Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (study)

by A. Yamuna Devi | 2012 | 77,297 words | ISBN-13: 9788193658048

This page relates ‘Words with special connotations’ of the study on the Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (in English) which represents a commentary on the Amarakosha of Amarasimha. These ancient texts belong the Kosha or “lexicography” category of Sanskrit literature which deals with the analysis and meaning of technical words from a variety of subjects, such as cosmology, anatomy, medicine, hygiene. The Amarakosa itself is one of the earliest of such text, dating from the 6th century A.D., while the Amarakoshodghatana is the earliest known commentary on that work.

Words with special connotations

Word terminations, suffixes and genders also play an important role in determining the meaning of the word. Kṣīrasvāmin in his commentary observes such cases and at times illustrates them with relevant examples from the works of prominent writers and poets.

Such and other words are presented (with notes) and analysed where ever necessary in tabular column for easy reference:

Words in Amarakośa Kṣīrasvāmin’s remarks Analysis
vyāghre'pi puṇḍarīkaḥ (III.3.11; p.271)
Masculine, neuter (I.9.42; p.68)
āpi śabdāddiggaje | sitāmbujasitacchatrayostu napuṃsakam puṇḍarīkam | In the meaning of white lily the word is in nueter gender
karakā (I.2.12; p.25)
kamaṇḍalau ca karaka iti puṃsyapi vakṣyati The word in masculine or neuter gender denotes a pitcher of an ascetic or a pomogranate tree. While in feminine gender denotes a hail.
tārakā (I.2.22; p.27)
tārakā'pyuḍu vā striyām |
klībe'pi yacchāśvataḥ—nakṣatre cākṣimadhye ca tārakaṃ tārakāpi ca lakṣyaṃ—dvitrairvyomni purāṇamauktikaghanacchāyaiḥ sthitaṃ tārakaiḥ | viddhaśālabhañjikā IV.20  
āvīciḥ (I.8.1; p.60)
Name of a Hell
āvantyasmādavīciḥ | viruddhā vīcayotra vā striyāmapi |  
kolaḥ (I.9.11; p.63)
yacchāśvataḥ—potṛplavakayoḥ kolaḥ kolaṃ tu badarī phalam |  
bhūḥ (II.1.2; p.70)
bhavatyasmātsarvaṃ bhūḥ | rephāntaṃ tvavyayaṃ yathābhūrbhuvaḥ svaḥ |  
hanuḥ (II.6.90; 156)
hantyāhāraṃ hanuḥ puṃsyapi | Amarakośa mentions it in feminine gender, Kṣīrasvāmin adds that it could also be employed in masculine gender.
paṭo'strī (II.6.116; p.158)
paṭati vistīryate paṭam | āstrīti cintyaṃ dvayordarśanāt | paṭiḥ and paṭī are feminine gender words employed in the sense of cloth also.
āṇiḥ (II.8.57; p.187)
Pin of the axle; the pin or bolt at the end of the pole of a carraige
āṇati śabdāyate'ṇiḥ | lakṣye tvāṇī | The word āṇi meaning axle is also used in Tamil
rathira (II.8.77; p.191)
The owner of a car
meghārathābhyābhiranniracau 3203 rathina ityapapāṭhaḥ | Rathina is a popular reading accepted by other commentators[1].
vārdhūṣiḥ (II.9.5; p.201) lakṣyadinnanto'pi yanmanuḥ- śrotriyasya kadaryasya vadānyasyāpi vārdhūṣeḥ | vārdhūṣiḥ | vārdhūṣin | vārdhūṣikaḥ—all three forms are found in convention
sumanaḥ (II.9.18; p.204)
suṣṭhu manyate sumanaḥ ākārāntaḥ | Kṣīrasvāmin gives the word termination particularly because there are words ending in ‘ā’ and ‘s’ denoting different objects such as sumanā-the jasmine; sumanasgood minded or benevolent

Footnotes and references:


It is interesting to observe that Rāyamukuṭa, p. 613 and Liṅgayasūri, Vol. I, p. 527 accepts both readings; Mallinātha, Vol. I, p. 528 records only rathina.

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