Dvisahasri of Tembesvami (Summary and Study)

by Upadhyay Mihirkumar Sudhirbhai | 2012 | 54,976 words

This page relates ‘Some Important words employed in the Dvisahasri’ of the study of the Dvisahasri by Tembesvami:—a Sanskrit epic poem (mahakavya) narrating the legend and activities of Lord Dattatreya, including details on his divine sports and incarnations. Also known as Datta, he is considered one of the Holy Masters in the Natha cult imparting spiritual knowledge and adequate practice to the aspirant.

Appendix 4 - Some Important words employed in the Dvisāhasrī

akārjita (4/22) (aka = duḥkha + ārjita) means gathered, collected, earned with great difficulty or painfully.

agaṇeya (1/18) beyond the capacity of count ability.

agādhaḥ [agādha] (6/6) looks like deep (a + gādhaḥ [gādha]) but it means below the mountain (aga + adhaḥ)

ādhilābhaḥ [ādhilābha] (7/47) more profit

ābhimantrītam [ābhimantrīta] (14/62) sanctified.

āmiti (18/106) means innumerable, immeasurable or infinite and it can be explained as De + efceefle na mitiḥ yasya tat (avyayībhāvaḥ [avyayībhāva])

ahaitukī bhakti [bhaktiḥ] (20/75) means the reasonless devotion and hence the word ‘reasonless’ expresses the selfless attitude of worshipping the lord hence such a reasonless devotion is offered by the liberation wishers and not by the desire–oriented (sakāma) person.

ahaḥ svāpaḥ (9/80) means (divāśayanam [divāśayana]) (sleep during the day) which is explained by H.H. Ṭembesvāmī in his auto commentary as vidyā dinaṃ prakāśatvādavidyā rātrirucyate| vidyābhyāse pramādo yo divāsvāpaḥ sa ucyata|| which is well compare with niśā sarvabhūtānāṃ tasyāṃ jāgarti saṃyamī| yasyāṃ jāgrati bhūtāni sā niśā paśyato muniḥ|| [Śrīmad-bhagavadgītā] 2/69||

āghe (a + aghe) (01/37) = (iṣad + aghe) less or small sin.

ātitheyī (11/20) (a guest worshipping lady) is to be understood in its grammatical exposition the eya (=ḍha) suffix is added to the word ātithiḥ (M) a guest (along with pathi ृ pātheyam good for journey vasatiḥ vāsateyam helpful to the house or a residence svapatiḥ svāpateyam beneficial for ones husband).—According to the rule pathyatithi vasati svapaterḍhaña ([Pāṇini] 4/4/104) and then feminine termination is added. Thus it means a lady worshipping guest or a guest devoted lady.

āptamantoḥ (M/43) (Genitive Singular of āptamantuḥ) (jāta + aparādhaḥ) one who has committed an offence or a mistake

ārohya (14/15) (making one mount on) Causal Gerund / absolutive

saṃbaṃdhakabhūtakṛdanta from a + hṛ-rohati 1st P to mount on, to climb, to ascend.

āśrutya (2/43) (= guruṇā''śrutya) (after having promised to accept the condition) is a special usage according to the pratyāṅbhyāṃ śruvaḥ pūrvasya kartā ([Pāṇini] 01/04/40)

iyantu bhit (ś/5) iyaṃ tu bhedaḥ difference (between the individual Self and the Supreme Self)

enohāri (9/44) (removing sins) is a paraphrased by H.H. Ṭembesvāmī as pāpaharam. The enas (N) is normally understood as the effect or evil deeds. Hence it is corroborated by himself with the words, “the water of the washed lotus-feet of Holy Master dries up the mud of sins and enkindles the lamp of the knowledge.” (śoṣaṇaṃ pāpapaṅkasya dīpanaṃ jñāna tejasaḥ| guroḥ pādodakaṃ tīrthaṃ jaṭhare dhārayāmyaham|

aindriyakam [aindriyaka] (sukham [sukha]) (M/86) indriya saṃbandhi related to the sense organ i.e. sensual

ṛṣiḥ [ṛṣi] (3/40) (a sage or a seer) is derived from the root ṛṣ 6P gatau (to understand) hence ṛṣati = paśyati iti ṛṣiḥ (the sage is a seer who sees) and he further explains quoting a smṛti stanza, “a sage is the knower of the past, the future and the present”

audhasyāśanāt (03/31) after partaking (the breast milk) is explained in his auto commentary as ūdhaḥ stanaṃ tatra bhavaṃ audhasyaṃ tasya aśanāt pānāt |

aupapatyataḥ [aupapatyata] (15/28) means upapatitvakāraṇāt which means by the reason of debauchery, because the word upapati means a second wife or a second husband who is not a legal one.

kaccare (5/6) impure kat = kutsitam [kutsita] carati = calati (that which goes or passes badly).

kalāvāyuḥ [kalāvāyus] (kalau + āyuḥ) (8/36) speaks about the span of life in the kali era (and the word has no connection what so ever with kalā + vāyuḥ)

kiṃdātā (01/30) taken as kiṃ and dātā separately and kiṃdātā as a kutsitadātā wretched donor.

kuputram [kuputra] (7/5) (a fool son) is paraphrased by himself as stupefied (stabdha), less intelligent (hīnamati) and stubborn (jaḍa).

kṛpāsūḥ [kṛpāsū] (M/10) dayājananī kvip (pāṇini 03/02/61) Mother of compassion

ke (16/103) means on the head i.e. forehead and it seems the plularal of the pronoun kim (who, what) in masculine but the context ke brahmalipi āsti na vā (is there the script of creator on the forehead?) makes it clear that the locative of the word kaḥ (M) is used in the sense of Brahma the creator and his script or writing on the forehead is generally known as vidhātṛ lekhaḥ or also called ṣaṣṭhī lekhaḥ vaidhasi lipiḥ.

korastāḍanapūrvakam (12/41) ka + uraḥ + tāḍana + pūrvakam (means beating her head and the chest)

krāntāpāvṛtamuktidvārnṛjanmacyutaḥ (4/15) (krānta + apāvṛta + mukti + dvāḥ + nṛ + janma + cyutaḥ) (means a man gets deviated from this human birth which is the door way open to Liberation and which again is ascended (by him).—The idea is that a man enmeshed in the worldly objects, is unable to understand the prime importance of the human birth (nṛjanma) which is extremely difficult to get. The birth as a man is declared to be the door way for stepping forward to liberation.

kvāyāto'sti kuto gantā? (02/03) (where have you come? from where will you go?) should be as H.H. Tembesvāmī explains in his auto commentary should be read as kutaḥ āyāto'si kvagantā? (from where have you come? Where will you go?)—He justifies the inter change of the indeclinable kva (where) in the place of kutaḥ (from where) vice-versa with the words darśanālhādātsaṃbhramoktyā (due to the confusion created by the joy by His vision)

galaśilam [galaśila] (9/23) (gale baddhā śila yasya galaśilaḥ tam) (with a big stone tide around his neck.) Seems to be a normal social condition in which a person afflicted by difficulties commits suicides by tying a big stone round a neck so that the person can not come out.

gāṅgādbhiḥ (M/31) (gāṅga + ādbhiḥ) gaṅgāyām udbhūtābhiḥ udakaiḥ the water of river Gaṅgā

gṛhisatputradaivatam (5/41) A righteous son is a god for the house holder is a very special type of compound where the compound provides the meaning of the senses as “gṛhiṇāṃ kṛte sadhuḥ putraḥ devatā iva manyate|”.

gobhiḥ [gobhi] (ś/5) indriyaiḥ senses

gohatkāyaiḥ (17/82) (means by speech, mind and body) includes the word ieew in the sense of speech though it also means a ray (kiraṇaḥ [kiraṇa]) sense organ (indriyāṇi) a cow etc. here the phrase expresses speech, mind and physical action which is comparable to kāyena vācā manasendriyervā budhyātmanā vā prakṛte svabhāvāt| karomi yadyat sakalaṃ parasmai nārāyaṇāyeti samarpayāmi|

cittau (4/43) citte (means the process of thinking or intending) where it is the locative singular of cittiḥ [citti] (F) thinking, intention or mentality.—H.H. Ṭembesvāmī paraphrases it as the mentality receiving the difference of the world (bhedagrāhakamanovṛttiḥ)

jagatsṛṭ (03/26) (brahmā, the Creator Of the world means) (sṛjatīti sṛṭ jagat sṛṭ jagatsṛṭ) i.e. one who creates the world.

jajñe (M/5) was born

jayya (6/21) actually means vincible i.e. jetuṃ śakyaḥ jayyaḥ| and hence to be defeated. The word jayya (conquerable) is regularised in the sense of possibility by Pāṇini in kṣayyajayau śakyārthe| 6/1/81

jayyā (jihvā) (4/23) = (jetum śakyā) (means fit to be conquered, subdued or controlled. The sense of the taste rasanā can be subdued by eating less and that too, as if taking a medicine)

jñānām [jñānā] = prajñānam [prajñāna] (01/01) the knowers

jño'bvaddhāmnā (4/7) (jña + ap + vat + dhāmnā) means the knower (sanctifies the people) with the body (or existence) (dhāmnā) like the water.

tadbhṛt (M/12) (tat viśvaṃ prāṇino vā bibharti) Sustainer of it i.e. the world or being

triyajñāḍhayām (18/162) along with the three sacrifice

triṣavaṇaṃ [triṣavaṇa] (tri + savanam [savana]) (8/57) thrice a day.

tryāsyaḥ [tryāsya] (5/10) (tri + āsyaḥ) (means three faced or the god with three faces ( āsyaḥ [āsya]) of the Creator (brahmā) Protector (viṣṇuḥ [viṣṇu]) and the destroyer (maheśaḥ [maheśa]).

dayonā (dayā + ūnā) (01/09) Gods are cruel.

devaḥ [deva] (4/45) (effulgent means the self–luminous one) the word is used her with a special purpose with the logical support of the Vedic text. The Supreme Effulgence (bhāḥ [bhā]) is read in the Kaṭhopaniṣad in the Śrīmadbhagavadgītā yadādityagataṃ tejo jagadbhāsayate'khilam| (15/12)

drāggharaṇam [drāggharaṇa] (drāk + haraṇam [haraṇa]) (01/013) quick removal

narahariḥ [narahari] (8/17) is the name and is explained etymologically in a verse as nara+hariḥ where the word hariḥ [hari] is derived from hṛ-harati-harate 1 ST U. to remove, to take away, to destroy. Thus the name means one who removes the sins, agony and poverty of the people

= (puruṣaḥ, naraḥ) (02/04) nominative singular of nṛ (M) (a man) like in

nṛpatiḥ or nṛpaḥ

nājñaḥ [nājña] (20/17) means intelligent one in which na jānāti iti ajñaḥ = ajñāni na ajñaḥ yaḥ saḥ nājñaḥ (He who is not an ignorant one i.e. an intelligent one)

nistṛṭ (M 2) = niriccha passionless.

nuḥ [nu] (8/36) (puruṣasya) is a genitive singular of nṛ-nā (M) meaning a man. The word na = (a man) is normally seen in the compounded words like nṛpaḥ, nṛpati, nṛlokaḥ, etc.

nṛdhāmnā (krīḍantaṃ gurum) (02/75) the holy master sporting in a human form stands for nṛ + dhāmnā where nṛ - (M) a man is a same crude of nṛpaḥ and nṛpatiḥ while second member dhāmnā is instrumental singular of dhāman (N) an abode here a receptacle or a substratum.

nṛsiṃhaḥ [nṛsiṃha] (13/34) of man-lion incarnation is explained with the help of the grammatical etymology by desolving the name nṛsiṃhaḥ as nṛ (the soul)+ sim = āvidyām (ignorance) and haḥ = hantā (the destroyer or the killer) thus the incarnation of lord Viṣṇu assuming the form of a Man-lion has the secret that it destroys the ignorance and nescience of the souls nṛ ृ nuḥ narasya jīvasya vā sim āvidyāṃ hantīti nṛsiṃhaḥ|

parānandamūrtiḥ [parānandamūrti] (19/80) means gross form of the Highest Bliss but here it means a bestower of liberation.

parāvaraḥ [parāvara] (4/36) (para + avaraḥ) (means the lord who is characterised or associated with the creator etc.) including sustainer and destroyer as well as the creatures i.e.beings and the human beings. This indicates the oneness of the Supreme Person (puruṣaḥ [puruṣa]) and the soul (jīvaḥ [jīva]) and the world (jagat).

pālaka (N) (03/37) a cradle used to make the child sleep in that though the word pālakaḥ [pālaka] (M) is often used is often used in the sense of foster (pālayitā) father or a guarding but H.H. T ̣ embesvāmī has used it in the sense of pālana (N)–a sanskritised word form of Pāraṇu (gujarāti word) meaning a cradle.

pāvanapāvanaḥ [pāvanapāvana] (13/20) (purifier of the pure ones) is an epithet used for holy master viz. H.H. Nṛsi ṃhasarasvatī. It is stange that he purifies the pure ones, but the meaning is a bit deep, because the Scriptures declare the list of pure ones viz. Fire, Wind, the Moon god, the Sun god and Indra.

pīṭhavit (4/50) means āsana-vit in practicing postures. Normally the term āsanaṃ famous yet the word pīṭham is employed here. Cf. caturaśītipīṭheṣi siddhameva sadābhyaset (haṭhayoga pradīpikā 1/39)

puru (ś/ 4) Infinite and the vast.

pratyudgatvā (03/19) (after having approached to welcome) must be pratyudgamya according to the rule samāse'nañapūrve ktvo lyap ([Pāṇini] 7/1/37) and hence it is an Archaic usage (ārṣaprayoga)

prāgudagdātragham (4/7) (prāk + udak + dātṛ + agham [agha]) (means the sins of the giver of the oblation) (the sacrificer) the sins of his previous life and the future life stand for the accumulated (sañjīta) and the actions in functions (kriyamāṇa).

brahmasvāt (12/8) (enjoyer of the Brahmin money) can be explained as brāhmaṇasya svaṃ dhanamiti brāhmaṇadhanaṃ tad ātti iti (ad ātti 2 nd P to eat) at-d. Here the agentive suffix kvip zero termination is applied.

bhūteṭ (M /6) bhūtānām īśvaraḥ [īśvara] Lord of beings

mantūn (20/101) (sins or sinful acts) is a word in masculine in the sense of guilt, crime, a sin or a sinful acts.

manodūrā (03/38) (beyond the reach of a human mind) is special usage for beyond the reach of the human mind and speech (manovācāṃ agocaraḥ). As the sage is reciting a hymn, how the trinities of the divinities (Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśa) can be beyond the reach of speech.

mahāghaghnāni (11/17) means mahāpātaka vināśakāni (destroyer of five great sins) and they are:

māvaśād (M/13) māyāvaśāt Under the control of His Divine power.

mudaśruyuk (10/48) with his eyes full of tears of joy. mudyate modaṃ prāpyate iti mut (joy) and yunakti iti yuj-yuk (joined i.e. possessed of) both mut and yuj are the agentive nouns, derived with the kvip suffix.

munīnaḥ [munīna] (muni + inaḥ) (8/55) (best of monks) means munīnāṃ saṃnyāsīnāṃ inaḥ sūryaḥ śreṣṭho vā|

munī rakṣaḥ = muniḥ rakṣaḥ [muni rakṣa] (6/24) means respectively “the sage” and “o demon”. There is a special type of Visarga coalescing muniḥ rakṣaḥ - munir rakṣaḥ - muni rakṣaḥ ृ munī rakṣaḥ by the rule of changing the visarg in to r which is dropped and followed by another j and preceding short vowel is lengthened by the rule ‘ḍhralope pūrvasya dīghāz'ṇaḥ 6/3/111

mṛgatṛṣṇopamaṃ bhavam (20/126) () indicates the world of existence is unreal as per the Vedānt view and it is compared with the mirage (mṛgatṛṣṇa).

yatstham [yatstha] (M/12) (yasmin tiṣṭhati idam) residing in which i.e. world.

yāsye (6/23) I shall is future tense 1st person singular from yāti 2nd P here Atmanepada, to go it is used to give the force of Rāvaṇa’s ego–with the words I shall myself go i.e. I am going.

yoganidritasya (02/17) (genitive singular of yoganidrita) It is explained by Him in his auto commentary pralaye sarvaprāṇivāsanāsahitamanasāṃ yogaḥ saiva nidrā saṃhārarūpatvāt sā'sya sañjāteti yoganidritaḥ tadasya sañjātam iti tac tadasya sañjātam itac

rakṣayā (8/16) (should be taken in the sense of the thread of protection) (rakṣā sūtreṇa). This is mostly frequently observed in case of a child who is handsome, pleasant, cleaver or cute. It is also called dṛṣṭibandha

ramet = rameta (4/20) Archaic usage

rasajñā (M/76) Tongue śleṣa Cp. rasajñā vasātārakaṃ

rukśugbhīnidrālayonite (17/100) means in the city which is free from (ūnite) diseases, grief, fear and sleep i.e. roga + śoka + bhaya + nidrālaya + ūnite where nidrālaya is same as nidrā.

labdhavidhaḥ [labdhavidha] (9/75) (labdhāḥ vidyāḥ yena sa) (one who has learnt all the lores) i.e. one who has completed his study and hence a graduate (called snātaka). The tradition counts 14 lores: 04 Vedas+06 Vedāṅgas+Purāṇa+ Nyāya+Dharmaśāstra+Mimaṃsā.

līlādhāmnā = līlāvigraheṇa (01/07) (21/95) sportive human forms.

vaktṛśrotṛmalaghnyaḥ (02/72) vakta = ृṇāṃ śrotṛ = ṇāṃ ca malān pāpāna vā hantīti malaghnī tadabahuvacane maladhnyaḥ (stories of the holy master are destroyers of the impurities or sins of the speakers and listeners)

vahnayābinendubhūkhapavanātmā (20/73) means the corporeal form constituting fire (vahni), water (ap = āpaḥ), the Sun (inaḥ [ina]), the Moon (induḥ [indu]), the Earth (bhū), the Sky (ख), the Wind (pavana) and the soul (ātmā) i.e. a man.

vāghṛddūratvāt (03/11) beyond the reach of the a speech and heart (i.e. mind) is equivalent to the phrase vāṅgamano'gocaraḥ or manovāgagocaraḥ

vidyāvinayasaṃpannaḥ (10/27) (means one endowed with knowledge and modesty) but H.H. Ṭembesvāmī paraphrased vidyāsampannaḥ as kṛtavidyaḥ [kṛtavidya] (educated) and vinayasampapannaḥ means vineyaḥ (graduate). The whole word suggests the completion of the study with the conferring of the degree (kṛtasamāvartana)

vivat (vi + vat) (4/15) where the word viḥ (M) means a bird in general, a pigeon (kapotaḥ/kapotī) in the context here.

vyādhirūpeṇa (2/37) (in the form of a disease) where the word vyādhi is taken in two senses: 01 mental tension (ādhiḥ [ādhi]) and sickness.

vyāmiṣaḥ [vyāmiṣa] (4/27) (vi + āmiṣaḥ) (means literally one without the possession of meat or flesh (āmiṣaḥ [āmiṣa])), though here the word indicates a man without any worldly possession (a + svaḥ)

vyāsāt (5/2) (with full details) i.e. vyāsaṃvistāraṃ kṛtvā

vyaikyam [vyaikya] (16/36) (means gathering or union of the birds) (vi + aikyam = vināṃ pakṣiṇāṃ aikyaṃ samāgamaḥ) as they get togather on a tree in the evening and depart in the morning.

śaptuṃ [śaptu] (03/18) to taste is regularly in the sense of cursing or giving promise or taking oath according to śap ākrośe and the word ākrośa means viruddhānudhyānam but H.H. T ̣ embesvāmī has used it in the sense of tasting or checking (Anasūyā’s chastity).

śam (=kalyāṇam [kalyāṇa]) (02/52) (beneficence) that which cuts or minimises the misery (śyati tanu karoti duḥkhaṃ)

śambhuḥ [śambhu] (19/80) means one who is auspicious but here it means bestower of the health. (ārogyadātā)

śuśruṣave (03/02) to one desirous to listen. It is Dative singular of śuśruṣuḥ [śuśruṣu] a man desirous to listen.—A desiderative form from (śru śruṇoti śruṇote 5th U.) to serve or to attend upon.

saṅkaraḥ [saṅkara] (8/76) (chaotic situation) originally means a hybrid situation and therefore the word is compounded with varṇaḥ [varṇa] (caste) which then means the hybrid condition or situation of the caste. (jāyate varṇasaṅkaraḥ| (gītā 1/41) saṅkaro narakāyaiva0 (gītā 1/42) )

sandhyā (18/91) the twilight rite is explained as that period during which the Brahmin concentrate whole heartedly (sam = samyak) on the Supreme Reality.[_1_]

sannidhi (ś/93) vicinity

saṃnyāsanenaiva for saṃnyāsena (01/23) Through the path of renunciation.

svargāya (23/10) means simply for the attainment of heaven yet the paronomastic (Í}ेṣagata) meaning is also justifiable in the context. It is then explained as for the sake of complete (su) attainment (arga - arja) the self.

sārtham [sārtha] (7/49) with money is a special case where it is taken as sa + artham and arthaḥ [artha] means dhanam i.e. arthena = dhanena sahitaṃ yathā syāt tathā sārthamdhanasahitam

sutapaḥ [sutapa] (03/39) (o sage of stainless penance) is a vocative of a word in attributive compound (bahuvrīhiḥ [bahuvrīhi]) viz . sutapāḥ (like candramāḥ [candramas?] or dīrghatamāḥ [dīrghatamas?]) the same word can mean the same word can mean to be suṣṭhu sādhutapaḥ (good or pious penance) which would be then can appositional (tatpuruṣa) compound. H.H. Ṭembesvāmī Mahārāja dessolves this compound extraordinarily as śobhanaṃ niṣkalmaṣaṃ tapaḥ yasya saḥ (whose penance is praise worthy i.e. stainless) because any penance in connection to lord is pure (sātvikam [sātvika]) and hence stainless.

sūnāpanuttaye (18/162) for the removal of the caused from the places of killing.

sūryarcyaja (sūri + arcya + ja) (7/10) is a vocative employed for the son of a Brahmin who was utterly respected by scholar Brahmins. This is an interesting yet a praiseworthy usage of grammatical expression.

sevonā = sevā + ūnā (01/31) = sevārahita one who has not served.

saupapatyaṃ [saupapatya] (sa + aupapatyaṃ [aupapatya]) (6/45) (means with a co-wife) i.e. like a co-wife and the word is derived from sa + upa + patiḥ tasya bhāvaḥ i.e. being one whose husband has a second wife. This means that lady enjoying the second position in the house.

saurabhāṇḍam [saurabhāṇḍa] (15/45) (means a vessel containing liquor) (saura + bhāṇḍam = surāyāḥ idaṃ sauraṃ tasya bhāṇḍaṃ pātram)

saurye'hni (saurye āhni) (8/22) (on Saturday or on Sunday) can be grammatically explained in two meanings; (01) tadasyā'sti iti ([Pāṇini] 05/02/94) aṇ (making vruddhi). So sūryasya sambandhi ahaḥ (a day connected with the sun) = sauryam ahaḥ tasmin saurye āhni| (02) tasyā'patyam iti ([Pāṇini]04/01/122) aṇ (making vruddhi) so sūryasya apatyam pumān sauryaḥ = śanaiścaro mando vā (a male child of the Sun is saurya) tasya āhni (on the day of the son of the Sun). The word saurya also used in the very first verse of the Gurustuti—śrīvaiṣṇaveśagāṇeśa-sauryaśāktyādirūpadhṛk|

sthāsnucariṣṇu jīvaḥ (ś/100) the Saul of the immovables and movables.

smartṛgāminī (M/10) Manifesting immediately in front of the remembering one.

srakkuṇḍīḍamarucchūlaśaṅkhacakradharaḥ (5/10) srak + kuṇḍī + ḍamaru + śūla + śaṅkha + cakra + dharaḥ [dhara] manifests lord Dattātreya’s physical appearance in a way that he bears in his six hands from lower to upper and that too from right to the left rosary beads (srak ृ mālā), the begging bowl (kuṇḍikamaṇḍalu), a kettle drum (ḍamaru), a trident (triśūla) the conch (śaṅkha) and the discus (cakra).

srāk (03/09) (immediately, in no time) like drāk

hariḥ [hari] (19/80) means a remover but here it means a remover or a destroyer of the sins ((pāpa hartā) )

havyakavyādabuddhyā (5/11) (havya + kavya + ada + buddhyā) (means with the thought or the idea or the recognition of the eater ( ātti iti adaḥ) of the pious i.e. the sacrificial food (havyam [havya]) and the impious i.e. the food of cemetery.

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