by Vettam Mani | 1975 | 609,556 words | ISBN-10: 0842608222
This page describes the Story of Munnu included the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani that was translated into English in 1975. The Puranas have for centuries profoundly influenced Indian life and Culture and are defined by their characteristic features (panca-lakshana, literally, ‘the five characteristics of a Purana’).
(three) The importance of the number three is indicated below:
Agnitraya (Three agnis).
(Three kinds of low people). The three classes of people who are considered to have a very low position in society are the wifeless, sonless and servantless ones.
(Three dealings with men of equal nobility). The three important dealings which should be had with only people of equal nobility are alliance, marriage and litigation.
(Three kinds of acts). The three kinds of acts are the Hastābhinaya (actions with the hand), Āṅgyābhinaya (actions with gestures) and Rasābhinaya (actions with expressions of sentiment).
Man lives always in any one of the following states: Wakefulness, Dreaming and Sleep.
The three kinds of plots in a story are Prakhyāta, Utpādya and Miśra.
Eṣaṇā means desire. The three kinds of eṣaṇās are Putraiṣaṇā (desire for children), Vittaiṣaṇā (desire for wealth) and Dāraiṣaṇā (desire for wife).
The three instruments of action are mind, speech and body.
Past, present and future are the three divisions of time.
The three duties assigned to a Gandharva are Pūjyasevā (serving venerable people worthy of worship), Nṛtyagītavādyaparijñāna (study of dance, music and instrumental music) and remaining devoted to Sarasvatī (goddess of learning).
The three distinguishing properties of nature (guṇas) belonging to all created beings are Sattvaguṇa, Rajoguṇa and Tamoguṇa The three good qualities (guṇas) of Man are Satya (truth), Sadācāra (good conduct) and Lajjā (modesty). The three results or benefits (guṇas) to which man aspires are Dhana (wealth), Kīrti (fame) and Svarga (heaven).
The three kinds of miseries (which human beings have to suffer in this world are Ādhyātmika (of the body and mind), Ādhibhautika (inflicted by animals) and Ādhidaivika (by fate). The other three tāpas (agonies) are Anakṣarajñasambhāṣaṇa (conversing with illiterate persons), Duṣprabhusevana (serving arrogant masters) and Lambapayodharāliṅgana (embracing women with hanging breasts).
The three constituents of triple symphony are Dance, Music and Instrumental music.
Jñātā (knower), Jñāna (knowledge) and Jñeya (the object of knowledge) are the three puṭikās. Subject, predicate and object are also three puṭikās.
The three sweet things are honey, sugar and Kadalī (plantain fruit).
The following groups of three are classed as Trivargas (a) Dharma (Virtue), Artha (wealth) and Kāma (desire). (b) Vṛddhi (increase) Sthāna (same position) and Kṣaya (decrease). (c) Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.
Yajñas are of three kinds. Karmayajña, Upāsanayajña and Jñānayajña. There are six divisions in Karmayajña namely, Nityakarma, Naimittikakarma, Kāmyakarma, Ādhyātmikakarma, Ādhidaivikakarma and Adhibhautikakarma. For Upāsanayajña there are nine divisions namely, Nirguṇopāsana, Saguṇopāsana, Bhūtapretopāsana, Mantrayogavidhi, Aṣṭāṅgayogavidhi, Layayogavidhi, Rājayogavidhi, Avatāropāsana and Maharṣidevopāsana. Jñānayajña has got three divisions namely, Manana, Nididhyāsana and Śravaṇa.
The three kinds of powers are, power of wealth and position, power of endeavour and power of good counsel (Prabhuśakti, Utsāhaśakti and Mantraśakti).
Vāta, Pitta and Kapha are the three dūṣaṇas (disorder of the humours in a body).
The three classes of men are Uttama (best), Madhyama (mediocre) and Adhama (lowest).
The three rītis are Vaidarbhī, Pāñcālī and Gauḍī.
The following groups of three are considered to be Siddhitrayas. (a) Karmasiddhi, Yogasiddhi and Jñānasiddhi. (b) Aiśvaryasiddhi, Jñānasiddhi and Vairāgyasiddhi. (c) Śraddhā, Vitta and Bhāgya. (d) Maṇi, Mantra and Auṣadha. (Siddhi means attainment, accomplishment).
The different kinds of vowel are three in number namely Hrasva (short), Dīrgha (long) and Pluta (prolated). Udātta, Anudātta and Svarita are also three different kinds of accent, i.e. the acute grave and circumflexed).