Puranic encyclopaedia

by Vettam Mani | 1975 | 609,556 words | ISBN-10: 0842608222

This page describes the Story of Parvati included the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani that was translated into English in 1975. The Puranas have for centuries profoundly influenced Indian life and Culture and are defined by their characteristic features (panca-lakshana, literally, ‘the five characteristics of a Purana’).

Story of Pārvatī

Wife of Śiva.

Pārvatī is known under different names and worshipped in different forms. Amarakośa (Sanskrit lexicon) gives the following synonyms for Pārvatī:

Umā, Kātyāyanī, Gaurī, Kālī, Haimavatī, Īśvarī, Śivā, Bhavānī, Rudrāṇī, Śarvāṇī, Sarvamaṅgalā, Aparṇā, Durgā, Mṛḍānī, Caṇḍikā, Ambikā, Āryā, Dākṣāyaṇī, Girijā, Menakātmajā, Cāmuṇḍā, Karṇamoṭī, Carccikā, Bhairavī.

Some of these names refer to the various dispositions of Pārvatī, while a few are the names in the various incarnations of Pārvatī. The origin of Pārvatī and her other prominent births are given below:—

Incarnation of Satī.

Śiva was born from Brahmā. To make Śiva active, Satī, an aspect of Mahāmāyā, was born as the daughter of Dakṣa, one of the Prajāpatis. The 9th Skandha of Devī Bhāgavata gives the following story about the incarnation of Satī:

While Brahmā was engaged in creation a few daityas named Hālāhalas were born. They were very valiant and ferocious and they did penance to propitiate Brahmā and after obtaining boons from him conquered the three worlds and asserted their supremacy in all the three worlds. They defied the Trimūrtis (trio of Brahmā. Viṣṇu and Śiva). Śiva and Viṣṇu in despair went to war against them. The war continued for sixty thousand years and both the daityas and Devas were exhausted. Viṣṇu and Śiva refused to attend to their duties. Brahmā understood the situation and taking into his hands the work of Śiva and Viṣṇu also and calling his sons, Sanaka and others to his side said "Oh sons, Śiva and Viṣṇu are incapable of doing their work now, I have therefore, taken on myself the charge of their duties also and hence I do not find time to do penance. You must therefore, do penance to propitiate Mahāmāyā. Let her be pleased and when she incarnates in this universe the world will be happy."

As soon as they heard this the Prajāpatis headed by Dakṣa went to the forests on the side of the Himālayas. They started doing penance reciting the mantra of Māyābīja. The penance lasted for a hundred thousand years and then the goddess was pleased. She graciously appeared before them with three eyes and four hands bearing pāśa, aṅkuśa, vara and abhīti. Dakṣa and others praised her and she granted them boons. She did also promise to be born as the daughter of Dakṣa. Dakṣa and others returned happy.

Mahāmāyā incarnated as Satī in the house of Dakṣa. Satī blossomed into a beautiful maiden and all the Prajāpatis joined together and made Śiva marry her. The bride and bridegroom lived in the bride’s house.

At that time the sage Durvāsas worshipped Jagadambikā seated at Jāmbūnada meditating on her and reciting the māyābīja mantra. The devī was immensely pleased and appearing before him gave him the divine garland lying round her neck. The garland was highly perfumed. Honey flowed from it always. Wearing that garland the sage travelled through air and reached the palace of Dakṣa, father of Satī, and gave that garland to him. Dakṣa received it with great delight and took it to his bed-room and placed it there. That night Dakṣa inhaled the perfume of the divine garland and enjoyed an amorous sport with his wife. This act made the garland impure and the latent curse in it made Dakṣa hate his daughter Satī and her husband Śiva. After that Dakṣa conducted a Yāga and insulted Śiva by not inviting either him or his wife. Satī, however, attended the Yāga uninvited and she was insulted. Unable to bear the insult Satī leapt into the fire and committed suicide. From that day onwards Śiva roamed about in the world crying "Satī, Satī."

Satī, Pārvatī (Kālī).

During that time a son named Vajrāṅga was born to Kaśyapa of his wife Diti. This virtuous asura practised austerities for a thousand years and when he opened his eyes after his long penance he did not see his wife. Vajrāṅga started in search of her collecting fruits and roots for his food on the way. Then he came across her standing underneath a tree weeping and she said: "All the time you were doing penance, Indra was teasing me. I was living without food on the banks of the river keeping a vow of silence. Indra came there in the form of a monkey and threw away all my articles used for worship. Then he came in the form of a lion and frightened me. Then again he came in the form of a serpent and bit me. Oh lord, am I, your wife, an orphan?" Vajrāṅga got angry and decided to do penance again to find a remedy for this unjust act of Indra. Then Brahmā coming to know of the fierce decision of Vajrāṅga appeared before him and said "Why do you go in for a penance again? Ask me what you want and I shall grant you." Vajrāṅga said "Oh Lord, I did penance all these thousand years to get rid of the demoniac disposition of mine. But when I was engaged in meditation Indra tormented my virtuous wife very much without any reason. If you will bless me I must get a son named Tāraka to kill all the devas including Indra." Brahmā granted the boon.

Varāṅgī became pregnant and after twelve months was born a son to her named Tārakāsura. Tāraka did severe penance sitting in the midst of Pañcāgni (five fires) for a long time and Brahmā was pleased and appeared before him. Tāraka then said: "If I were to die I must die at the hands of a seven-day-old babe. You must grant me a boon like that." Brahmā granted the boon. Tāraka became arrogant with that boon and joined hands with such fierce demons as Prasena, Jambha and Kālanemi to create havoc in the three worlds of Svarga, Bhūmi and Pātāla. They blessed the wicked and killed the virtuous. It was the time when Śiva was sadly roaming about in search of his lost wife Satī.

All the devas headed by Indra went and complained to Brahmā. Brahmā said:—"After all, this calamity is not without remedy. There is an escape from the boon I have given him. Tārakāsura himself has allowed him to be killed by a sevenday-old babe. If there should be such a babe it should be from the virility of Śiva. Tārakāsura thinks that since Śiva is observing brahmacarya after the death of Satī there is no chance of a babe being born to him. That was why he was prepared to allow that clause in that boon. I shall therefore suggest a plan. Satī herself should be born as the daughter of Himavān and Menā in the name of Kālī. Kālī should do great penance and break the vow of celibacy of Śiva. If Śiva accepts her as his wife and a child is born to them we are saved."

Śiva was all this time spending his time thinking of Satī. Once during this time Śiva bathed in the river Kālindī and then the waters of the river Kālindī became black and the waters remained black ever since that.

Indra and others on their return from Brahmā went to Bṛhaspati to think about further procedure in the matter. Bṛhaspati said:—"No obstacle would ever come to any act of the devas. Himavān was doing penance for a long time to obtain a child and by the grace of Śiva, Satī has already been born as the daughter of Himavān. (Skanda Purāṇa in its Sambhava Kāṇḍa states thus about the birth of Satī as Pārvatī. "Satī before jumping into the fire meditated on Śiva and prayed that she should be born in her next birth as his wife. Śiva granted that request. It was at that time that Himavān along with his wife Menā went to the vicinity of Amṛtasaras and started doing penance to get a child. One day when Himavān and his wife were bathing in the saras they saw a gem of a girl in the waters and they took it. Then they found the child with four hands and all other emblems of goddess on her. They praised her with verses from Vedas and soon the divine emblems faded away and Himavān gave the child to his wife.") Brahmā never wanted Tāraka to know that the child was an incarnation of Devī and so he made the babe black by sending Niśā to do so. Niśā entered the womb of the pregnant Menā while she was sleeping with her mouth open one day. The child was like a sapphire idol. Himavān was surprised to see the child. The child will do severe penance and obtain Śiva as her husband. Śiva and Satī will never be separated in any of their births. Oh Indra now go and try to get Śiva interested in a married life."

Himavān and Menā had three daughters and a son. The devas were watching who among the three—Rāgiṇī, Kuṭilā and Kālī—would become the consort of Śiva. All the three were interested in penance. The devas took Rāgiṇī to Brahmaloka and showed her to Brahmā and the latter declared that Rāgiṇī was incapable of bearing the virility of Śiva. Rāgiṇī got angry and Brahmā cursed her and made her into Sandhyārāga and she took her place in the sky. Then the devas took Kuṭilā to Brahmā and the latter said that she was also incapable of being a mate of Śiva. Kuṭilā also got angry and Brahmā made her into a river and kept her in Brahmaloka. Menā was greatly distressed at the loss of her two daughters and so she advised Kālī, her third daughter to go home, discontinuing the penance. She at first said Umā (Mā = do not) and so she got the name of Umā She was the daughter of a Parvata (Himavān is a parvata (mountaiṇ) and so she got the name Pārvatī (mountain-girl) also. Kālī later went home. But after some time the natural inclination in her led her to start a severe penance again.

The young Kālī, who was only a small girl then, accompanied by two of her girl companions went to the shores of a river deep in the forests and started practising austerities. In summer she would sit in the midst of Pañcāgni (five fires) and in the rainy season she would sit in water and do penance. The penance lasted for a thousand years.

Śiva who was roaming about in search of Satī went once to the palace of Himavān. Śiva agreed to stay there for some time at the persistent request of Himavān. During his stay there Śiva understood that one of the daughters of his host was doing penance meditating on Śaṅkara. Curious to know more about her, Śiva one day went to the āśrama of Kālī. Kālī saw Śiva and she stood up bowing before him. Śiva was pleased with her. But before Kālī could have another look at Śiva, he vanished from there.

Kālī was disappointed and continued her penance again. Years went by and one day there came to her āśrama a Vaṭu (a brahmin brahmacārī). Kālī and her companions stood up and worshipped the Vaṭu who looked brilliant with ashes on his body and wearing rudrākṣa and akṣamālā (berry of a tree and rosary made of it) and carrying in his hand a daṇḍa (stick) and a Kamaṇḍalu (water pot). After formal introduction the Vaṭu asked Kālī the purpose of her penance and Kālī told him all about it. Then the Vaṭu asked her in tones of surprise why such a beautiful girl like herself born to be the wife of a king, should go after a crudely dressed aged man like Śiva who goes on the back of a bullock always. Pārvatī resented the statement of the Vaṭu and got angry with him. Then Śiva appeared before her in his real form and married Pārvatī (Kālī alias Umā) in the presence of devas and maharṣis.

Pārvatī changes into Gaurī.

Śiva and Pārvatī spent their honeymoon travelling throughout the world. Years went by like that. One day Śiva in a spirit of sport called Pārvatī 'Kālī, Kālī'. Kālī meant black one and Pārvatī was as black as sapphire. Pārvatī misunderstood Śiva addressing her thus two times and thought, perhaps, Śiva did not like her black body and trembling with grief said "If a wound is made by an arrow it will heal in due course; if the top of a tree is chopped off it will again blossom when the season comes; but the wound in the minds of others by harsh words is never healed. It was not my fault that I was born black and I would never again come near you with this black body. I am going." Saying thus with a firm determination, she rose up into the air and travelling for some time reached a big forest. She created by her reciting the smaraṇamantra four attendants for her named Somaprabhā, Jayā, Vijayā and Jayantī and started doing penance there. She practised severe austerities standing on one foot for a hundred years and then Brahmā appeared before her and sought the reason why Pārvatī, wife of Parameśvara should do such severe penance and then she narrated to him all that had happened. Brahmā after hearing her story told her thus:—"Virtuous woman, from today onwards, your black complexion would change into one of the hue of a lotus petal. Because of that 'gaura' hue you would be called 'Gaurī'." By the time Brahmā finished blessing her the colour changed into the one described by Brahmā.

Gaurī changes into Kātyāyanī, Vindhyavāsinī, Caṇḍikā and Cāmuṇḍikā.

When Devī became Gaurī her superficial skin peeled off and dropped down, it is said.

At that time there were two great demons called Rambha and Karambha. They had no sons and they started severe penance. Karambha was doing penance standing in deep waters and a crocodile swallowed him. The crocodile was none other than Indra. Rambha did penance standing in the midst of fire and finding no result even after a long time decided to sacrifice himself into the fire. Agnideva then appeared before him and blessed him thus: "Oh Rambha, you will get a mighty son of the woman you love." Rambha stopped his penance and returned home with the boon. On the way he saw a beautlful she-buffalo and passion rose in him and he made contacts with the buffalo. The buffalo became pregnant and in due course delivered a child which later on became the notorious Mahiṣāsura. In the meantime a buffalo loved Mahiṣāsura’s mother and it attacked Rambha and gored him to death. The Yakṣas burnt his dead body in a funeral pyre and the she-buffalo jumped into the pyre and abandoned her life. From that pyre there arose then another demon and he was the notorious Raktabīja. Mahiṣāsura became the king of demons and Raktabīja, Caṇḍa and Muṇḍa became his ministers. They attacked the devas and drove them to exhaustion. The devas took refuge in Brahmā to think of a plan to kill those asuras. Viṣṇu, and Śiva took part in the conference. Viṣṇu the eternal, got angry along with Śiva and became fierce like the fire of death. Brahmā and the devas also became angry and from the face of everyone a brilliance emanated and all these brilliances joined together and reached the holy āśrama of Kātyāyana maharṣi and that eminent sage also sent out a brilliance. The ascetic brilliance joined with the divine brilliance and the combined brilliance shone like a thousand suns. Then this superior brilliance entered the peeled-off skin of Kālī to produce the fierce and divine form of a goddess named Kātyāyanī. Each limb of the new form was made up of the brilliance from a particular god as follows: From the brilliance of Mahendra was formed the face; from Agni, the eyes; from Yama, the hair; from Viṣṇu, the eighteen hands; from Indra, the central parts; from Varuṇa, the hip and the thighs; from Brahmā, the feet; from Sūrya, the toes; from Prajāpati, the teeth; from Vasus, the fingers of the hands; from Yakṣa, the nose; from Vāyu the ears and from the ascetic brilliance, the erotic eyebrows. Thus Kātyāyanī shone in the world with a figure formed with distinctive perfection.

All the gods and devas presented Kātyāyanī with gifts:—Śiva gave her a trident (triśūla); Viṣṇu a Discus; Varuṇa, a conch; Agni, a javelin; Vāyu, a bow; Sūrya, a never-empty quiver; Indra, Vajraghaṇṭā; Yama, a daṇḍa (stick); Vaiśravaṇa, a mace; Brahmā, a rosary garland; Kāla, a sword and shield; Candra, Cāmara (white brush-like fan) and a pearl necklace; Ocean a garland; Himavān, a lion; Viśvakarmā, a moondisced Cūḍāmaṇi, earrings and a dagger; the King of Gandharvas, a silver-plated drinking cup; the King of nāgas, a nāgahāra; and the Ṛtus (seasons), neverfading flowers. The three-eyed Kātyāyanī on getting all these was highly pleased and made a roaring sound. Devī, thus worshipped and adored by all, mounted on the lion and went to the topmost peak of the Vindhyas. Indra and Agni went and served Kātyāyanī thus living there. Vindhya called Devī, Kauśikī and Agastya called her Durgā.

Mahiṣāsura once went to the Vindhyas after conquering all the three worlds. He was accompanied by his ministers, Raktabīja, Caṇḍa, Muṇḍa, Cikṣura and Naraka. They met there the goddess Kātyāyanī. Mahiṣāsura fell in love with the beautiful and wellfigured Kātyāyanī and he sent Dundubhi as messenger to the goddess to make her know his desire. Dundubhi approached Kātyāyanī and told her to become the wife of Mahiṣa, the emperor of all the three worlds. Devī replied that she would accept as her husband one who defeated her and that was the custom also in her caste. Mahiṣāsura with a huge army and heavy equipments went to war with her. But Kātyāyanī entered the field alone mounted on her lion and the devas watching her enter the battlefield without wearing even an armour were shocked. Devī went forward reciting the mantra of Viṣṇupañcākṣara given to her by Śiva and lakhs and lakhs of demons were killed by the adroit sword-swinging and the dinning roar of Kātyāyanī. Mahiṣa and his ministers surrounded her and Devī stepping down from the lion started to dance wielding her sword. Swinging her sword to the rhythm of her dance-steps Devī picked up the leading demons one by one and killed them. Seeing that, Mahiṣāsura approached her, burning with rage like the pralayāgni. All the attendants of Devī fled. Those who remained were trampled to death by Mahiṣāsura. Devī at first killed the ministers and then faced Mahiṣāsura. Mahiṣa became an elephant and Devī cut off its trunk. The elephant became a buffalo then. Devī sent a spike and it broke. Even Devī’s Discus, granted to her by Viṣṇu was blunted when it hit the rock-like body of Mahiṣāsura. Varuṇapāśa, Yamadaṇḍa and Indravajra were all alike fruitless against the mighty Mahiṣāsura. Angered Devī jumped on the buffalo form of the demon and drove it to exhaustion and when at last its power of resistance had failed, Devī plunged her spear into the ears of the buffalo and the demon fell dead.

Many years went by. Kaśyapa begot of his wife Danu three great sons named Śumbha, Niśumbha and Namuci. All were fierce demons. Namuci attacked Indra but they soon came to a compromise. But Indra hid in the foam of the ocean which entered the ears, nose and mouth of Namuci while he was playing in the ocean. Indra used his Vajrāyudha from inside and killed him. Śumbha and Niśumbha were angry and they entered svarga and defeating everyone there, carried all the riches from there to the earth. They met Raktabīja and he said "Oh Lords, I am Raktabīja, minister of Mahiṣāsura. Kātyāyanī Devī killed virtuous Mahiṣāsura. His two ministers Caṇḍa and Muṇḍa are hiding inside the ocean afraid of Kātyāyanī devī." While he was speaking thus Caṇḍa and Muṇḍa also came there. When they all exchanged ideas Śumbha called one of his men and said "Bho: Sugrīvāsura, go and tell Kātyāyanī to be my wife." Sugrīva went to Kātyāyanī and returned disappointed and said "Lords Śumbha and Niśumbha, I told Devī your message and she only laughed. She said that Śumbha and Niśumha might be mighty lords but only those who defeated her could marry her."

Enraged at this arrogance of Kātyāyanī, Śumbha sent Dhūmrākṣa to drag Kātyāyanī down to him. Dhūmrākṣa with six Akṣauhiṇīs of soldiers went to the seat of Kātyāyanī and challenged her to a fight. Devī stepped down from her seat and stood before Dhūmrākṣa and the latter leaped forward to catch hold of her. But Dhūmrākṣa was burnt to death by the huṃkāra fire of the goddess. Not only that, the huṃkāra sound reached the ears of Śumbha. Śumbha felt small by this prowess of the Devī but his rage increased. Śumbha then sent Caṇḍa, Muṇḍa and the great demon Ruru also with an army of a hundred crores of demons to face Devī Kauśikī. When the enemies reached Vindhya the bhūtas of Devī made loud and shrill noises. The lion of Kātyāyanī roared and she leaped into the midst of the army sword in hand. Lakhs and lakhs of asuras fell dead by the sword of the goddess. Devī once opened her mouth and lakhs of asuras entered it and then she shut her mouth keeping in her stomach the asuras till they all died. Devī beat the demon Ruru to death. Devī plucked her matted hair and struck it on the ground and from there arose the fierce form of Cāmuṇḍī. Caṇḍa and Muṇḍa fled but Cāmuṇḍī followed them to Pātāla and catching hold of them chopped off their heads and presented them to Kātyāyanī. Then Devī, Cāmuṇḍī and the bhūtas together tore to pieces all the remaining asuras and stored them all in their stomachs. Hearing this Śumbha’s rage knew no bounds and he started with an army of thirty crores of men. The army swept on like an ocean and finding it moving forward Cāmuṇḍī roared. Kātyāyanī made a sound like a lion’s roar. Brahmāṇī holding high the dagger jumped down to fight. Māheśvarī with snakes and the spike, with the three eyes open got down in fits of anger. Kaumārī with the javelin hanging round her waist and bright eyes entered the field. Vaiṣṇavī swinging her sword and whirling the mace with many weapons rushed to the field. Vārāhī breaking open the earth with its tusk and bearing a large wooden pestle came to fight. Indrāṇī with diamond on her sides came to fight. Nārasiṃhī brushing the manes on her breast, shaking the stars and whirling the planets and making a fierce appearance came to the field. (Cāmuṇḍī, Brahmāṇī, Māhesvarī, Vaiṣṇavī, Vārāhī and Nārasiṃhī are the different forms of Kātyāyanī. They are called Saptamātṛs (seven mothers). These saptamātṛs were born when-Kātyāyanī in her wrath beat the earth with her matted hair). Cāmuṇḍī roared. The world became dark. Hearing the roar Śiva descended to the field. The Asuras surrounded the Devī again. But they all fell dead with blood flowing in a stream. The dead bodies of the asuras became heaped up and in despair Śumbha and Niśumbha wept. Seeing that, Raktabīja got angry and rushed at Devī. The Saptamātṛs shouted and Cāmuṇḍī opened her mouth. The lower jaw of Cāmuṇḍī touched Pātāla when she opened her mouth from the sky. Raktabīja, wounded and bleeding by a dagger stroke of Cāmuṇḍī, fell into the mouth of Cāmuṇḍī and disappeared. Then Niśumbha interfered and the fight became one between Niśumbha and Devī. The fat and sturdy hands of Niśumbha and the mace he was carrying fell by an arrow sent by Devī. Then Devī struck him with her spike and Niśumbha was killed. Both Śumbha and Niśumbha who came to weeak vengeance on her were thus killed. (See under Laṅkālakṣmī to know how Pārvatī became Laṅkālakṣmī).

Pārvatī takes the forms of Elephant and monkey.

Śiva and Pārvatī went about enjoying amorous sports in the forests. Śiva turned himself into a tusker and Pārvatī became a she-elephant then. Gaṇapati was born as a result of that sport. Śiva became a monkey and Pārvatī became his mate and Hanūmān was born as a result of that sport. (See under Gaṇapati and Hanūmān).

Pārvatī became Sītā.

This happened when Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa along with Sītā were in the forests. One day Sītā went to the Godāvarī river nearby to bring water to the āśrama and she stayed for some time watching two swans playing in the midst of lotuses in the lake there. Hearing a sound she looked into the river and saw Śrī Rāma bathing there. She was surprised. When she left the āśrama Rāma was sitting there. At the same time another thing happened in the āśrama. Śrī Rāma found Sītā coming to him and when he arose to receive her the figure disappeared. Then Śrī Rāma found bathing by Sītādevī also disappeared. When an astonished Sītā reached the āśrama she found an equally astonished Śrī Rāma sitting there. They then told each other their experiences and Śrī Rāma on meditation understood that in the guise of Rāma and Sītā Śiva and Pārvatī had come from Kailāsa to know about the welfare of the princes in exile.

Pārvatī, Vihuṇḍa and Jalandhara.

See under those names.

Other details.

(i) Pārvatī shines in the court of Brahmā. (Śloka 41, Chapter 11, Sabhā Parva).

(ii) When the Pāṇḍavas were in exile Pārvatī guarded Arjuna always. (Vana Parva, Chapter 37, Śloka 38).

(iii) Once Pārvatī appeared in person and blessed Dharmaputra. (Chapter 6, Virāṭa Parva).

(iv) Once Śrī Kṛṣṇa pleased Pārvatī and she granted Kṛṣṇa boons. The first was that he would have sixteen thousand wives. The next was a beautiful form for Kṛṣṇa and the next was love of his relatives. Another boon was that Kṛṣṇa would have the prosperity to be able to give food for seven thousand travellers daily. (Śloka 7, Chapter 15, Anuśāsana Parva).

(v) It was because of a curse of Pārvatī that devas do not get sons by their own wives. There is the following story behind that.

Śiva and Pārvatī went to the Himālayas after their marriage and started living there. Śiva and Pārvatī were so much engrossed in their amorous sport that they were oblivious of the happenings outside. After a long time when their sport continued without a break the devas went in and informed Śiva that the whole universe was trembling by their sport and if Śiva produced a son the world would be incapable of bearing it and so he should withdraw from the act of producing a child. Śiva agreed and drew his virile strength upwards. Pārvatī did not like that and she cursed the devas that they would never have sons of their own wives. (Chapter 84, Anuśāsana Parva).

(vi) Pārvatī once taught Gaṅgādevī the duties of women. (Śloka 33, Chapter 146, Anuśāsana Parva).

(vii) Pārvatī resides in the mount of Muñjavān in Kailāsa with Paramaśiva. There is a mount called Muñjavān in the Himālayas. Bhagavān Umāpati (Śiva) shines there on treetops, underneath the trees, on the mounts and in caves. (Chapter 8, Aśvamedha Parva).

(viii) The Mahābhārata uses the following synonyms for Pārvatī: Ambikā, Āryā, Umā, Bhīmā, Śailaputrī, Sailarājasutā, Śākambharī, Śarvāṇī, Deveśī, Devī, Durgā, Gaurī, Girisutā, Girirājātmajā, Kālī, Mahābhīmā, Mahādevī, Mahākālī, Maheśvarī, Parvatarājakanyā, Rudrāṇī, Rudrapatnī and Tribhuvaneśvarī.

Pārvatī pratiṣṭhā.

The installation of the goddess Pārvatī in temples is done with the following sacred rites.

An inner temple should be constructed and the idol of Devī should be installed there. Before that, on the bed of the platform bearing the idol, amulets with spiritual inscriptions on them should be deposited there just as in the case of the installation of Maheśvara. Then Parāśakti should be consecrated there with recitals of mantras followed by the deposition of Pañcaratnas meditating on Piṇḍikā. Then the idol of Devī should be fixed on the platform. After that Kriyāśakti should be consecrated on the platform and Jñānaśakti on the idol. Finally Ambikā named Śivā should be invoked with the mantras as ordained in the scriptures.

The different zones like the east and the west and the guards of the Universe like Indra should also be worshipped. (Chapter 98, Agni Purāṇa; Sarga 36, Bāla Kāṇda, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa; Chapters 51 and 53, Vāmana Purāṇa; 7th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata; 4th Skandha, Bhāgavata; Chapter 43, Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa; Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Uttara Rāmāyaṇa, Kamba Rāmāyaṇa; Chapter 121, Padma Purāṇa; Chapter 186, Ādi Parva; Chapter 37, Vana Parva, Chapter 6, Virāṭa Parva; Chapter 23, Bhīṣma Parva; Chapter 202, Droṇa Parva; Chapter 283, Śānti Parva; Chapters 15, 84, 140 and 146, Anuśāsana Parva; and Chapter 8, Aśvamedha Parva).

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