Dvisahasri of Tembesvami (Summary and Study)

by Upadhyay Mihirkumar Sudhirbhai | 2012 | 54,976 words

This page relates ‘Introduction—Datta Cult, its Past, Present & Future’ of the study of the Dvisahasri by Tembesvami:—a Sanskrit epic poem (mahakavya) narrating the legend and activities of Lord Dattatreya, including details on his divine sports and incarnations. Also known as Datta, he is considered one of the Holy Masters in the Natha cult imparting spiritual knowledge and adequate practice to the aspirant.

Introduction—Datta Cult, its Past, Present & Future

Dattātreya is the renowned Lord of Yogīs. His birth name is Datta. His father’s name is Atri[1] and His mother’s name is Anasūyā. His physical form as observed in almost pictures, images, idols and even innumerable books on the Datta cult, places Dattātreya in the category of the Trinity of gods viz. Brahmā (the Creator), Viṣṇu (the Sustainer) and Rudra (the Destroyer) connected closely with the origin, sustenance and destruction of the Universe or the Cosmos (viśva or brahmāṇḍa). Most of the western scholars like Hastings James[2] and the Indian scholars like Joshi Hariprasad S.[3] and Tripathi Gayacharan[4] have tried to connect the three faced Dattātreya[5] to the concept of Trinity (trimūrti) of not only the Vedic Literature but also with the Greek Pantheon.

In Vedic Literature:

Such efforts are not weightier than the ancient records of the Ṛgveda where the whole 05th Book (pañjamamaṇḍala) is ascribed to the family of seer Atri.[6] It is fact that the Trinity called Dattātreya is though presented mythologically in the Purāṇas,[7] it has a clear presentation of the spiritual traits and philosophical background. The secret of the three faces and six hands[8] but one body (not even six 0feet) lies in the clear understanding that Dattātreya’s spiritual teachings function in three ways[9] and the six hands comply with the individual face in the order.

The terrestrial (pṛthvi sthānīya) deities of the Ṛgveda come to be known as Vasus in the Brāhmaṇa texts, the atmospheric (antarikṣa sthānīya) deities of the Ṛgveda come to be known as Rudras in the Brāhmaṇa texts and the celestial (dyu sthānīya) deities of the Ṛgveda come to be known as Ādityas in the Brāhmaṇa texts. These three were later on attained the oneness or single form in the Purāṇas i.e. Brahmā (the Creator) from 08 Vasus, Viṣṇu (the Sustainer) from 12 Ādityas and Maheśa (the Destroyer) from 11 Rudras. This speculation is difficult to be grasped and accepted by the common people rather by any devotee of Indian religion.

Some of the scholars like Joshi H. S.[10] have also attempted to link the concept of Dattātreya being the Trinity of gods with the Ṛgvedic Fire-god, having the three heads[11] but it does not hold water because of similar narration regarding the divine river Ga ṅgā cut by Lord Śiva in three parts in three forms or currents viz. Mandākinī in the Heaven, Bhāgīrathī on the Earth and Bhogāvatī in the Netherlands (pātāla).

In Upaniṣadic literature:

The major Upaniṣads[12] deal with the Creation, the Sustenance and the Destruction, sometimes including Merging of the Universe as the functions of the Supreme Reality called Brahman, though it is not clear whether the reality (mentioned in these Upaniṣads) is Attributive (saguṇa) or Embodied (sākāra). These are 08 Upaniṣads revealing Dattātreya as the Holy Master who imparts the spiritual knowledge and adequate practice to the aspirant.

These minor Upaniṣads are:

(1) Avadhūtopaniṣad:

Avadhūtopaniṣad belongs to the Black Yajurveda. It contains 32 verses (including some prose texts) in the dialogue form of Sā ṅkṛti and Dattātreya. The Upaniṣad forms the answers of the questions regarding the identity, conduct, marks (or signs) (lakṣma) and worldly behaviour. It presents the derivation of word by splitting the syllable a for immutability (akṣara), va for worthy of choice (vareṇya), dhū for saking off the worldly bondages (dhūtasaṃsārabandhana). ta for having the goal of oneness with the Brahman (tattvamasyādilakṣya).[13] Further same term is elaborated describing Avadhūta’s behaviour, rapport with the public or with monks, method of meditation and living style. It also presents Avadhūta’s way of thinking.

The text incorporates Upaniṣadic prose text:

(na karmaṇā na prajayā dhanena tyāgenaika amṛtatvamānaśuḥ|),

Māṇḍūkyakārīkā:

(na nirodho na cotpattirna baddho na ca sādhakaḥ|
na mumukṣurna vai mukta ityaiṣā paramārthatā||
   –māṇḍūkyakārikā
02/32||)

And also the verses from Śrīmadbhagavadgīā 02/70:

(apūryamāṇamacalapratiṣṭhaṃ samudramāpaḥ praviśanti yadvat|
tadvatkāmā yaṃ praviśanti sarve sa śāntimāpnoti na kāmakāmī||
).

(2) Bhikṣukopaniṣad:

Bhikṣukopaniṣad belongs to the White Yajurveda. It contains only one prose texts.

It descusses the conduct of 04 type of monks called:

  1. House dwellers (kuṭīcakā),
  2. Wanderers (bahūdakā) moving around with staff and the begging bowl (kamaṇḍalu),
  3. Haṃsas (haṃsā) staying in a village, a town or a holy place for a limited time for a day, five or seven days and
  4. Paraṃahamsas (paramahaṃsā) who are 08 like Samvartaka, Āruṇi, Śvetaketu, Jadabharata, Dattātreya, Śuka, Vāmadeva and Hārītaka.

Moreover their way of life like dwelling, dressing, begging food, etc. is never fixed, yet they enjoy the trans (samādhi).

(3) Dattātreyopaniṣad:

Dattātreyopaniṣad belonging to the Atharvaveda contains 03 sections (khaṇḍa) of 01 prose text each. The first section deals with Brahmā’s question about the Supreme Person to which Nārāyaṇa replys that the sacred syllable drāṃ is His Abode (nārāyaṇadhāma) and also Nyās, etc. of Dattātreya’s sacred formula. The second section presents Dattātreya’s sacred prose formula well known as Dattamālāma ṅtra.[14] And the third section bespeaks of repeating the sacred prose formula.

The Dattātreyopaniṣad identifies Dattātreya as the Supreme Abode (nārāyaṇadhāma) which probably indicates that Dattātreya is the incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu. Dattātreyopaniṣad presents Dattātreya’s characteristics.[15] He is pleased with just by remembrance,[16] removes great fears, bestows Supreme Knowledge, is pure consciousness, is dressed like a child or a mad or a goblin, a great Yogī, a monk abandoning everything, the son of Anasūyā and sage Atri, bestower of desired objects,[17] releaser from the bonds of the Worldly Existence, bestower of all riches, procurer of the exalted sages, the agitator of all dormant minds and is the long-lived one. Dattātreya’s functions are also presented. He subdues and also attracts all. He destroys, agitates, stops and kills the enemies. He prospers and nourishes the devotees. He turns down the evil activities of the impious persons, avoids the effects of malignant planets (or stars) and removes issues as well as miseries and poverty.

Thus the Dattātreyopaniṣad reveals Dattātreya as the embodied form of Lord Viṣṇu protecting the devotees and destroying the wicked person.[18]

(4) Jābāladarśanopaniṣad:

Jābāladarśanopaniṣad belongs to the Sāmaveda. It contains 224 verses in 10 section (khaṇḍa). The Upaniṣad commences with the introduction of Dattātreya as Mahāviṣṇu. Sā ṅkṛti asks question to Dattātreya about the Yoga of 08 steps which are defined and explained. It incorporates the topic like 06 Centres of vein (nāḍicakrāṇi), the practice of their purification (rather cleaning) the major veins in the body, withdrawal of senses, followed by other steps of the Yoga in the section 04-10.

The Upaniṣad ends with Sā ṅkṛti experiencing Liberation after the practising the path of Yoga instructed by Dattātreya.

(5) Jābālopaniṣad:

Jābālopaniṣad belonging to the Atharvaveda contains 06 sections (khaṇḍa) of 01 prose text each. The first section discusses about the Kurukṣetra in the speech of Yājñavalkya and Atri as well as the second chapter is the reply of Atri about the knowledge of the Self. The third section talks about Yājñavalkya’s reply to the students (or disciples) (brahmacārin—brahmacāriṇaḥ) is to repeat the recitation of the text Śatarudrī which leads to the immortality (amṛtattva). The fourth section is Yājñavalkya’s to Janaka’s question about the secret of renunciation. The fifth section deals with Yājñavalkya’s reply to Atri’s question, the characteristics of a Brahmin monk (yajñopavīti) and the sixth section names some of the exalted monks like Śvetaketu, Dattātrey, etc.

The Jābālopaniṣad enlist 07 names of the monk (saṃnyāsin—saṃnyāsīnaḥ) like Śvetaketu, Durvāsā, Ṛbhu, Nidāgha, Jadabharata, Dattātreya and Raivataka whose marks (or signs) and conducts are not revealed as they behave like mad persons, though not mad ones. They hold three observances (tridaṇḍa). They forsake the tuft of hair and sacred thread in the water.

(6) Nāradaparivrājakopaniṣad:

Nāradaparivrājakopaniṣad belongs to the Atharvaveda. It contains 09 lessons (upadeśa). The Upaniṣad commences with the description of divine sage Nārada who on his arrival in Naimiṣāraṇya, is questioned by Śaunaka and other sages about the means of Liberation. Nārada speaks of the performance of one’s caste-duties along with the duties of 04 stages of life. He adds the practice of the rules of the Vedānta to be practised in the stage of monk (saṃnyāsī). In the third lesson where Dattātreya is mentioned[19] the sage describes the procedure of monkhood beginning with one qualified with it. He talks about the different types of monk, the importance of the knowledge of the Self, the duties of a monk, the regulation as well as the importance of detachment and the study of Upaniṣadic texts.

(7) Śāṇḍilyopaniṣad:

Śāṇḍilyopaniṣad belongs the Atharvaveda. It contains 12 prose texts interwoven with 76 verses in 03 chapters (adhyāya). Sage Śāṇḍilya asks sage Atharva about 08 steps of Yoga, the path of Self-realisation. Sage Atharva elaborates 10 Restraints, 10 Regulations, 08 Postures, 03 types of Breath Control, 05 Methods of Withdrawing the Senses, Concentration, two-fold meditation and the Trance in the succeeding chapters. However the 3rd chapter refers to Dattātreya as the Supreme Self gave (datta) Himself to sage Atri.[20] It quotes the stanzas enumerating 24 names like Dattātreya, Śiva, Śānta and others that are should be understood etymologically (niruktāni).

(8) Yājñavalkyopaniṣad:

Yājñavalkyopaniṣad belongs to the White Yajurveda. It contains a prose and 24 verses in the form of Yājñavalkya’s answer to king Janaka followed by sage Atri. The Upaniṣad discusses the time of accepting the monkhood with two options–after completing 03 stages of life or any day of any of four stages of life (on the day one becomes dettached). It enlists 10 names of the top most of the monks (paramahaṃsā): Samvartaka, Āruṇi, Śvetaketu, Durvāsā, Ṛbhu, Nidāgha, Dattātreya, Śuka, Vāmadeva and Hārītaka.

The above given 08 Upaniṣads are more than enough to prove the historicity of Dattātreya in the age of Upaniṣads (though of the minor Upaniṣads) and there remains no doubts that He existed in the past, He is existing today and He will be existing in future. He is a long-lived one (ciraṃjīvī).[21]

Dattātreya is presented as Lord Viṣṇu Himself in Jābāladarśanopaniṣad[22] and as Lord Śiva Himself in the Śāṇḍilyopaniṣad[23] and all 08 Upaniṣads sometimes giving the list introduce Dattātreya as one of the top most monk (paramahaṃsa). This may give an idea how an exalted sage monk of high spiritual practice grows gradually high to the status of not only a god but a God. It is also observed that the Final Beatitude (parākāṣṭhā), the path of knowledge is compulsory treated upon with the means of 08 steps of Yoga.

The probable chronological order of these 08 minor Upaniṣads can be fixed on the interlocutors (praśnottarakartārau) time and the subject-matter.

Therefore the probable development of Dattātreya worship must have been as per the following order:

  1. Dattātreyopaniṣad (dialogues between Brahmā and Nārāyaṇa),
  2. Śāṇḍilyopaniṣad (dialogues between sage Atharva and Sage Śāṇḍilya),
  3. Jābālopaniṣad (dialogues between Yājñavalkya and Atri),
  4. Yājñavalkyopaniṣad (dialogues between Yājñavalkya as well as king Janaka and sage Atri),
  5. Jābāladarśanopaniṣad (dialogues between Dattātreya and Sāṅkṛti),
  6. Avadhūtopaniṣad (dialogues between Sāṅkṛti and Dattātreya),
  7. Nāradaparivrājakopaniṣad (dialogues between sage Nārada, Śaunak and others) and
  8. Bhikṣkopaniṣads.

In Epic and Classical Literature:

After the Upaniṣadic period the vast literature of the Epics and the Purāṇas followed by the Classical Literature where Dattātreya is no more presented as a monk of high order or an exalted sage or even a sage but He has acquired the status of a saintly monk or the Holy Master rather the Supreme Reality Himself.[24] Here below Dattātreya’s personal account is given in detail as available in the Epics and Purāṇas.

The Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa (Ayodhyā. 117-118) narrates that Śrīrāma, Lakṣmaṇa and Sītā on their way happens to meet sage Atri and his wife Anasūyā who offers divine garments and talks about the duties of a chaste woman (satīdharmā) to Sītā. Though the text refers to to Atri behaving with Śrīrāma as his son (bhagavānatriḥ putravat patyapadyata 117/05) and Anasūyā is old with wrinkled body as well as with gray hair (śithilāvalitāṃ vṛddhāṃ jarāpāṇḍuramūrdhajām| 117/18). There is no mention of even the name of Dattātreya which prove that He must be renounced and would have engaged Himself in the austerities or the spiritual practice of the path of knowledge.

The Mahābhārata 12/49/36 mentions Dattātreya only under great saint without His personal account therefore the Purāṇa texts remaining the only source to bring out Dattātreya’s complete personal account and deeds. It is however observed that there is not a single Purāṇa furnishing Dattātreya’s complete life-ketch, an attempt is here made to present in its fullness.

[The story of Lord Dattātreya’s birth]

Bhagavat Purāṇa refers to the story of sage Atri and Anasūyā. Brahhmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśa being pleased by the penance of Atri, offer a boon. Sage Atri praises the triad of gods to take birth as his son. Later one the Śrīmadbhāgavat Purāṇa. (01/03) elaborates the creation from Brahmā though the Supreme Person (sahasraśīrṣā puruṣa)[25] incarnates 22 (24 if Dharma and Manu are taken) times in the portion (aṃśā) and among them Dattātreya[26] is referred to as the 6th Portion-incarnation (aṃśāvatāra) Dattātreya is said to have imparted knowledge of self to Alarka, Prahlāda. Śrīmadbhāgavat Purāṇa. 11/07-09 narrates the dialogue between Dattātreya and Yadu talking about 24 Teachers[27] whose behaviour and peculiar conduct teach lessons to Dattātreya. The Śrīmadbhāgavat Purāṇa. 02/07/04[28] gives the grammatical derivation of the name Datta (the son of Atri).

The Vāyu Purāṇa (70/72-77) gives the information that sage Atri had 10 sons like Svasti and others and a sister though specifically it remarks that 02 (Dattātreya and Durvāsā) of them are illustrious ones.

The Skanda Purāṇa (05/03/103) furnishes Dattātreya’s birth-story similar to that of the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa.

In Poetic literature:

After the material gathered from the Purāṇa-texts, the two references of Māgha and Śrīharṣa must be noted here. Poet Māgha writes in his Śīśupālavadha 14/79[29] that sage Atri’s son Dattātreya incarnated to establish the path of righteousness as well as one appearing in front of a devotee immediately when remembered. Śrīharṣa writes in the that Naiṣadhīyacarita (21/93)[30] Dattātreya known by the name Anagha (sinless) imparts the knowledge of the Self to Sahasrārjuna and Alarka.

In the vast literature on the Dattātreya worship and His Cult there are many texts are available in Marāṭhī and hence it is a fact that Maharashtra has been the biggest centre of the holy masters, devotees and the followers of his cult. Joshi H. S. writes in his book[31] “Gurucaritra (Chap 04) of Sarasvatī Ga ṅgādhara written in Marathi which is highly respectable by the worshippers of Dattātreya, traces the origin of Dattātreya in a Paurāṇic form. The candidate of the present thesis has not traced this data in main 18 Purāṇas.[32] But there is no reference to the jealousy of the wives of the three gods.

In modern literature:

Coming to the period of the modern literature, there are important texts on the Dattātreya worship which have given rise to Datta Cult (varga) up to the height of Datta Sect (sampradāya).

They are

(1) H. H. Ṭembesvāmī of Garudeshwar (Gujarat) and his works in Sanskrit like Dattapurāṇaṃ, Dvisāhasrī (Śrīgurucaritam) and Samaślokī Guru-caritra (Marāṭhī text composed in sanskrit).

(2) H. H. Yogānanda Sarasvatī of Gunj (Maharashtra) and his work Śrīgurumūrticarita in Marāṭhī[33] and

(3) H. H. Raṅga Avadhūta and his work Śrīgurulīlā-mṛta in Gujaratī.

These three texts have come down from a single source (not known so far) and hence the data are surprisingly similar though different in style, narration and description. The reason is obvious because H. H. Ṭembesvāmī’s Dvisāhasrī contains 2208 verses,[34] H. H. Yogānanda Sarasvatī’s Śrīgurumūrticarita contains 14411 verses[35] of three lines technically called and H. H. Raṅga Avadhūta’s Śrīgurulīlāmṛta contains 19005 verses[36] called The striking yet enormous development in the textual description leaves no doubt about the enormous rise of the followers and devotees.

The story of Dattātreya’s birth and other description are elaborated in two successive texts but the main depiction of the birth of Dattātretya is similar[37] as under:

Lord Viṣṇu creates Brahmā who creates 07 Mind-born sages for the further creation. Sage Atri is one to them. Sage Atri’s wife is Anasūyā who is famous for her chastity in the three worlds. The earth, the Sun, the Fire and the Wind are afraid of her.

One day sage Nārada talks to Lord Brahmā, Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Maheśa about Anasūyā who is devoted to her husband and is inclined to serve guests. Their consorts hear this and being intolerable faint. The three appease their wives considering them-selves as to be the best of the chaste women. Consequently the Trinity of gods assumes the form of guest and goes to test Anasūyā’s chastity.

Anasūyā sees them and understanding their originality, welcomes them and asks what they want. The gods ask for the suitable food without any delay. She offers the food, but the gods wish to accept the food, if she is clothless. She thinks of her penance and of her husband and hence she has no lust. In case of not following them, they may curse. She then puts off her clothes.

The three gods become innocent children by her chastity. The motherly milk flows out of her breasts. She feeds them. They drink her milk and get supreme relief. She places them in the cradle and sings songs. Meanwhile sage Atri returns. She tells him the thing and the sage bows down and recites a hymn in honour of them. After hearing that the Trinity of gods assume their original form and offer a boon to sage Atri who asks her wife for the boon. She tells him to request Lord Viṣṇu to take birth as their son. The power of Anasūyā’s chastity has changed the gods into infants and hence Atri names Viṣṇu, Brahmā and Maheśa as Datta, Candra and Durvasā respectively. Lord Dattātreya is the complete manifestation, as He has offered (datta)[38] Himself fully.

Datta bestows the desire in the path of Yoga, Durvasā blesses the righteous ones and Candra (the Moon-god) nourishes the people. Lord Viṣṇu incarnates due to Durvasā’s curse and withdraws after the task is over, but Lord Dattātreya does not withdraw His body.

In addition to the personal account of Dattātreya, there must be a clarification regarding Dattātreya being either an incarnation (dattāvatāra) or a saint (prādurbhāva). Hopkins and Mriṇal Das Gupta[39] have tried to explain both the term. The word Prādurbhāva means an incarnation to serve somebody’s motive or wish, while the incarnation has the motive of helping the mankind. The soul of Prādurbhāva is a saint or an exalted sage (siddha) while incarnation has 02 motives[40] (01) protection of the righteous person and (02) destruction of the unrighteous person. But it is accepted by all the scholars of the Datta Cult names him to be dattāvatāraḥ or bhagavānadattaḥ.

H. H. Ṭembesvāmī (Dvisāhasrī Śrīgurustuti 94-96) identify Lord Dattātreya as Omnipresent thus: Śrīgurustuti 94-96 He who sleeps in the Māhuragaḍh, resides on the Mt. Sahya, takes bath in the river Gaṇgā, engaged in meditation in the city of Gandharvas, performs the rite shipping water in kurukṣetra, applies the holy ashes in the Dhūtapāpeśvara near Himālayas, performs twilight (saṃdhyā) rite in Karahāṭa, begs alms in kuravapura (śriyaḥ pure in the city of goddess Lakṣmi), anoints perfume (sugandhidravya) i.e. sandal paste in Panḍharapura (the city of Viṭhṭhala, takes meals at Pancāleśvara ( sārapura) and performs the evening rite on the western sea-coast. Such Lord Dattātreya may please reside in my heart and let He be His remembrance in the activities of the heart, the mind and senses.[41]

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

atrerapatya pumān| on the strength of Pāṇini’ rule 04/01/122

[2]:

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. XII, Edinburg, 1921.

[3]:

Origin and Development of Dattātreya Worship in India, Oriental Institute, M.S. University of Baroda, 1965.

[4]:

Vaidic Devata (Hindi), Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, Delhi-Varanasi, 1982.

[5]:

vyāghracarmāvṛtasjaṭilo bhasmabhūṣitaḥ|| 5/10||

[6]:

It contains 87 hymn and 727 verses in total.

[7]:

Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa Ch. 16.

[8]:

srakkuṇḍiḍamarucchūla-śaṅkhacakradharo'bravīt || 5/10||
mālā kamaṇḍaluradhaḥ karapa
hmayugme madhyasthapāṇiyugale ḍamarutriśūle|
yasyasta ūrdhva karayoḥ śubhaśaṃkhacakre vande tamatrivaradaṃ bhujaṣaṭkayuktam||

[9]:

gururbrahmā gururviṣṇurgururdevo maheśvaraḥ|
guruḥ sākṣāt paraṃ brahma tasmai śrīgurave namaḥ||

[10]:

Origin and Development of Dattātreya Worship in India. P. 05

[11]:

trimūrdhānaṃ saptaraśmim0||[Ṛgveda]01/146/01||

[12]:

īśa-kena-kaṭha-praśna-muṇḍa-māṇḍūkya-tittiriḥ|
aitareyaṃ ca chāndogyaṃ bṛhadāraṇyakaṃ tathā|| muktikopaniṣad
01/30||

[13]:

akṣaratvādvareṇyatvāddhūtasaṃsārabandhanāt|
tatvamasyādilakṣyatvādavadhūta itīryate|| [Avadhūta-upaniṣad]
01||

[14]:

The followers of H.H. Ra ṅ ga Avadhūta in Gujarata offer oblation in the fire with the repetition of this Dattamālāmantra in Dattasvāhākāra sacrifice.

[15]:

This Upaniṣad does not include 03 formulas (01) ṛgveda 01/22/17, Yajurveda 05/15, Sāmaveda 1669 idaṃ viṣṇurvvicakrame.. (02) ṛgveda 01/22/18, Yajurveda 34/43, Sāmaveda 1670 triṇipadā vvicakrame and (03) ṛgveda 01/22/20, Yajurveda 06/05, Sāmaveda 1672 tad viṣṇoḥ.

[16]:

These characteristics are in Dative because they are governed by the position namaḥ (salutation or obeisance) as per the rule of the Sanskrit Grammar namaḥ svasti svāhā etc. (Pāṇini 02/03/16)

[17]:

From here Dattātreya’s characteristics are presented having the sense of His 11 sacred syllables with namaḥ and svāhā.

[18]:

paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṃ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām|
dharmasaṃsthāpanārthāya saṃbhavāmi yuge yuge||gītā
04/08||

[19]:

dattaḥśvetaketuṛbhunidāghaṛṣabhadurvāsaḥsaṃvartakadattātreyaraivataka |

[20]:

bhagavatā jyotirmayenātmaiva datto yasmāccānasūyāyāmatrestanayo'bhavattasmāducyate dattātreya iti|| [Śāṇḍilya-upaniṣad] 03||

[21]:

It is surprising why Dattātreya’s name is not listed along with as long-lived ones: (01) Aśvatthāmā, (02) king Bali, (03) Veda Vyāsa, (04) Hanūmāna, (05) Vibhīṣṇa, (06) Ācārya Kṛpa, (07) Paraṣurāma and (08) Sage Mārkaṇḍeya.

[22]:

dattātreyo mahāyogī bhagavānbhūtabhāvanaḥ|
caturbhujo mahāviṣṇuryogasāmrājyadīkṣitaḥ||
[Jābāladarśana-upaniṣad] 01/01||

[23]:

dattātreyaṃ śivaṃ śāntamindranīlanibham prabhum|
ātmamāyārataṃ devamavadhūtaṃ digambaram|| [Śāṇḍilya-upaniṣad]
03/01||

[24]:

gururbrahmā gururviṣṇurgururdevo maheśvaraḥ|
guruḥ sākṣāt paraṃ brahma tasmai śrīgurave namaḥ||

[25]:

sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt|
sa bhūmiṃ sarvvatassppṛtvāttyaṣṭhiddaśāṅgu
lam ||[Ṛgveda]10/90/01||
puruṣaṃ evedaṃ sarvaṃ yadbhūtaṃ yacca bhāvyam|
utāmṛtatvasyeśāno yadannenātirohati|| [Ṛgveda]
10/90/02||

[26]:

ṣaṣṭham atrerapatyatvaṃ vṛtaḥ prāpto'nasūyā|
ānvīkṣikīmalarkāya
prahlādadibhya ūcivān| [Bhāgavata-purāṇa] 01/03/11||

[27]:

For details see App 06.

[28]:

atrerapatyamabhikāṅkṣata āha tuṣṭo datto mayāhamiti yad bhagavān sa dattaḥ||

[29]:

sampradāyavigamādupeyuṣī-reṣanāśamavināśivigrahaḥ|
smartumapratihata smṛtiḥ śrutīrdatta ityabhavadatrigotrajaḥ|| śiśupālavadha
14/79||

[30]:

santamadvayamaye'dhvani dattātreyamarjunayaśorjunavījam|
naumi yogajanitānaghasañjñaṃ tvāmalarkabhavamohatamorkam|| naiṣadhīyacarita
21/93||

[31]:

Origin and Development of Dattātreya Worship in India, Oriental Institute, M.S. University of Baroda, 1965. P 59.

[32]:

Though Dubois J. A. (Hindu Manners, customs and ceremonies P 552), Thomas P. (Epics, Myths and Legend of India P 96) have noted that this episode is in the Bhaviṣya Purāṇa.

[33]:

Late Prof. Dr. Arunodaya Jani translated this text in Gujaratī, Published by Indian Culture and Education Foundation, Vadodara, 2004.

[34]:

112 verses of Śrīgurustuti + 2008 of Dvisāhasrī (821 verses in Jñānakāṇḍa + 588 in Karmakāṇḍa and 599 in Bhaktikāṇḍa) + 43 of Yogarahasya + 44 of Bodharahasya = 2207

[35]:

3361 verses in Karmakāṇḍa, 4230 in Upāsanākāṇḍa and 6820 in Jñānakāṇḍa = 14411 verses

[36]:

7280 verses in Jñānakāṇḍa + 6772 in Karmakāṇḍa + 4953 in Upāsanākāṇḍa = 19005 verses.

[37]:

Dvisāhasrī Chap. 03, Śrīgurumūrticaritaṃ Chap. 58 and Śrīgurulīlāmṛta Chap. 06

[38]:

pṛthaṅnāmāni bālebhyo dadau tebhyo'rthavinmuniḥ|
pūrṇatvena mayā'haṃ te datta ityuktavān svayam|| [Dvisāhasrī].
03/42||

[39]:

Both quoted by Joshi H S p52

[40]:

yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānirbhavati bhārata|
abhyutthānamadharmasya tadātmānaṃ sṛjāmyaham||
paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṃ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām|
dharmasaṃsthāpanārthāya saṃbhavāmi yuge yuge|| gītā
04/07-08||

[41]:

yastāsti māhure nidrā nivāsaḥ sahya parvate|
bhāgīrathyāṃ sadā snānaṃ dhyānaṃ gandharva pattane||
kurukṣetre cācamanaṃ dhūtapāpeśvare tathā|
vibhūtidhāraṇaṃ saṃdhyā karahāṭe śriyaḥ pure||

bhikṣāviṭhṭhalapuryasya sugandhidravyadhāraṇam|
bhuktiḥ sārapure sāyaṃ-sandhyā paścimasāgare||
sa eṣa bhagavāndattaḥ sadā vasatu me hṛdi|
hṛddhīndriyādivyāpāre sadā tatsmṛtirastu me|| [Dvisāhasrī].
94-97||

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