Dasarupaka (critical study)

by Anuru Ranjan Mishra | 2015 | 106,293 words

This page relates ‘Purpose of the Thesis’ of the English study of the Dasarupaka of Dhananjaya: an important work on Hindu dramaturgy (Natya-shastra) from the tenth century dealing with the ten divisions of Sanskrit drama (nata), describing their technical aspects and essential dramaturgical principals. These ten types of drama are categorised based on the plot (vastu), hero (neta) and sentiment (rasa)

Purpose of the Thesis

The present thesis, “The Critical Study of Daśarūpaka with Special Reference to the Mudritakumudacandra” contains ten chapters, which critically discuss technical matters and theoretical methods of ten types of drama. In classical period, Sanskrit dramatists or poets used to follow seriously the dramatic theories and techniques prescribed by the Nāṭyaśāstra. However, the Nāṭyaśāstra was not so easy to follow for the dramatists. So, in later period, the most unique and concise treatise of Daśarūpaka was composed by Dhanañjaya. However, Dhanañjaya has composed his treatise of Daśarūpaka by following the rules and theories of the Nāṭyaśāstra and he has made it a handbook of Indian drama. Dhanañjaya has covered the necessary things needed for the ten types of drama and avoided the other things like dance, music, stage construction and other things.

The present thesis, however, discusses the theories of both Bharata and Dhanañjaya and their rules for ten types of drama, i.e. Nāṭaka, Prakaraṇaand other types. First, an attempt has been made to illustrate the rules proposed by both Bharata and Dhanañjaya and then it has shown the difference between them. Further, it has discussed how they are applied in various types of drama. Thus, this thesis intends to study the dramas to find out whether authors have applied all the rules of drama prescribed by both the Nāṭyaśāstra and the Daśarūpaka including the technical aspects etc. It also intends to study all ten types of drama to find out as to why they are called the particular types and got particular names. For instance, if it is Samavakāra type of drama, then it is necessary to find out why it is so called and which rules made it to be Samavakāra.

Further, from the ten types of drama, the Prakaraṇa type of drama has been taken as the special reference. The researcher has discussed it elaborately from all angles of drama. As the example of a Prakaraṇa, the scholar has taken the “Mudritakumudacandra” of Yaśacandra, a Jain poet. It is totally a different type of Prakaraṇa, which is not based on the erotic sentiment as the rule demands. It also contains a different type of story, which will be discussed later.

However, the thesis consists of twelve chapters in three parts. First part contains the Introduction, second part contains ten chapters discussing ten types of drama and third part contains Conclusion.

1. Every chapter dealing with a particular type of drama has an introduction, which discusses briefly about particular Indian dramatic tradition of ancient classical literature and the corresponding Western dramatic traditionand the similarity and difference between the two traditions.

2. It states the aim of the particular drama and the objective to be accomplished.

3. It discusses the author, his date, place and the patron king.

4. It provides the summary of the acts or drama, which constitutes the basis of further examinations.

5. It provides the rules prescribed by the Nāṭyaśāstra, for the particular type of drama.

6. It provides the rules prescribed by the Daśarūpaka, for the particular type of drama.

7. It describes the difference between the rules of the Nāṭyaśāstra and those of the Daśarūpaka as seen in the particular drama.

8. It provides information as to whether the particular drama has followed all the rules or not, prescribed by the Nāṭyaśāstra and the Daśarūpaka.

9. It provides information regarding the important characters of the drama and then points out the styles or vṛttis and how they are applied there in that particular drama.

10. The chapter then elaborates on the sentiments applied in the drama and their relevance to the theme of the drama.

11. It further discusses the junctures or sandhis and their relevance to the theme of the drama.

12. Again, the chapter discusses certain technical aspects are applied in the drama.

13. The chapter also elaborates on the society and social conditions etc. of that period and the status of woman in the society as has been portrayed or presented.

14. Every chapter contains a conclusion, which examines as to whether the drama has followed all the rules prescribed by the Nāṭyaśāstra and the Daśarūpaka.

Further, the rules prescribed for all the ten types of dramas by the Nāṭyaśāstra and the Daśarūpaka are to be examined by illustrating Sanskrit classical dramas written by various authors. The research is also establishing that the dramas depict contemporary socio-political and religious life of the people in the country. It is expected that the work will be helpful to all the students and the scholars. It is also hoped that it will be helpful to the public, because the dramas have been discussed from various angles like social, historical, psychological and technical aspects. Again, at one place one can find out the description of all the ten types of Indian classical Sanskrit dramas and brief introduction of western classical dramas.

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