Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (study)

by A. Yamuna Devi | 2012 | 77,297 words | ISBN-13: 9788193658048

This page relates ‘External Anatomy’ of the study on the Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (in English) which represents a commentary on the Amarakosha of Amarasimha. These ancient texts belong the Kosha or “lexicography” category of Sanskrit literature which deals with the analysis and meaning of technical words from a variety of subjects, such as cosmology, anatomy, medicine, hygiene. The Amarakosa itself is one of the earliest of such text, dating from the 6th century A.D., while the Amarakoshodghatana is the earliest known commentary on that work.

External Anatomy

[Full title: Human Body Health and Diseases (2): External Anatomy]

Starting with the term vapuḥ–body, Amarakośa enlists various parts of the body as–prapada–point of the foot, pāda–foot, ghuṭikāankles, pārṣṇiḥ–heel, jānuḥ–knee, sakthin–thigh, vaṅkṣaṇaḥ–groin, guda–anus, bastiḥ–pubis, kaṭaḥ–abdomen, kaṭiḥ–hip, picaṇḍa–belly, kroḍa–chest, pṛṣtha–back, skandha–shoulder, jatruṇī–the collar bones, bāhumūla–arm pit, madhyamam–waist, bhuja–arm, kaphoṇi–elbow, karabha–metacarpus, pañcaśākhahand, aṅgulyaḥ–fingers, kaṇṭha–neck, avaṭuḥ–back of the neck, vaktram–face, ghrāṇanose, oṣṭhau–lips, cibukam–chin, gaṇḍa–cheek, hanuḥ–jaw, radanā–teeth, tālu–palate, rasajñā–tongue, sṛkkiṇī–corners of mouth, lalāṭam–fore-head, bhruvaueyebrows, kūrcam–space between the eye-brows, kanīnikā–pupil, locanam–eye, aśrutear, karṇa–ear, uttamāṅga–head, cikurahair, tanūruha–hair of the body, śmaśru–beard and others. Some interesting remarks of Kṣīrasvāmin are presented below:

(a) Kapolaḥ (II. 6. 90; p. 153)–

[Cheek:]

Amarakośa mentions that the cheek is denoted as kapolaḥ and Kṣīrasvāmin adds that the lower cheek is denoted as galla

kampate kapolaḥ | tadadho gallaḥ |

(b) Hanuḥ (II. 6. 90; p. 153):

Kṣīrasvāmin explains it as that portion in which the food is chewed–

tatparastātpaścādbhāge kapolādhaḥ hantyāhāraṃ hanuḥ |

(c) Śayaḥ (II. 6. 81; p. 151)–

[Hand:]

Kṣīrasvāmin explains it as that in which everything rests and records that some consider the word as śama while in the Nāmamālā both the readings are presented along with pāśahasta and kara:

śete'smiṃsarvaṃ śayaḥ, śama ityeke | nāmamālā tūbhayaṃ papāṭha pāṇiḥ śamaḥ śayo hasta iti | hastakarau nānārthe ||

(d) Rasajñā (II. 6. 91; p. 153)

[Tongue:]

To the vocabulary of words denoting a tongue–rasajñā, rasanā, jihvā, Kṣīrasvāmin adds Leḍhi and Lolā

leḍhi jihvā lolā ca |

Kṣīrasvāmin adds that the uvulva or soft palate is called ghaṇṭikā

ghaṇṭikāntargalaśuṇḍikā

(e) Kūrparaḥ (II. 6. 80; p. 151):

Amarakośa lists kaphoṇi and pragaṇḍa as other synonyms of elbow.

Kṣīrasvāmin explains kūrparaḥ as the region above the elbow and below the shoulder. He substantiates his view quoting the Nāmamālā:

kurati karparaḥ bāhūpabāhusaṃdheraratnisaṃjñasya paścādbhāgaḥ |
tathā ca—

kaphoṇiḥ kūrparo'ratneḥ pṛṣṭhamiti nāmamālā |

(f) Lalāṭam (II. 6. 92; p. 153)–

[Forehead:]

Amarakośa mentions alikam and godhi[1] as other synonyms.

Kṣīrasvāmin adds bhālam to the list of words denoting forehead–

bhālaṃ ca |

He explains each term that which is adorned by tilaka, that which is adorned and that which is tied by the auspicious thread.

(g) Kūrcam[2] (II. 6. 92; p. 153)–

[Space between the eyebrows:]

Kṣīrasvāmin remarks that Bhāguri, an earlier lexicographer, reads it as Kūrmam which is incorrect as such a usage is not found. Hence he emphasizes that the word must be Kūrcam

kūrmamiti bhāguriḥ tanna lakṣyādarśanāt evaṃ kūrcam ||

(h) Kākapakṣaḥ (II. 6. 96; p. 154)–

[Side locks of hair on the temple of young men:]

Kākapakṣaḥ and śikhaṇḍaka are mentioned as synonyms in Amarakośa

Kṣīrasvāmin explains the term Kākapakṣa, the side locks of hair on the temple of young men. It is so called as it resembles the crow-wings. He also observes that according to Gauḍa it is the tuft exclusive to kṣatriyas:

kākasyeva pakṣaḥ | kṣatriyāṇāṃ cūḍā kākapakṣa iti gauḍaḥ |

(i) Cikuraḥ (II. 6. 95; p. 154)–

[Hair:]

Amarakośa mentions cikura, kuntala, vāla, kaca and śiroruha.

Kṣīrasvāmin explains that since the hair grows it is called cikura and in Prākṛt the ‘k’ is replaced by ‘h’ and the word is cihura. Further he adds that according to Durga cihura is also used in Sanskrit

cīyate cikuraḥ cihuraḥ prākṛtaṃ kasya hādeśāt saṃskṛte'pīti durgaḥkuntalā mūrdhajāḥ srastāścikurāścihurāḥ kacā iti |

To the list of words denoting hair, Kṣīrasvāmin adds śirasijaḥ.

(j) Śmaśru (II. 6. 99; p. 155)–

[Beard:]

Kṣīrasvāmin explains that the hair grown on the face of men is called śmaśru including mustache. He adds the word dāḍhikā and mentions that the word vyañjana denoting the beard is dealt in the Nānārtha varga

puruṣamukhe romavṛddhiḥ samaśnute smaśru | dāḍhikāpi vyañjanaṃ nānārthe |

It is interesting to note that the word dāḍhikā is used by Manu[3] and the Tamil lexicon[4] (p. 1827) gives its origin to Kanarese language.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

lalāṭamalikaṃ godhiḥ |

[2]:

kūrcamastrī bhruvormadhyaṃ |

[3]:

pādayoḥ dāḍhikāyāṃ ca grīvāyāṃ vṛṣaṇeṣu ca |
kullukaḥ pādayoḥ śmaśruṇi ca grīvāyāṃ
………VIII. 283.

[4]:

Vol. III, pt. I, University of Madras, 1982

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