka,
  16. śilpaka,
  17. goṣṭī,
  18. śrīgadita,
  19. durmallī,
  20. mallikā,
  21. vilāsikā,
  22. pārijātaka,
  23. rāmakrīḍā.

And so on. Music and dance formed an integral part in uparūpakas. These can be related to present day dance-drama forms. In uparūpakas, even the dialogues pertaining to vācika abhinaya were sung in musical notes and danced. So āṅgika abhinaya became prominent. Kaiśikī vṛtti is predominantly found in these forms. Out of these uparūpakas, nāṭikā and troṭaka are famous.

Kohala is said to be the first person to talk about the uparūpakas, but his works are not available Dhananjaya’s Daśarūpaka, Bhoja’s Śṛṅgāraprakāsa, Abhinavabhārati and others works of the medieval period can be considered as the available sources for uparūpakas. Bhoja gives a detailed description of uparūpakas. Later writers such as Śāradātanaya, Sāgaranandin and Visvanātha also have elaborated on this topic. Śāradātanaya has taken many verses from Bhoja’s work and explained further.

Abhinavagupta in this verse mentions the names of uparūpakas such as troṭaka, saṭṭaka, rāsaka, and so on as dealt with by Kohala.

ukta vyākhyāne tu kohalādi lakṣita toṭakasaṭṭa karāsakādi[4]

Abhinava mentions the names of many uparūpakas such as prasthānaka, śilpaka, bhāṇaka, rāgakāvya, bhāṇikā, preraṇa, rāmakrīḍā, rāsaka, hallīsaka, and quotes many lines from the uparūpakas called ḍombikā in his Abhinavabhārati.

Other than this, Abhinava quotes Kohala’s verse on an uparūpaka called kāvya. Abhinava says that the uparūpakas are predominantly music and dance oriented. Nāṭika, which has the features of nāṭaka and prakaraṇa, is mentioned in Nāṭyaśāstra. Troṭaka is similar to nāṭaka and saṭṭaka is mostly in Prakrt. He says nāṭika, troṭaka, and saṭṭaka are to be known as rūpakas only, but ḍombika and others alike are of music and gestures, and they do not have much of speech.

Abhinava quotes[5] ancient authorities giving the definitions of ḍombikā and calls them as nṛttātmaka:

ete prabandhā nṛttatmakāḥ na nāṭyātmakanāṭakādivilakṣaṇāḥ |[6]

Bhoja mentions twelve varieties of rūpakas and uparūpakas each. Rūpakas are nāṭika and saṭṭaka along with Bharata’s daśarūpakas. Uparūpakas are śrīgadita, durmallika, prasthānaka, kāvya or citrakāvya, bhāṇa (śuddha, citra and saṅkīrṇa), bhāṇikā, goṣṭī, hallīsaka, nartanaka, preksaṇaka, rāsaka, and nāṭyarāsaka also known as carcarī. Bhoja leaves troṭaka and ḍombikā.[7]

Śāradātanaya says, the sub-group of rūpakas, that is uparūpakas, is of twenty nṛtyabedhas, which are performed as padārtha abhinaya. He also adds that the ten rūpakas are rasātmaka and the twenty are bhāvatmaka.[8] He separates nāṭika, saṭṭaka and troṭaka as parts of nāṭaka and prakaraṇa and gives ḍombikā, śrīgadita, bhāṇa, bhāṇikā, prasthānaka, rāsaka and kāvya are seven of nṛtyātmaka varieties.[9] Visvanatha added one variety called prakariṇikā, similar to nāṭika as an uparūpaka.[10]

The Nāṭyaśāstra does not mention any uparūpakas, but treats of nāṭika. However, later writers describe a number of dance and musical operatic ballets. Some of the rūpakas, like vīthi and āṅga, cannot be termed as proper dramas. The same way, some uparūpakas, like nāṭika, and troṭaka, are similar to major types of dramas. Some of these dramas, like rāsaka, hallīsaka, nartanaka, chalita, sāmya, lāsya, and so are still in the form of dance. Some of these are evidently derived from the system of dance given in the Nāṭyaśāstra, especially the lāsya.[11] This is danced by one person, but it is to be used in a play, hence presumably not independently as a performance on its own.

1. Nāṭikā

Nāṭikā has an imaginative plot but the hero is a well-known figure. The story should center on a maiden in the harem or a damsel of the music hall. Consisting mostly of women characters the play should have four acts, should abound in śṛṅgāra rasa and kaiśikī vṛtti. It should have more of dance, music and recitative elements.

antaḥpurasaṅgītakakanyāmadhikṛtya kartavyā ||
strīprāyā caturaṅkālalitābhinayātmikāsuvihitāṅgī |
bahunṛttapāṭyagītā ratisambhogātmikācaiva ||[12]

This type of dance-drama had predominantly used gaits based on nṛtta, which has movements and rhythm.

Bhoja’s definition is same as Bharata’s and he adds nāṭikā under prakaraṇa and the nāṭaka variety of rūpaka as Bharata. Nāṭikā comes from prakaraṇa and the story is specifically defined by aṅgas, or parts, and has lalita abhinaya.[13] The carcarī dances are employed in this play.[14] They can be performed with nṛtta gati. Śāradātanaya opines nāṭika, saṭṭaka and troṭaka are all parts of nāṭaka and prakaraṇa. Nāyaka is dhīralalita. Ratnāvali, priyadarśikā, and the like, are examples of nāṭika.[15] Mālavikāgnimitra is also considered as nāṭika.

2. Troṭaka

Troṭaka is considered as a musical play, because music with dance and songs play a prominent part. Music and dance, like carcari and dvipadi[16] are seen in this. This involves more of dance like gaits. We also hear of a dance called troṭaka.[17] Vikramorvaśīya is an example of this type.

3. Saṭṭaka

This is a musical play in the kaiśikī and bhāratī style, in which the dialogues were often sung. The carcarī and calli dances are employed in this play. Rajasekhara’s Karpūramañjari is an example of this type.[18] The prologue of this drama states that saṭṭaka is to be danced. Groups of dancers are described in this. They should appear successively and could be in different groups, unless the same group is to re-appear, sometimes with a change of costume, instruments and other props. Here, different nṛtta gatis can be performed.

Another verse states that the shoulders leads with the arms and lands on another dancers shoulder, accurate in line and two lines facing each other a calli pattern, in rhythm and tempo, is performed. This resembles the latābandha piṇḍi described by Bharata.[19] The calli is of nṛtta type, accompanied by a huḍukka, a kind of drum, which occurred in ḍombikā and another kind of uparūpakas. “A deer eyed girl sounding a modulated huḍukka, with the noise of delightful maddala, has started performing a calli rite with the arm like creepers moving in the series. The dance of yogiṇis is described. Other performers form a play of dancing of a circle, having loud noise of anklets, a tinkling of bells and its rhythm is regulated by the tempo of a song in their throats. This last dance is not named.[20]

4. Ḍombikā:

The ḍombikā comes under the varieties of dance. Abhinava explains ḍombī as distinguishing, the dancer imitates the role of the heroine by appearing in her form. This is a type, like a nauch, done by a single nartakī, songs are sung by accompanying singers and the dancer dances. Ḍombī is a kind of drum and a class of community, of people accomplished in music and dance. This ḍombī does not interpret the words and meanings of the songs closely in abhinayas, that is, she does not perform the pada-artha abhinaya. On the other hand, she does actions in accordance with the character and the theme, like the suggestive action of brows and eyes and some simple movements of hands, such as figure in normal human activity and speech. The ḍombī concentrates on the song, dance movements and poses, which she, the nartakī, executes according to the laya of the song. These should be the nṛttakaraṇas, which are based on the rhythm and can be performed for vākyārtha abhinaya. During these dance interludes, the huḍukka drum is played as an accompanist and Abhinava states that in the vernacular, this is called cillmārga. (This should be similar to calli dance mentioned in saṭṭaka). Ḍombī comes under one act plays. Abhinava says that Ranaka and others in their Ḍombikās, and the like, arrange four apsaras who exits when the dancer (ḍombī) leaves the stage.[21] This structure may correspond to that in the four vastus of calita and other dances. This observation is made in connection with group dances (piṇḍibandhas). Thus, it relates to the group of dancers who dance, when the solo ḍombī, completes a scene or exit. This is similar to the dance in the pūrvaraṅga, where Bharata states that the nartakī should exit and the other four dancers should enter.[22] Ḍombikā has kaiśikī and bhāratī vṛtti, virā śṛṅgāra rasa, ślakṣṇa nepathya and all the ten lāsyāṅgas can be used accordingly.[23] Where the mind of the king gets attracted by the words depicting the hidden love it is then ḍombikā.[24]

5. Bhāṇa

According to Sṛṅgāraprakāśa and Bhāvaprakāśa, Bhāṇa comes under uparūpakas. It is in praise of the Gods. There are no female characters and more of forceful actions. It has description of Narasiṃha and the boar with forceful actions. There are pauses and variations in rhythm of songs. Bhāṇa is of three types; śuddha, saṅkīrna and citra. It is also based on lalita and uddhata. The tālas such as rathyā, dvipatha, bhagnatāla and mārganikā.[25] The dancer will perform description of Narasiṃha, Sūkara and gati of gaja, which will also be there along with song and dance.[26]

6. Bhāṇikā

This is a dance similar to bhāṇa, but delicate in nature, Sukumāra prayoga, of bhāṇa is bhāṇikā. He distinguished the bhāṇikā from bhaṇi, in which the heroine dances using all the lāsyāṅgas. He says it should have divya cārīs and lalita karaṇas. Nṛtta punctuated by tāla and laya.62,63 Śāradātanaya adds that, actions of playful fight of young ones of sūkara and siṃhas, and fight with flag staffs comes under bhāṇikā.[27] Abhinava calls bhāṇikā as masrnoḍhata gracefully forceful.[28] Bhaṇī is a kind of imitative musical dance. Visvanatha says, it is of kaiśikī and bhāratī style.[29]

7. Rāsaka:

Bhoja says rāsaka is where sixteen or twelve dancers dance in the forms of piṇḍībandhas, like piṇḍī, śṛṅkalā, bhedyaka and latha. These have forceful and delicate movements of the body and the piṇḍīs project vākyartha abhinaya and not pādārtha abhinaya.[30] Sixteen, twelve or eight girls dance in various patterns such as piṇḍībandhas.[31] It should be noted here that, even though this definition is for rāsaka, Śāradātanaya brings this under the heading of Nāṭyarāsaka. The various definitions of rāsaka in Bhāvaprakasa, clearly suggest that it was originally a form of dance, which is suggested by the definitions of Nāṭyadarpana.

According to Abhinava, rāsaka is of two types: soft and excited. It is to be performed by a number of dancing women with a maximum of sixty-four pairs, with charming rhythms.[32] The dancers form various decorative patterns, often representing various objects.[33] These patterns can be danced only through piṇḍībandhas. Bharata refers to piṇḍīs, such as triśūla, hala, sarpa, pāśa, dhārā, padma, and others.[34] Alaka in his commentary on Ratnakara’s Haravijaya, quotes Kohala on the rāsakāṅka (rāsaka) as a kind of play.[35] Rāsaka is in the kaiśikī style. It employs all the arts like music and dance in it. Harivaṃśa mentions chalikya and Bhāmaha mentions dvipadī along with rāsaka.[36] The early definitions of rāsaka suggests that it was not meant for mere recitation or reading, but was composed with a view of being sung and danced. It must have been originally a piece of folk dance and music. The style is delicate or forceful and it is in different tālas. The women sing and dance but there is no abhinaya. They do only pure dance or nṛtta, but what is noteworthy is that they execute many patterns through piṇḍīs. Rāsaka is also defined as a dance that which is of first love, where there is description of vasanta ṛtu.[37] Another variety is danced in circles. Each and every nāyikā will have hero like Hari for gopikas. There will be many nartakīs, like sixty-four pairs and a variety of tāla and laya.[38] This is of soft and forceful type.[39]

8. Nāṭyarāsaka:

This is a kind of uparūpaka, which is predominant with rhythm and tempo.[40] When the female dancers depict their love towards the king it is nāṭyarāsaka.[41] This has also the lāsyāṅgas, which are graceful dance elements.[42] The name nāṭyarāsaka is more like a play, but many works say it has much of the elements of nṛtta. Bhoja opines it is otherwise known as carcarī, for example the one at the opening of the drama Ratnāvali, performs rhythmic syllables along with instruments. The performance ends with a benedictory verse, referring to the gods having danced, thus when they got the nectar by the churning of the ocean. It would seem that the carcarī might form a part of nāṭyarāsaka as described by Sāgaranandin.[43] Bhoja also brings this under nāṭyarāsaka. In the performance of nāṭyarāsaka, carcarī is performed with varṇatāla, wherein two dancers enter in samacaryā, holding one another by their limbs and move towards the right and left. Then they remain stationery with their right knees advanced in ālīḍha sthāna. The instrumental beats become faster set in fives, fours and threes. This will be danced by two persons embracing and clapping hands with each other, circling and moving out. They retire after some dancing and then enter the other pair of female artists. This new pair performs the scattering of flowers by mātra tāla. Their exit and entrance must be simultaneous. After this, other characters may enter with arpaṇaka (paṇava) tāla and rathyā varṇas. Then the singers sing the śuṣkagīta prayoga and the dancers form the piṇḍībandhas. Then there may occur valinika tāla śuṣkavarṇa prayoga and murajavādya may be beaten. Thus with such dancing, the first apsara would be over. Three such apsaras with dancing, as before should be performed, with proper rhythm and end with auspicious words. Hence, the laya which encompasses variety of instruments, along with co-ordination of words, which which has two varieties, combination of cārīs, khaṇḍas and maṇḍalas is called rāsaka, says Bhoja.[44] This is also given by Śāradātanaya.[45]

9. Daṇḍarāsaka

This is a variety of rāsaka. Karpūramañjari notes that thirty-two nartakīs circling round in beautiful patterns, sporting their feet with the rhythm where a stick dance is seen and with their steps and sticks in their hands associated with the tāla. They wheel round or cross each other, dividing themselves in two rows of sixteen and form variegated patterns (vicitra bandhas).[46] The rhythmic feet variations are of nṛttagati.

The Saṅgītasamayasāra has a long description of the daṇḍarāsaka starting with a pair of dancers, who entered first and then bringing on other dancers, they go up to eight or more pairs. It says that, they danced facing each other, and as they executed their elaborate dances, by stepping and wheeling, they formed different sthānas, karaṇas and piṇḍibandhas.[47]

The Nṛttaratnāvalī also has a long description of daṇḍarāsaka and mentions that in the place of sticks, the dancers hold a fly whisk, sword and the like also.[48] A variation of this rāsa is what is popularly called ḍāṇḍyārās, which is the same as daṇḍarāsaka. All these are classified under the deśī dance forms and they have a variety of nṛtta gatis.

10. Prasthānaka:

This is in the kaiśikī style and is full of rhythm and tempo.[49] Apsaras perform the dance patterns of khaṇḍas.[50] According to Abhinava, this is characterized by descriptive gestures. He also says that it should be performed in both the styles of tāṇḍava and lāsya, with the latter predominating. The striking details mentioned by him is that, there is imitation of the gait and movement of animals, like elephants.[51]

11. Nartanaka:

When a female performs a charming dance, representing a particular incident in keeping padārtha abhinaya with laya, it is nartanaka.[52] It is of various types, such as samya, lāsya, chalita, dvipadī and so on. Then it is pointed out that samya is a delicate dance performed by kūrnaras (celestial singers), chalita is full of sentiments like śṛṅgāra, virā, raudra and dvipadī is a chando bedha, where as lāsya is full of śṛṅgāra. According to Bhāvaprakaśa this should have chalika, lāsya with samarthyā, sutāla and caturaśra.[53]

Bhoja mentions important features of nartanaka. Nartanakas are performed in slow tempo with elegant movements, and the abhinaya of transitory moods of the rasas. According to him samya, lāsya, chalika and dvipadī are the only forms. Samya means the short multi colored span-long sticks that the dancers used for striking the rhythm in their dance form, which the dance gets that name. Samya also means one of the hand actions in beating the poems for keeping tāla. Therefore as dance, samya is done by female dancers either by keeping the tāla with strikes, in which case it will be daṇḍarāsaka. Dvipadī is the name of laya, which is a musical composition and dance can be set for that based on the rhythm.

12. Hallīśa:

This is a kind of dance where women dance in a circle. Moreover, there is only one hero among them, like Kṛṣna among the gopis. The dancer does the padārtha abhinaya with delicate laya.[54] This is also given by other authors.[55] In the drama Bālacarita, there is a reference to a hallīsaka dance where Lord Kṛṣna dances with the cowherd girls.[56] The kāmasūtra mentions hallīsaka as a group of dancers.[57]

Śāradātanaya says that this dance has seven, eight, nine or ten female dancers, with the graceful style of music and dance; predominating with geyalāsya and khaṇḍa tālalaya types of rhythm and tempo.[58]

13. Kāvya:

This is a kind of imitative dance and is an inter play of song and dance.[59] Different kinds of tālas and songs are prescribed for this.

khaṇḍamātrādvipadikā bhagnatālairalaṅkṛtam |[60]

At times lāsya is also done. It is full of technical musical details concerning the composition, rāga and tāla. It is also known as rāgakāvya, which is sung and interpreted in gestures. Bhoja explains this as citrakāvya. Kāvya according to Bhoja has sthūtī in praise of Viṣṇu, Śiva, the Sun god Subrahmanya, or Śivagana. Uddhata description without female characters and songs praising good qualities and music with viśrāma (pause) is present.[61] This is somewhat similar to bhāṇa.

14. Ullopyaka:

Abundant in bright costumes and jewelry with a clever hero and heroine, this is a one act play based on hāsya, śṛṅgāra and karuṇa rasa. It is delightful with songs in triplets[62] and has been explained in Gāndharva nirṇaya.

15. Preksaṇaka:

This is of padārtha abhinaya, delicate with rhythm; it starts with the nartakī and then proceeds with the nartakas. Lāsya is of two types: chalika and samarathyā. It is accompanied with good tāla of caturaśra.[63] It has description of seasons and has forceful movements.[64]

16. Sallāpaka:

Abundant in virā and raudra rasas; sāttvatī and ārabhaṭī vṛttis and is of full fighting sequences and rhythmic compositions. dvitīyāṅketālapracurya yugbhavet |[65]

17. Śilpaka:

This is kind of pantomime, which has all the four vṛttis.[66] Kaiśikī and ārabhaṭi are known for the āṅgika aspects.

18. Goṣṭī:

This is based on the kaiśikī vṛtti and thus enriched with music and dance. Only līlās of gopālas, like Kṛṣna killing rākṣasas, will be presented.[67] Destruction of enemies and asuras can be seen in goṣṭī.[68] There is reference to Kṛṣna goṣṭī in Harivaṃśa.[69]

19. Kalpavallī:

This is based on hāsya and śṛṅgāra rasa. The nāyaka is udātta lalita and the nāyikā, vāsakasajja and then abhisārika. The song is in dvipadī khaṇḍa and the tāla is rathyā rāsaka. There are three layas and ten lāsyāṅgas. layatrayayutā lāsya daśakena samanvitā |[70] Beautiful descriptions are seen in the type. Thus, there is scope for abhinaya and gati.

20. Srīgadita:

The hero is popular udāttanāyaka and the heroine, who is vipralambha, singing songs and waiting for her lover.[71] Here the gait can be mostly in vilambagati—slow speed.

21. Durmallikā:

Durmallikā is also called mattallika.[72] It consists of kaiśikī style.[73] This is predominant in śṛṅgāra rasa and is presented with descriptions of spring, which enhances the śṛṅgāra rasa concluding with virā. There are dhruvās containing ākṣiptikā variety of mātra and bhagnatāla.[74]

22. Mallikā:

Mallikā enhances the bhoga śṛṅgāra rasa. This is based on laya and tāla and has dvipadī and rathyā rāsaka tāla. It is predominant in the kaiśikī style.[75] This has graceful movements and gaits.

23. Vilāsikā:

Vilāsikā is also known as lāsaka and has all the ten lāsyāṅgas. Bharata says the lāsyāṅgas are elements of lāsya, which has graceful dance. śṛṅgāra bahulaikāṅkādaśalāsyāṅgasaṃyutā |[76]

24. Pārijātaka:

This is also called Pārijātalatā. This type has varṇamātra and khaṇḍatāla. It is based on vīrā and śṛṅgāra rasa. The nāyakas are devas and kṣatriyas (udāttanāyaka) and the nāyikā is kalahāntaritā, bhogini, svīyā or gaṇikā.

Four to eight dancers of daṇḍarāsaka are present.

tāḥ syuḥ aṣṭau catusraḥ syurdaṇḍarāsakanartanāḥ |[77]

It has playful acts of the Vidūṣaka. Therefore, vikaṭa karaṇas are in use.

25. Rāmakrīḍā:

A dance called preraṇa is performed in this uparūpaka. Preraṇa is a deśī dance described by Jāya in an elaborate way. It is a dance based on the rhythmic aspects of tapping the feet. Thus, varieties of nṛttagatis are performed in this dance.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Ibid.XXXVII.-18.

[2]:

Sanskrit Drama–Its Aesthetics and Production Dr. V. Raghavan Page 3:

[3]:

Nāṭyaśāstra XXXII.436.

[4]:

Nāṭyaśāstra Vol.II.com.

[5]:

Ibid.IV.p.181.

[6]:

Ibid.IV.p.183.

[7]:

Sṛṅgāra-prakaśa p.466.

[8]:

Bhāvaprakāśa VIII. p.221.

[9]:

Ibid. p. 256. Line. 4-6.

[10]:

Sah.D.VI.306.

[11]:

Nāṭyaśāstra XX.

[12]:

Ibid.XX. 56-58.

[13]:

Sṛṅgāra-prakaśa Ch. 11. pp. 465,466.

[14]:

Supra. 3.1.2.8.

[15]:

Bhāvaprakāśa VIII.p.243.244

[16]:

Supra 3.1.2.

[17]:

Daśarūpaka I. 40-41

[18]:

Bhāvaprakāśa IX.

[19]:

Infra 1.7.10.

[20]:

Kar.M. IV.10-18.

[21]:

Nāṭyaśāstra IV. p.188.

[22]:

Ibid. IV.

[23]:

Bhāvaprakāśa IX.p.257.

[24]:

Ibid.p.265.

[25]:

Ibid.IX.p.258.261.

[26]:

Ibid.p.266.

[27]:

Ibid. p. 266.

[28]:

Nāṭyaśāstra Vol.I. com.p.181.

[29]:

Sah.D. VI. 308.

[30]:

Sṛṅgāra-prakaśa XI.p.468.

[31]:

Bhāvaprakāśa pp.263,264.

[32]:

Nāṭyaśāstra IV.com.pp.181-183.

[33]:

Ibid.IV.com.pp.167-190.

[34]:

Nāṭyaśāstra IV.

[35]:

H.V.XVII. com.108.

[36]:

Harivaṃśa II.88.

[37]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p.265

[38]:

Ibid.p.266

[39]:

Nṛttaratnāvalī p.412.

[41]:

Sṛṅgāra-prakaśa P.468. Nāṭyadarpaṇa p.315.

[43]:

Nṛtyaratnakośa

[44]:

Sṛṅgāra-prakaśa p.468.

[45]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p.264.Nāṭyadarpaṇa p.315.

[46]:

Kar.M. IV.11.

[47]:

Saṅgīta-sārāmṛta S.VII.

[48]:

Nṛttaratnāvalī VII.101-107.

[49]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p. 262S.D VI.281.

[50]:

Nāṭyadarpaṇa p.214.

[51]:

Nāṭyaśāstra Abhinava-bhāratī Vol.I.

[52]:

BP.I.p.363.

[53]:

Ibid.I.p.104

[54]:

SP. P.467.

[55]:

ND.13.6. ABh. Vol.1. P 181.

[56]:

Bal.C. III. Pp. 539-540.

[57]:

Kam.Su. II. 10. 25. P 154.

[58]:

Bhāvaprakāśa pp. 266, 267.

[59]:

Daśarūpaka com pg 2.

[60]:

Sāhitya-darpaṇa VI. 284.

[61]:

Sṛṅgāra-prakaśa P 466.

[62]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p.266.

[63]:

Ibid. p.263.

[64]:

Ibid.p.266.

[65]:

Ibid.p.256

[66]:

Ibid.p.257. SD.VI.296.

[67]:

Ibid.p.256

[68]:

Sṛṅgāra-prakaśa Pg 467.

[69]:

Harivaṃśa Ch.91-97

[70]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p. 268.

[71]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p.258.

[72]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p. 267.

[73]:

Sāhitya-darpaṇa VI.303.

[74]:

Sṛṅgāra-prakaśa p.466.

[75]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p.267.

[76]:

Sāhitya-darpaṇa VI.301.

[77]:

Bhāvaprakāśa p. 268

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