The validity of Anumana (inference) in Nyaya system

by Babu C. D | 2018 | 44,340 words

This thesis is called: The validity of Anumana (inference) in Nyaya system. It tries to establish the validity of Anumana through citing its application either consciously or unconsciously in every sphere of human life. Anumana in Nyaya system is the knowledge of any object not by direct observation but by means of the knowledge of a liṅga or sign ...

Chapter 4.3.6 - Navya Nyaya (f): Philosophers after Gangesha

After Gangesha, came a number of philosophers and thinkers who wrote commentaries and books on Nyaya-Vaisheshika and contributed to the system. Vardhamanopadhyaya wrote four Nyaya works and two Vaisheshika works; Parshadhara Mishra is known for his commentary work on Tattvacintamani titled Tattvacintamanyaloka; Vasudeva Mishra the author of commentary Tattva-cintamani-tika; Rucidatta Mishra the author of Tattvacinatamani-Prakasha and Nyayakusumanjali-prakasha-Makaranda; Shamkara Mishra, the author of Tattva-cintamani-Mayuka; Vacaspati Mishra II, the author of Anumana-khanda-tika; etc. of Mithila school and Haridasa Nyayalankara Bhattacarya, the author of Tattvacintamani Prakashsa which is a commentary on Gangesha’s work, Janakinatha Sharma, the author of NyayaSiddanta Manjari, Raghunatha Shiromani, Kanada, Tarkavagisa Bhattacarya, Mathuranatha Tarkavagisa, etc. of Nadia schools are a few who contributed to Navya Nyaya system. Among them all, Raghnath Shiromani of Nadia School of 15th Century A.D. is considered the second greatest figure of Navya Nyaya. His foremost work is Tattvacintamani-didhiti. It is a critical commentary on the Tattvacintamani of Gangesha. Bauddha-dhikkara-didhiti, which is a commentary on the Atma–tattva-viveka of Udayanacarya, Padartha-tattva-nirupanam, Kiranavali-prakasa-didhiti, Nyayalilavatiprakasa-didhiti, Avacchedakatva-nirukti, Nanvada, Akhyata-vada and Khandana-Khanda-didhiti are his other significant works.

Navya Nyaya system seems to have reached its final shape during the period of Jagadisa Tarkalankara, the author of Tattvacintamani-didhiti -prakashika, Tattva-cintamani Mayukha, Nyayadarsha or Nyaya Saravali, Dravya-bhasya -tika or Padartha-tattva nirnaya, Nyayalilavati–didhitivyakhya. Tattvacintamani Didhiti Prakashika deals with the third chapter of inference (anumanakhanda) on Tattvacintamani of Gangeshopadhyaya.

His Nyayalilavati-Didhiti-Prakashika pertains to the Vaisheshika system which is a commentary on Nyayalilavati of Vallabhacarya. This work deals with six categories viz., substance, quality, action, generality, particularity and inherence. Similarly, Dravyabhashyatika popularly known as Padarthatattvanirnaya deals with an examination of the categories viz. dravya, guna, karma, samanya, vishesha, samavaya and abhava.

Two prominent schools of Navya Nyaya philosophy were Mithila School represented by Vardhamanopadhyaya and Nadia School represented by Vasudeva Saravabhuma. The emergence and development of the Navya Nyaya School has contributed immensely to the progress of Indian philosophy. It developed two important features viz. avacchedaka and avacchinna. In addition, some of the important terminologies developed in Navya Nyaya are pratiyogita, nirupita, nishthata, paryapti, samsargata, vishayata, prakarata and avacchina. It is to be observed here that various Indian philosophical schools have adopted several of these terms and ideas of Navya Nyaya indicating their contribution and influence on the Indian logic.

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