Dasarupaka (critical study)

by Anuru Ranjan Mishra | 2015 | 106,293 words

This page relates ‘Application of the Junctures (sandhi) in a Bhana’ of the English study of the Dasarupaka of Dhananjaya: an important work on Hindu dramaturgy (Natya-shastra) from the tenth century dealing with the ten divisions of Sanskrit drama (nata), describing their technical aspects and essential dramaturgical principals. These ten types of drama are categorised based on the plot (vastu), hero (neta) and sentiment (rasa)

Part 10 - Application of the Junctures (sandhi) in a Bhāṇa

According to the rule of the Nāṭyaśāstra, the Bhāṇa should have two Junctures, i.e.

  1. opening (mukha) and
  2. conclusion (nirvahaṇa).

Opening (mukha):

The opening juncture is formed by the combination of:

  1. beginning (ārambha) and
  2. germ (bīja).

The germ or bīja seems like very insignificant; but its performance pervades in profusion, resulting in the ultimate fulfillment (Nāṭyaśāstra.XXI.21). In the Ubhayābhisārikā, the germ is the reunion of both lovers, which continues up to the end. Then beginning is mere eagerness for the obtaining of the more important result (Daśarūpaka. I.20). In the Ubhayābhisārikā, the beginning (ārambha) is the appointment of Viṭa for the reconciliation. Therefore, the opening juncture starts with a germ (bīja), with various purposes and sentiments. In the Ubhayābhisārikā, dealing with the separation of Kuberadatta from Nārāyaṇdattā and their reunion, Viṭa’s appointment is the opening juncture. It continues up to the meeting of Viṭa with Kanakalatā, who gave the massage of reunion of both the lovers.

Conclusion (nirvahaṇa):

The conclusion Juncture (nirvahaṇa sandhi) consists of:

  1. the combination of the denouement (kārya) and
  2. the attainment of the result (phalāgama).

The denouement is applied at the end of the main plot, which is developed from the beginning. In the Ubhayābhisārikā, the separation of Kuberadattafrom Nārāyaṇadattā, is unbearable; and they did not even wait for Viṭa, both came out searching for each other; and this constitutes the denouement (kārya). However, the attainment of the result (phalāgama) is the accomplishment of the entire result. In the Ubhayābhisārikā, the reunion of the lovers, constitutes the attainment of the result (phalāgama). So the Conclusion (nirvahaṇa) is that the matters that occurred in the Opening Juncture and that contained the germ (bīja) are brought together to an end.

In the Ubhayābhisārikā, the reunion of Kuberadatta and Nārāyaṇadattā constitutes the Conclusion Juncture (nirvahaṇa sandhi).

tataḥ tena gītakena śithilīkṛta……nirgatena viśvāvasudattenātmana udavasitameva praveśitau
  –Caturbhāṇī, Ubhayābhisārikā, p.14

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