Expiatory Rites in Keralite Tantra

by T. S. Syamkumar | 2017 | 59,416 words

This page relates ‘Expiatory Rites in Tantrasamuccaya’ of the study on Expiatory Rites in Sanskrit literature and ancient Indian religion and society, with special reference to Keralite Tantra. Further references to texts include those found in Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism as well as Dharmashastra literature. This study also investigates temple records and inscriptions of Kerala in order to demonstrate the connection between social life and expiatory rites and its evolution.

Tantrasamuccaya is the most popular work in the history of Kerala Tantric literature.

T. Ganapati Shastri rightly observed thus:

“The Tantrasamuccaya is a collection of subjects dealing with the rituals of consecration, daily worship, festivals and other kindred matters of the deities in temples which are elaborately explained in ancient original Tantric literature. It is now accepted as the high authority in Kerala on matters connected with the temple worship.”[1]

The author of this work is Nārāyaṇa, a member of the famous Brahmin family Cennās (Jayantamaṅgalaṃ) near Edappal in Malappuram district. Scholars confirmed that the work was composed in the second half of 15th century CE.[2] The text is divided in to 12 chapters. Vimarśini (by Śaṅkara) and Vivaraṇa (by Kṛṣṇa Śarman) are the two commentaries of Tantrasamuccaya Kuḻikkāṭṭupacca is one of the important Malayalam commentary composed by Maheśvaran Bhaṭṭatiri of Kuḻikkāṭṭu Illaṃ. The tenth Paṭala of Tantrasamuccaya describes various kinds of expiatory rites for the removal of impurities and bad effects.

1. Causes Leading to Expiatory Rites in Tantrasamuccaya

In contrast to early texts, Tantrasamuccaya deals expiations linked with seven deities. Hence it maintains several common characteristics in the elucidation of impurities and its expiations. According to Tantrasamuccaya the causes that affects the sanctum sanctorum and temple compound are the occurrence of death and birth in temple courtyard and Maṇḍapa, falling of urine and blood in the temple, entry of outcastes and also the entry of owl, hawk, crow, dog, ass, camel, jackal, monkey and serpent. Shake and falling down of idol, presence of perspiration in idol, feeling sorrow and laughter in the idol, presence of mushroom and worm in the sanctum sanctorum, omissions of rituals are the other causes that affect the purity of the temple. Use of heretic and sorcery Mantras, worshipping with the hymns of another deities, use of impure and unfit flowers, water, Nivedya and other offerings, smearing of severe and pungent substances like pepper etc. are also the causes of bad effects in temples.[3]

2. Different Expiatory Rites in Tantrasamuccaya

Tantrasamuccaya recommended various needed expiations for all the above mentioned contexts. Tantrasamuccaya consider that the idol and temple are the body of the deity. Hence the bad effect and impurity together affect the idol and the temple compound. So the expiations are recommended to be performed in sanctum sanctorum, temple courtyard and in the idol.[4] Some of the different kinds of expiatory rituals suggested in Tantrasamuccaya are given below.

2.1. Sthānaśuddhi and Bimbaśuddhi

Tantrasamuccaya indicate seven kinds of Sthānaśuddhi (purification of the affected place) and Bimbaśuddhi (purification of the idol) for the removal of impurity:

khananaṃ haraṇaṃ dāhaḥ pūraṇaṃ gonivāsanam |
viprocchiṣṭaṃ ca gavyaṃ ca saptaitāḥ sthanaśuddhayaḥ ||

These seven types of purification are also elucidated in Viṣṇusaṃhitā, with detailed description.[6] An addition seen in Tantrasamuccaya is that the polluted place is to be dug with a spade of Khadira wood (Mimomsa Catechu) and the chanting the Astramantra of particular deity at that time. The removed soil is to be deposited in the southeast corner of the temple compound. After the removal of the soil, the polluted place is burnt with Darbha grass and Samit with the chanting of Astramantra. After the removal of ash, the affected place should be sprinkled with cow’s urine, water sanctified by washing the feet of Brahmin and Pañcagavya. After performing the sprinkling of sanctified water, an Aṣṭadala diagram (Lotus with eight petals) is to be drawn there and the worship of particular deity with Mūlamantra is to be performed. If the affected place is especially related to the temple, an additional Puṇyāha and Prāsādaśuddhi should be performed.[7] Tantrasamuccaya elucidate seven types of purification of the idol.

They are washing, plunging, bathing, rubbing, pouring, submerging and dipping in water:

kṣālanaplāvanasnānamārjanāni yathākramam |
dhārāvagāhasekāśca saptaitā bimbaśuddhayaḥ ||

These seven kinds of purification are also seen in the earliest ritual manuals of Kerala.

2.2. Catuśśuddhi, Dhārā and Avagāha

For the purification of idol and the removal of bad effects, Tantrasamuccaya recommended Catuśśuddhi, Dhārā and Avagāha. Catuśśuddhi is a type of Kalaśa ritual using four kinds of materials. For this expiatory ritual a proficient priest shall draw four Svastika diagrams in front of sanctum sanctorum and locations like Agnikoṇa (Southeast), Niṛtikoṇa (Southwest), Vāyukoṇa (Northwest) and Īśānakoṇa (Northeast). Two pots are kept in the two Svastika diagrams and two shallow vessels made of bell metal are arranged in the other two diagrams. In the first vessel placed in Agnikoṇa, Darbha grass, termite soil and barks of milky trees should be kept; in the second vessel placed in Niṛtikoṇa keeps substances like Akṣata, Aṣṭagandha and flowers; in the third pot placed in Vāyukoṇa keeps the substances like Gandha, flower, Akṣata, fruit, Darbha grass and gold, and in the last pot placed in Īśānakoṇa keep the substances like Gandha, flower, Akṣata, gold, fruit and Darbha grass. The four Kalaśas are sanctified by chanting Mūlamantra and related Pūja. After the Pūja of Kalaśa the main idol is consecrated with sanctified water in order. At the time of Kalaśābhiśeka (Anointment) also the Mantras like Āpyā (beginning with āpohiṣṭa), Pāvamāna (beginning with svādhiṣṭāye) and Hotṛ (beginning with cittiśruk) are used. In the case of Śiva, Pañcabrahmamantra is especially used.[9]

Dhāra is the continuous pouring of sanctified water and similar substances over the idol. For this, at first the priest draws a Svastika diagram and keeps paddy over the diagram, a big metallic pan is installed over the paddy and pure water is filled in the vessel. A couple of fish made of gold and a pair of tortoise made of silver are put in to the vessel. Then water is sanctified with Mantras like Gaṅga and Varuṇa. After worshipping the big vessel, the main priest enters the sanctum sanctorum and the Dhārā vessel is fixed above the head of the idol and the water is dropped through the tip of Darbhā grass continuously for three hours. Meanwhile the Brahmins sit around the vessel with Darbhā grass, chanting the Mūlamantra and Pañcabrahmamantra of particular deity, Sūryagāyatrī, Daśapraṇava, Pāvamāna and the Puruṣasūkta at the same time.[10] Avagāha is a type of bathing ritual like Kalaśa. For this the priest should draw two Svastika diagrams and two pots are placed over the paddy in Svastika. After the purifying worship, Pañcagavya is filled in one pot in specific proportions. At the time of filling Pañcagavya, the priest should chant Praṇava and Mūlamantra of the particular deity. Another pot is filled with incense water (Gandhodaka) and Aṣṭagandha water. After the Avagāha Kalaśa ceremony, the priest should perform the worship of idol until the time for bath and shall prepare a nest with the branches of trees used for sacrificial purposes. The branches of trees are placed around the idol, and the idol is adorned with new cloth and Darbhā grass. At the time of anointment the Brahmins chant relevant Mantras. Then the idol is anointed with Pañcagavyakalaśa. After removing of Pañcagavya, Pāyasa is offered to the deity. Secondly the idol is anointed with the Aṣṭagandhakalaśa and Nīrājana (waving of lights) is to be performed.[11]

In the case of Śiva, Tantrasamuccaya indicates special treatments. After the filling of Pañcagavya, the priest should perform chanting the Mantras like Praṇava, Prāsādamantra, Pañcākṣaramantra, Mahāvyomavyāpi-mantra, Laghuvyomavyāpimantra, Pañcabrahma and Śrīrudra. Moreover a Homa sacrifice is performed by chanting Mantras like Aghora, Mūlamantra and Pañcabrahma.

If the bad effect and impurity are very serious, each of the Pañcagavya substances is used for anointing the idol for five days separately. At the end of the Avagāha ceremony the idol is also anointed with Aṣṭagandha water. If it is a minor impurity, only Pañcagavya is anointed over the idol.[12]

2.3. Pañcaka

Pañcaka is another expiatory ceremony for the purification and removal of illness. Five Svastika diagrams are drawn; one at the centre and four on the sides. Five pots are filled with sanctified water and the Pañcatattvamantra of particular deity is chanted. After the worship, the idol is anointed with five pots at the time of bathing. If the impurity is very serious in nature, Tantrasamuccaya recommended Samādhiyuktapañcaka. This Pañcaka is performed from Bimbaśuddhi up to Avagāha. The visualization of Pṛthvītattva and particular deity are the part of this ritual. Also Dhyānādhivāsa, Aṇḍabheda, Lipiprāṇāyāma, Pīṭhanyāsa, Ṣaḍadhvanyāsa are performed for this Pañcaka ceremony.[13]

2.4. Kaumārakalaśa

Tantrasamuccaya indicate a special mode of expiation for the deity Subrahmaṇya, called Kaumārakalaśa. For this Kalaśa, initially an Aṣṭadala diagram is drawn and a pot filled with sanctified water is installed on the diagram. Pañcagavya and Vikira[14] are kept in the left and right side of the main pot. At the time of Abhiṣeka, the priest and his assistants touch the Kalaśa with the Darbhā grass and chant the Mantras like Rudrasūkta, Kumārasūkta, Śakunasūkta, Svstisūkta, Śrīdaivata, Śrīsūkta, Śannamantra, Nṛsaṃjñasūkta, Puruṣasūkta, Mūlamantra of Subrahmaṇya, Skandagāyatrī, Ṣaṇmantras, twelve names of Skanda and Praṇava. After the anointing of the main pot, the Pañcagavya and Vikira are sprinkled on the idol. In the case of the presence of serious impurity and related problems, considering the financial position of the owner and the situation of the space and time, the expiations like Catuśśuddhi, Dhārā and Bimbaśuddhi are also performed.[15]

2.5. Proktahoma

Tantrasamuccaya severely suggests that for doing the Proktahoma of Śiva, Śaṅkaranārāyaṇa, Skanda, Śāstṛ, and Gaṇapati are arranged in the right side of sanctum sanctorum and also the Proktahoma is done before the Prāyaścittahoma. For this Proktahoma of Śiva and Śaṅkaranārāyaṇa, use the Mantras like Astramantra, Aghora, Sadyojāta, Īśānamantra, Vāmadevamantra, Aghoramantra, Tatpuruṣamantra and Pañcapraṇava-mantra. The five actions like Garbhādhāna, Puṃsavana, Sīmantonna-yana, Jātakarma and Niṣkramaṇa are included in Proktahoma. A pot is sanctified near the altar for the purification of idol. Materials used in the Homa sacrifices are Ficus Racimosa, roots of Achyranthes aspera, ghee and Havis (cooked rice). These materials are put in to the sacrificial fire 1008 times. And Dūrva, sesame, mustard, Phaseolus Mungo, Paddy and Yava are put 108 times; ghee, Havis and honey are to be poured into fire by chanting Mṛtyuñjayamantra and at the end of the ceremony, the Saṃpāda (The balance ghee collected after each pouring into fire) is kept in the pot with which the idol is anointed at the time of bath.[16] For the Prokta of Śāstṛ, Mūlamantra, Revantādi Ṣaṇmantra and 26 synonyms of Śāstṛ (Āryādi) are chanted in this Homa. Materials used for this Homa sacrifice are ghee, cooked rice, parched rice, mustard, milk, curd and honey. The materials for oblations like ghee, cooked rice, parched rice, mustard, Yava, sesame, milk, curd, and honey are put in to the Prokta fire with the Mantras similar to six Mantras of Skanda (Sanatkumārādi-Ṣaṇmantra), Mūlamantra of Skanda, Skandagāyatrī, twelve names of Skanda and Vyāhṛti are to be used in Skanda’s Proktahoma.

At the end of this ceremony, Dūrva grass is dipped in Trimadhura (Mixture of three sweet materials) and put into the sacrificial fire 3000 times, then Sviṣṭakṛt Homa is performed and the Sampāda is kept in the pot and the idol is anointed with sanctified water. The major hymn gaṇānāṃ tvā gaṇapatiṃ hṛvāmahe… . is used for the Prokta Homa for Gaṇeṣa. Bilva, ghee, cooked rice, parched rice, bruised rice, dried rice, sesame, cake with molasses and rice cake are put in to the fire with the chanting of Vyāhṛti. Curd, milk, honey and ghee are also put in to the fire.[17]

2.6. Prāyaścittahoma

Tantrasamuccaya indicates that Prāyaścittahoma is to be performed after the Proktahoma. For this expiation, the priest shall kindle fire in a pit in front of the sanctum sanctorum. A pot is placed near the pit (Kuṇḍa) and it is to be sanctified (for anointing the idol) with the Mantra indicated in connection with Pañcābhiṣeka. Ghee is to be poured in the fire 3000 times. After that, the Samit, ghee, paddy, sesame and parched rice are put in to the fire by chanting the Mūlamantra. Then 112 twigs of Palāśa are to be put into the fire with Vyāhṛti. At the end of this sacrifice, curd and ghee are poured in to the fire by chanting Sūryagāyatrī.

Prāyaścittahoma can be done in single pit or several pits around the sanctum sanctorum depending on the seriousness of the impurity. According to the variations of impurity, Prāyaścitta ritual can be done in the four corners or eight directions of the temple courtyard. If the blemish is very serious, Prāyaścittahoma is performed in the two sides of the temple (the zodiac consisting of 12 signs are to be used) by chanting Viharaṇamantra. At the end of this sacrifice, Saṃpāda and sanctified water are poured on the idol intended for the expiation.

The Prāyaścitta Homa may be done in four corners by using Palāśa in the central pit and the sticks of four milk trees are put in other pits. If the pits are eight in number, use the sticks like Palāśa, Khadira, Aśvattha (Ficus Religiosia), Plakṣa (Ficus Venosa), Nyagrodha (Ficus Indica), Bilva, Audumbarī (Ficus Recimosa) and Kāśmarī.[18] In the case of Durgā, the expiatory fire sacrifices are performed in the northern and southern direction of the temple. In the northern direction, construct a pit in the shape of a triangle and the pit in the southern direction should be built in the shape of crescent. Initially kindle the fire and perform the domestic rituals from Garbhādhāna to Cūḍākarma. If the blemish is more serious, a square pit should be made in the east and another pit of circle shape may be made in the west for expiation. Materials like Khadira, Palāśa, Aśvattha, Uduṃbara, Vāṭa, Añjali, Bilva, Ficus Racimosa, Achyranthus aspira, sesames, bamboo rice and ghee are put in to the fire. Mantras like Pañcadurgāmantra, Mṛtyuñja-yamantra, Mūlamantra are chanted in this ritual.[19]

2.7. Śāntihoma

For the Śāntihoma of Skanda, pits are made in the four sides or eight sides in the temple courtyard. Five or nine priests shall attend this ritual. These expiatory Homas are continuously performed in 12 days and sanctified Kalaśa should be poured on the idol. In the emergency circumstances, the expiatory Homa can be done thrice a day and also sanctified water shall be anointed on the idol.[20] Kadaṃba, Vaṭa, Uduṃbara, Aśvattha, Plakṣa, Palāśa, Madhūka and Kapitha substances are used in this Homa. Mustard and sesames are put in to the fire by chanting the Bījamantra.

The 12 items Achyranthus aspera, Amṛt, cacalia rotundifolia, cisus pedata, Bhadra, Aṃjalī, Dūrvā, Mustard, paddy, Yava, sesame and cooked rice are put in to the fire with chanting the Mantras like Pañcatattva, Dvādaśākṣara, Aṣṭākṣara, Gāyatrī, Nṛsūkta and Puruṣasūkta in Viṣṇu temple.[21]

For the Śāntihoma of Śiva, the following 14 objects are offered in to the fire by chanting Mantra of Tatpuruṣa:

  1. Plakṣa,
  2. Ficus Recimosa, Ficus Indica, Ficus Religosia,
  3. ghee,
  4. Havis,
  5. Dūrvā grass,
  6. honey,
  7. ghee,
  8. milk,
  9. parched rice,
  10. mustard,
  11. sesame,
  12. Yava,
  13. paddy,
  14. fried or roasted rice.

Śāntihoma of Gaṇeśa is similar to that of Śiva, the items are almost similar for other above mentioned deities. At the end of this Homa ritual sanctified water shall be anointed on the particular idol of deity.[22]

Śvaśāntihoma is a type of Śāntihoma done in the south east corner of the temple in the case of the blemish caused by the touching of a dog. For the removal of bad effects and cleansing of the impurity, Tantrasamuccaya recommended chanting with the Mantras like Nārāyaṇasūkta, Śrīsūkta and six Mantras beginning with ato devāḥ and also 16 Mantras beginning with Nāsadīyasūkta. The sticks offered in the fire are Nyagrodha, Khadira, Plakṣa, Palāśa, Paṭola and Aśvattha. At the end of this sacrifice, sanctified water is anointed on the idol for removing of impurity.[23]

2.8. Tattvahoma and Tattvakalaśa

For Tattvahoma, the priest shall make a pit in front of the sanctum sanctorum and create a diagram of lotus with eight petals. The pot is filled with sanctified water and worshipped with the proper rites. Lipipaṅkajapūjā and Tattvāvāhana are the parts of Tattvakalaśa. Pīṭhapūjāmantra and Mūrtipūjāmantra are used in Tattvahoma. Samit and Havis are the main substances used in this fire sacrifice. Visualization of Kopatattva, Praṇavatattva, Pañcatattva and Jīvatattva are very important in this observance. In the case of Śiva, the priest should perform the visualization of Śivatattva. At the same time, in the case of Skanda, the priest shall perform Dhyāna of Kṣetrajñatattva. The end of this ceremony, the Saṃpāda is kept in the Tattvakalaśa and anoints the idol with the Kalaśa-water. Finally, the priest shall perform Saparivārapūjā (the complete ritualistic worship) and Śrībhūtabali.[24]

2.9. Bījāṅkuraprāyaścitta

If the seed, prepared the rituals, is not seen sprout in the proper time or it’s lost, Tantrasamuccaya recommended a Bījāṅkuraprāyaścitta, the expiation for Un-seedling. For this expiation the defective seeds are replaced suddenly and filled with new seeds and also performed Puṇyāha and Sthalaśuddhi. Then chanting Mūlmantra and Pañcatattvamantra in proper way and sprinkling of ghee in that seeds is done. Failing of seedling should be expiated by Prāyaścittahoma also. At the end of this ceremony, offering a Bali and sprinkling of sanctified water on the seeds are to be done.[25]

2.10. Expiation for Breaking of Dhvaja and Kalaśa

Expiation for breaking of flag staff and other pillars at the time of Maṇḍapasaṃskāra, can be done by 108 times chanting of Mantra with Homa sacrifice and sprinkling the ghee on the affected place. Even in the case of burning or damaging the cloth of the flag or flag post they should make a new Dhvaja or Dhvaja cloth. Homa sacrifice with chanting Astramantra is the expiation for burning of flag post for all deities. In the case of Śiva, they should use Kṣurikāmantra for expiation.[26] If a pot is broken, the sanctified water and other contents are transferred to another pot and the priest shall perform an Astrājyāhūti and the Saṃpāda is kept in the pot.[27] If a sanctified pot is blemished due to some reason, the polluted water is anointed on a little piece of gold and the gold may be purified with Mantras of Puṇyāha and Saptaśuddhi and also they are kept in the new sanctified pot.[28]

2.11. Expiations in Fire Rites

Various fire related expiatory rituals are described in Tantrasamuccaya A brief sketch is given here. If the fire kindled in sacrificial pit is extinguished due to some reason the pit may be cleaned by taking away the ashes already deposited. Then the pit may be rubbed with cow dung three times. After that the new fire is installed in the pit. Pañcatattva, Vyāhṛti and Mūlamantra are chanted in the Homa sacrifice for the expiation. And also the Samit and ghee are put in to the fire 108 times. If the fire gets polluted, it should be got reflected in a mirror and seven kinds of purification are acted on the mirror; after that the pit may be cleared and the ashes shall be removed. Then new fire is installed in the pit and Pañcatattvamantra and Vyāhṛti are chanted by pouring ghee into the fire. Ritual performance of Prasannapūjā comes at the end of this expiation. Pāvamāna and Pāvakaśuci Mantras are also used for removing the pollution of fire.[29] Daśātmakahoma is a special expiatory rite for extinguished fire.[30]

2.12. Expiatory Rites Related to Portable Idol

If the movable idol is polluted or fallen on the ground, Tantrasamuccaya suggested expiatory rites like Puṇyāha and Saptaśuddhi at that place. After that an expiatory Homa is performed in that affected spot and chanting of the Mantras like Pañcatattvamantra, Mūlamantra and Astramantra is done. At the end of this ritual the Saṃpāda is smeared on the portable idol. In a procession and Mahābhiṣeka, if the idol is broken or fallen on the ground, then also Puṇyāha, Saptaśuddhi and Prāyaścittahoma are to be performed. And then perform Prāsādaśuddhi to Pañcaka on the main idol depending on the gravity of blemish.[31]

2.13. Expiation for the Impurity of the Priest

For the flaws caused over the body of the priest, Tantrasamuccaya indicates the general expiations like bathing, ceremonial swiping of water (Ācamana), chanting the Mantra viṣṇo tvam for the removal of bad effects of words and visualization of god for the averting of evil thought. And for the removal of sins, Tantrasamuccaya recommended Kṛcchra, Cāndrāyaṇa, consumption of ghee and Brahmakūrccāśana.[32]

In Tantrasamuccaya, the number of expiations is greater than that of the earlier texts. In addition the expiatory rites in Tantrasamuccaya reach more complex in nature. It is noticeable that Tantrasamuccaya frequently deliberates temple centered expiations. In other words Tantrasamuccaya does not give the importance to Ātmārthaprāyaścitta. The most important fact is that Tantrasamuccaya suggests expiatory rites of Śiva, Viṣṇu, Durgā, Gaṇeśa, Skanda, Śaṅkara-nārāyaṇa and Śāstṛ with equal importance. The pre-Tantrasamuccaya texts like Prayogamañjarī, Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati, Śaivāgamanibandhana and Viṣṇu-saṃhitā explain Śaiva and Vaiṣṇava expiations independently. But in Tantrasamuccaya, Śaiva and Vaiṣṇava expiations were synthesized. The temple based expiations in Tantrasamuccaya emphasize the growth and development of temple constructions, rituals and Brahmin oligarchy.

3.2.3. Expiatory Rites in Commentaries of Tantrasamuccaya

The commentaries on Tantrasamuccaya like Vimarśinī and Vivaraṇa clearly explain the concept and practice of expiation with the authoritative citations from earlier Tantric works. Vimarśinī is one of the commentary on Tantrasamuccaya composed by Śaṅkara, the son and disciple of the author of Tantrasamuccaya. Śaṅkara in his commentary quotes more than twenty works like Amarakośa, Kāvyādarśa, Ṛgvidhāna, Pāśupata and Bhagavadgītā as supporting documents. This list of works indicates the scholarship of Śaṅkara in Sanskrit and Tantra. Vivaraṇa is another well-known commentary of Tantrasamuccaya authored by Kṛṣṇa Śarman. He also quotes many authoritative works in his commentary. Some of them are Aṣṭādhyāyī, Viṣṇusaṃhitā, Saparyāsaptaka etc. Another lucid commentary of Tantrasamuccaya is Kuḻikkāṭṭupacca of Maheśvaran Bhaṭṭatiri in Malayalam.

Between the periods of 14th to 17th century CE, Kerala was under various Kingships. Vimarśinī and Vivaraṇā were created in this period. Caste system and Brahminic hegemony clearly seems to have been in this period. Vimarśinī clearly indicates that the entering of law class and fallen people into temples causes for impurity.[33] Vivaraṇa states that the entering of Pañcamas, Mlecchas, Pāṣaṇḍas, Dāhakas, Coras and Vrātyas also causes for the impurity of the temple.[34] Vivaraṇa also restricts the entering of menstruating woman into the temples.[35] According to A.L. Basham, Vrātyas are the priests of non-Vedic fertility cult, which involves ritual dancing and flagellation and they are the devotees of Śiva.[36] It clearly shows discontentment and intolerance towards the other Tantric sects and the strong restrictions of outcastes have aggravated untouchability and inapproachability. Historians say that Śaiva-Vaiṣṇava conflicts are not much evident in Kerala. But, the words of Kṛṣṇa Śarman clearly indicate that the Śaiva-Vaiṣṇava enmity has been existing here. Tantrasamuccaya does not give the details of Patitas. Śaṅkara on his Vimarśinī indicates that Patita means fallen peoples like Caṇḍāla etc.

Footnotes and references:


Unni, N.P., Tantra Literature of Kerala, p. 227.


Ibid., pp. 228-229. Also see Kunjunni Raja, K., Contribution of Kerala to Sanskrit Literature, University of Madras, 1980, p. 68.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.2-4.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.5.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.6.


The purificatory rituals Sthānaśuddhi and Biṃbaśuddhi are also discussed in the expiatory chapters of Śaivāgamanibandhana and Mātṛsadbhāva with slight variations.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.6-10.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.11.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.12-14.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.15-22. The earliest ritual manual Viṣṇusaṃhitā elucidates the detailed description of Dhārā in the Prāyaścittapaṭala. See Viṣṇu-saṃhitā, 25.25-34.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.23-26.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.27-28.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.29-31.


The materials like Paddy, Yava, Sesamum, rice, black gram, mustard, Dūrva (Green Grass), tips of Darbhā grass, tips of Kuśa, Tulasi and Kesara (Filament) of lotus flower are jointly called Vikira. Tantrasamuccaya, 10.33.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.32-36.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.39-40.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.41-43.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.45-49.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.50-52.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.53-54


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.56.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.57-58.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.59-61.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.62-66.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.68.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.73.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.74.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.91-92


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.75-90.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.84.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.95-97.


Tantrasamuccaya, 10.100-101.


patitādiveśaḥ patitāḥ svakulād bhraṣṭāḥ teṣāṃ caṇḍālādīnāṃ ca gopurādantaḥ praveśaḥ | Tantrasamuccaya, Vimarśinī, 10.2.


patitāḥ mahāpātakādidoṣavaśād bhraṣṭāḥ |
ādiśabdenāśaucinaścāturvarṇyabāhyāḥ mlecchapāṣaṇḍino dāhādayaścorāḥ vrātyaśca gṛhyante || Tantrasamuccaya
, Vivaraṇa, 10.2.


prasave narapaśvādermaraṇe puṣpitādibhiḥ |
caṇḍālādyaiśca śayite tadvaddāhādiṣu tvapi || Tantrasamuccaya
, Vivaraṇa, 10.6.


Basham, A.L., The Wonder That Was India, Picador, London, 2004, p. 245-246.

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