List of Mahabharata tribes

by Laxman Burdak | 19,468 words

This content is based mainly on Ch. V of book by Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004...

Tribes With unclear Position

Tribes in 'Geography' and 'Tributes' /Whose Position is not Known/Did not Join the War/Unknown Tribes

1. Atavisavara (aṭavīśabara) - Refers to the tribes of mid- Vindhya region, and may be identical with the Atavika mentioned in the Puranas and the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta. Mentioned in geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.46). Aparandhrāśa ca śūdrāśa ca pahlavāśa carma khaṇḍikāḥ |
Aṭavī śabarāśa caiva maru bhaumāśa ca māriṣa (VI.10.46). The Mahabharata Tribe - Atavi (aṭavī) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Atval (aṭavāla) of Jats from Punjab. The Mahabharata Tribe - Shavara (śabara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Senwar (seṃvara)) of Jats from Rajasthan.

2.Anupaka (anūpaka) - Possibly the country of the Anupas in the Mahishmati region on the western coast, though some scholars suggest district Nimar on the banks of the Narmada. Mbh. Mentions Arjuna Kartavirya of the Haihaya (Yadava) dynasty as Anupapati (III. 116. 19). Kathā cita tu tadaivāsya viniṣkrāntāḥ sutāḥ parabho |
Adānūpa patira vīraḥ kārtavīryo ऽbhayavartata (III. 116. 19)

3. Adhiraja (adhirāja)- A branch of the Matsyas; mentioned in the course of Sahdeva's conquest of the southern regions (II.28.2-4). Probably a dominion or tributary neighbour of Matsya kingdom.

sa śūrasenāna kārtsnyena pūrvama evājayata parabhuḥ |
Matsyarājaṃ ca kauravyo vaśe cakre balātha balī (II.28.2)
adhirājādhipaṃ caiva thantavakraṃ mahāhave |
Jigāya karathaṃ caiva savarājye saṃnyaveśayata (II.28.3)
sukumāraṃ vaśe cakre sumitraṃ ca narādhipama |
Tadaivāparamatsyāṃśa ca vayajayata sa paṭaca carāna (II.28.4)

4. Anupavrt (anūpavṛta) -

5. Antargirya - Identity not certain.

6. Aparaparyata - Conquered by Nakula. Identification not certain.

7. Aparavartaka -

8. Aparanta (aparānta) - Signifies frontier, identification not certain.

9. Arbuda (arbuda) - Were vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.8). Also a famous mountain in the Puranas, now known as Mt. Abu.

tādṛśānāṃ sahasrāṇi parayutānya arbudāni ca |
Abhiṣiktaṃ mahātmānaṃ parivāryopatasdire (IX.44.110)

Sabha Parva Mahabharata (II.47.26) mentions about Arbuda.

śakāsa tukhārāḥ kaṅkāśa ca romaśāḥ śṛṅgiṇo narāḥ |
Mahāgamāna thūragamāna gaṇitāna arbudaṃ hayāna (II.47.26)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Arbuda (arbuda) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Avalak (avalaka) who were Nagavanshi.

10. Agreya (agreya) - A janapada conquered by Karna (III. 241.67). Possibly in hisar region or near Agra.

The Mahabharata Tribes - Agreya (agreya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Agre (agre)

11. Atreya (ātreya) - A northwestern primitive tribe (VI.10.67), possibly located in Atari, between Lahore and Amritsar. Were later initiated in the Brahmin gotras of Atri and Bharadvaja.

ātreyāḥ sa bharadvājāsa tadaiva satanayoṣikāḥ |
Aupakāśa ca kaliṅgāśa ca kirātānāṃ ca jātayaḥ (VI.10.67)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Atreya (ātreya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Atri (atrī)

12. Adidaya -

13. Adirashtra (ādirāṣṭra) - Possibly from the central or eastern regions.

14. Anarta (ānarta) - Refers to the famous land of great Yadava royal families in modern Gujarat and Kathiawar near the Rann of Kutch; ruled by many tribal oligarchies.

tama eva thivasaṃ cāpi kaunteyaḥ pāṇḍunanthanaḥ |
Ānartanagarīṃ ramyāṃ jagāmāśu dhanaṃjayaḥ (V.7.4)

When Pandavas were exiled to the woods, by the Kauravas, the five sons of Pandavas, born to Draupadi, were sent to Panchala, the kingdom ruled by their maternal grandfather Drupada. They later wnet to the Anarta Kingdom, ruled by the Yadavas, so that they can stay with their step brother and dear friend, Abhimanyu, and learn military science from eminent Yadava warriors. (MBh. 3.182) After the expiry of the thirteenth year, the five Pandavas took up their abode in one of Virata’s towns called Upaplavya. Arjuna brought over Abhimanyu and Vasudeva Krishna, and also many people of the Dasarha race from the Anarta country. (Mbh 4.72) Mahabharata (MBh 5.83), it is mentioned that Pandava's mother Kunti also stayed for some time in Anarta, during the exile of the Pandavas. (V.7.4)

In geography the country of Anartas is mentioned with the Sakas, the Nishadhas, the Nairitas, the Dugalas, the Pratimasyas, the Kuntalas, and the Kusalas. (VI.10.50)

śakā niṣādā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ. Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

Satyaki was a general in the Pandava, army. He was a chief of Anartas. (9. 17).Kritavarman was a general in the Kaurava, army (9. 17). He is described as the dweller of the Anarta country, the son of Hridika, the mighty car-warrior, the foremost one among the Satwatas, the chief of the Bhojas. Vivingsati, one among the 100 Kaurava brothers, had slain hundreds of Anarta warriors.

15. Amra (āmra) - Possibly a janapada in the Jaipur region.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Amra (āmra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Ameria (āmeriyā) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan.

16. Audumbara (audumbara) - An important ancient tribe, mentioned in the tribute list (II.47.12). Bauddha texts say they dwelled on the highway from Magadha to Kashmira in east Kangra district. (II.48.12)

kāyavyā daradā dārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Audumbarā durvibhāgāḥ pāradā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II.48.12)

Audumbaras were a north Indian tribal nation east of the Punjab, in the Western Himalaya region. They were the most important tribe of the Himachal Pradesh, and lived in the lower hills between Sirmaur and Yamuna.

They issued coinage from the 1st century BCE, when they seemingly gained independence from the Indo-Greeks. Their favorite deities were Mahādeva or Shiva, and also Kārtikeya, standing with a spear in right hand. The silver coins of the Kunindas, the Vemakas and the Audumbaras closely follow the coins of Apollodotus II in their characteristics (weight, size and material). [33]

17. Avasira - Could be Ayodhya region, defeated by Karna (III.241.44).

18. Ekashana/Jyoha (jyoha) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.48.3).

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paradarā thīrghavenavaḥ |
Paśupāśa ca kuṇinthāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jyoha (jyoha) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Johiya (johiyā).

19. Udra (Odra) (odra) - Modern Orissa, also known as Utkala and Kalinga.

pāṇḍyāṃśa ca tharavithāṃśa caiva sahitāṃśa codra keralaiḥ |
Andhrāṃsa talavanāṃśa caiva kaliṅgāna oṣṭra karṇikāna (II.28.48)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Odra) (odra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Odhran (odharāna).

20. Utkala (utkala) - Utkala was separate from Odra and Kalinga (VI.10.3 9).

cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ |
Uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.39)

21. Uttama (uttama) - Could be a Gond tribe in Mahadeo Hills. (VI.10.39)

cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ
uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.39)

22. Uttarakurava (uttara kuru) - Arjuna reached Uttarakuru during his northern conquest (II.25.7).

merumandarayora madhye śailodāma abhito nadīma |
Ye te kīcaka veṇūnāṃ chāyāṃ ramyāma upāsate (II.48.2)
uttarebhyaḥ kurubhyaśa cāpya apoḍhaṃ mālyama ambubhiḥ |
Uttarāda api kailāsāda oṣadhīḥ sumahābalāḥ (II.48.6)

Dr V. S. Aggarwala thinks that the Uttarakuru was located to north of Pamirs in Central Asia and was also famous for its horses of Tittirakalamasha variety. [34]Thus it probably comprised parts of Kirgizstan and Tian-Shan. Bhishma Parava of Mahabharata attests that the country of Uttarakuru lied to the north of Mt Meru and to the south of Nila Parvata. The Mt Meru of Hindu traditions is identified with the knot of Pamirs. Mountain Nila may have been the Altai-Mt.[35]

The Mahabharata refers to the Kichaka bamboos growing on the banks of river Shailoda. (II.48.2) Mahabharata further attests that the Kichaka bamboo region was situated between Mountain Meru (Pamirs) and Mountain Mandara (Alta Tag). The river valleys between these two mountains are still overgrown with forests of Kichaka Bamboos.[36]

23. Utsavasanketa (utsava saṃketa) - Were defeated by Arjuna (II.24.4) and Nakula (II.29.8). Possibly the Kinnar tribes between Kangra and Rampur Bushar.

gaṇāna utsava saṃketāna vayajayata puruṣarṣabha |
Sindhukūlāśritā ye ca garāmaṇeyā mahābalāḥ (II.29.8)

24. Unntyaka (unnatyaka) - Mentioned among the southern-most tribes (VI.10.57), possibly Karnataka region.

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ : unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

25. Upavrt - Possibly a tribe of the Saurashtra region.

26. Uluka (ulūka) - Were vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.4).

saubalena ca rājenthra tadā thuḥśāsanena ca |
Āhūyopahvare rājanna ulūkama ithama abravīta (V.157.2)
ulūka gaccha kaitavya pāṇḍavāna saha somakāna |
Gatvā mama vaco barūhi vāsuthevasya śṛṇvataḥ (V.157.3)
taṃ ca tūbarakama mūḍhaṃ bahva āśinama avithyakama |
Ulūka mathvaco barūyā asakṛtha bhīmasenakama (V.157.16)
ulūka vathanāḥ ke citha gṛdhragomāyutharśanāḥ |
Karauñcapārāvata nibhaira vathanai rāṅkavaira api (IX.43.26)
ulūka vathanaira bhīmaiḥ śayenabhāsamukhaisa tadā |
Nānāvarṇamṛgaprakhyaiḥ sarvajātisamanvayaiḥ |
Kiṃnaraira thevagandharvaira yakṣabhūtagaṇaisa tadā (XIII.127.6)

The Mahabharata Tribes - Uluka (ulūka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Aulakh (olakha).

Aulakh (olakha) clan of Jats are descendants of Uluka. [37] Mahabharata mentions a country called Uluka. [38] The Mahabharata mentions them as Uluka. [39] As per grammar rules the name Aulak, is derived from Uluk, the name of the country. [40] Perhaps the Iranian Uruk, Indian Uraga was their country. [41]

27. Uraga (uragā) - A northern tribe, possibly from Kashmir, vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.18).

abhisārīṃ tato ramyāṃ vijigye kurunanthanaḥ |
Uragāvāsinaṃ caiva rocamānaṃ raṇe ऽjayata (II.24.18)

28. Usinara (uśīnara) - An ancient tribe known from Rig Vedic times (X.59.1O), they hailed from Kanakhala, south east of Madra. The Brahmanas list them as a tribe of Madhyadesa.

śibima auśīnaraṃ caiva mṛtaṃ śuśruma sṛñjaya |
Ya imāṃ pṛdivīṃ kṛtsnāṃ carmavata samaveṣṭayata (XII.29.35)
yāvatha athya gavāśvaṃ sayātha āraṇyaiḥ paśubhiḥ saha |
Tāvatīḥ parathathau gāḥ sa śibira auśīnaro ऽdhavare (XII.29.37)
nothyantāraṃ dhuraṃ tasya kaṃ cina mene parajāpatiḥ |
Na bhūtaṃ na bhaviṣyantaṃ sarvarājasu bhārata |
Anyatrauśīnarāca chaibyātha rājarṣera inthra vikramāta (XII.29.38)

There are many references to Usinaras in the Epic poetry Mahabharata. At several places, it refers to king Usinara and his son prince Sibi or Sivi whose charity has been enormously glorified by sage Markandeya.[42].

29. Ustrakarnika (uṣṭra karṇika) - Were defeated by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.48) and were probably a Telugu tribe.

pāṇḍyāṃśa ca tharavithāṃśa caiva sahitāṃśa cothra keralaiḥ |
Andhrāṃsa talavanāṃśa caiva kaliṅgāna oṣṭra karṇikāna (II.28.48)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Ustrakarnika (uṣṭra karṇika) may be identified with present Utkanya (uṭakāṇyā) Jat Gotra living in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

30. Ekapada (ekapāda) - Mentioned in Sahdeva's conquest of the southern quarters (II.28.47).

ekapādāṃśa ca puruṣāna kevalāna vanavāsinaḥ |
Nagarīṃ saṃjayantīṃ ca picchaṇḍaṃ karahāṭakama
dūtaira eva vaśe cakre karaṃ caināna adāpayata (II.28.47)

31. Ekaprastha (ekapṛṣṭha) - Mentioned in the 'geography' (VI.10.40); of them, Ekacharana has been identified as a branch of Kiratas.

pāñcālāḥ kauśikāśa caiva ekapṛṣṭhā yugaṃ dharāḥ |
Saudhā madrā bhujiṅgāśa ca kāśayo ऽparakāśayaḥ (VI.10.40)

32. Aupaka (Opa-) (aupaka) - Mentioned in geography (VI. 10.67) and were possibly a northern mountaineer tribe. Location uncertain.

ātreyāḥ sa bharathvājāsa tadaiva satanayoṣikāḥ |
Aupakāśa ca kaliṅgāśa ca kirātānāṃ ca jātayaḥ (VI. 10.67)

33. Kaksha (kākṣa)/ (Kaccha) (kaccha) - Both Kaksha and Kaccha are mentioned twice in the 'geography' (VI. 10.47 and 55), and denote the dry grasslands of the Rann of Kutch, being mentioned between Dvaipeya and Samudra niskuta (people living on the sea-shore). Occupied by cowherds, Gopalakaksha.

upāvṛścānupāvṛśca surāṣṭrāḥ kekayāsa tadā |
Kuṭṭāparāntā thavaidheyāḥ kākṣāḥ sāmuthra niṣkuṭāḥ (VI. 10.47)
kacchā gopāla kacchāśa ca lāṅgalāḥ paravallakāḥ |
Kirātā barbarāḥ sithdhā vithehāsa tāmraliṅgakāḥ (VI. 10.55)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kaccha) (kaccha) may be identified with present Jat Gotra - Kachha (kāchā) who live in Maharashtra. [43]

34. Karantha (karaṇṭha) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.61); possibly northerners. The name bears affinity with Kharot, a tribe of caravan traders between Central Asia and lndia.

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

35. Kara Bhanjaka (karabhañjaka) - Appear in 'geography' (VI.10.68); a northern hill tribe.

tāmarā haṃsamārgāśa ca tadaiva karabhañjakāḥ |
Uththeśa mātreṇa mayā theśāḥ saṃkīrtitāḥ parabho (VI.10.68)

36. Karishaka (karīṣaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.54) with tribes inhabiting the northwestern region; also a gotra name.

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo daśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa binthavaḥ (VI.10.54)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karishaka (karīṣaka) may be identified with present Jat Gotra - 'Karig (karīga) Kari (karī). There was a republic called Karishaka (karīṣaka) during Mahabharata period, who lost it and moved here and there and were called Karig. [44]

37. Karkakhanda (karkakhaṃḍa) - Mentioned In Karna's conquests (III.241.43) after Magadha, and before Sravasti and Ayodhya; possibly a name for Koshala.

38. Karkotaka (karkoṭaka) - Mentioned by Karna as an impure people (VII.30.45); a southern tribe probably occupying a Vindhya range. Karkotaka has been mentioned amongst the names of the naga kings who attended the Sabha of Yudhishthira. (II.9.9), Mentioned in (VIII.30.45).

kambalāśvatarau nāgau dhṛtarāṣṭra balāhakau |
Maṇimāna kuṇḍaladharaḥ karkoṭaka dhanaṃjayau (II.9.9)
kāraḥ karāna mahiṣakāna kaliṅgāna kīkaṭāṭavīna |
Karkoṭakāna vīrakāṃśa ca thurdharmāṃśa ca vivarjayeta (VIII.30.45)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karkotaka (karkoṭaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Katewa (kaṭevā).

39. Karnata ( Karahataka) - The Mahabharata Book 2: Sabha Parva SECTION XXXI locates The Trigartas, the Dasharnas, the Sivis, the Amvashtas, the Malavas, the five tribes of the Karnatas around Rohtak in Haryana as under:

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa trigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II.31.6)

40. Kalinga (kaliṅga) - Lived south of the Vaitarani river (III.114.4), in the area between Vaitarani and Vijagapattam in modern Orissa. Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

ete kaliṅgāḥ kaunteya yatra vaitaraṇī nathī |
Yatrāyajata dharmo ऽpi thevāña śaraṇama etya vai (III.114.4)
putra meṣaḥ paravāhaśa ca tadā nandopanandakau |
Dhūmraḥ śavetaḥ kaliṅgaśa ca siddhārdo varadasa tadā (IX.44.59)

41. Kalkala (kalkala) - A Vindhya tribe listed in the 'geography' (VI.10.60).

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.60)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kalkala (kalkala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kalkal (kalakala)

42. Kaka (kāka) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.63).

hṛṣīvitharbhāḥ kāntīkāsa taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ |
Uttarāśa cāpare malecchā janā bharatasattama (VI.10.63)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kaka (kāka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kak (kāka)

43. Kanka (kaṅka) - Mentioned in the tribute list (II.47.26) as wearing horns, a practice among some Iranian tribes of Central Asia. A Jat tribe living between Beas and Sutlej in Punjab is as Kang; claims descent from solar race of Ayodhya.

śakāsa tukhārāḥ kaṅkāśa ca romaśāḥ śṛṅgiṇo narāḥ |
Mahāgamāna thūragamāna gaṇitāna arbuthaṃ hayāna (II.47.26)

Jat Gotra Kang in Mahabharata, is mentioned as Kankas. (IX.44.69)

acalaḥ kanakākṣaśa ca bālānāma ayikaḥ parabhuḥ |
Saṃcārakaḥ koka natho gṛdhravaktraśa ca jambukaḥ (IX.44.69)

44. Karnika (karṇika) - Listed in the 'geography' (VI.10.58).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

45. Karvata - Possibly a Bengal tribe whose king was conquered by Bhima (II.27.22).

46. Karaskara (kāraskara) - Served as tributaries in the palace of Yudhishthira (II.46.21). Mentioned as people (VIII.30.45).

āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāśa caitraki kaukurāḥ |
Kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane (II.46.21)

kāraḥ karāna mahiṣakāna kaliṅgāna kīkaṭāṭavīna |
Karkoṭakāna vīrakāṃśa ca thurdharmāṃśa ca vivarjayeta (VIII.30.45)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karaskara (kāraskara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Karaskar (kāraskara)

47. Kayavya (kāyavya) - A northwestern tribe in the tribute list (II.48.12).

kāyavyā daradā dārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Authumbarā durvibhāgāḥ pāradā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II.48.12)

48. Karpasika (kārpāsika) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.47.7); possibly hailed from the Vidisha region in Central India.

śataṃ dāsī sahasrāṇāṃ kārpāsika nivāsināma |
Śayāmāsa tanvyo thīrghakeśyo hemābharaṇa bhūṣitāḥ |
Śūthrā viprottamārhāṇi rāṅkavānya ajināni ca (II.47.7)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karpasika (kārpāsika) may be identified with -

Kapisha (Persian: کاپيسا) which is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. Jat Gotras derived from this place are - Kapahi (kapahī) Kapai (kapāī) Kapureya (kapūreyā) Kapdia (kāpaḍa़िyā).

49. Kalakuta (kālakūṭa) - A mountain (II.23.14) conquered by Arjun. Mbh. Mentions the inhabitants of Kalakuta as a neighbouring tribe of Kuru land (II.20.26, V.19.30).

ānartāna kālakūṭāṃśa ca kuṇinthāṃśa ca vijitya saḥ |
Sumaṇḍalaṃ pāpajitaṃ kṛtavāna anu sainikama (II.23.14)

People who came from the side of Kalakuta (kālakūṭa) mountain were known as Kaler - Jat Gotra.[45]

Kaliraman (kālīramana) jats had won the Kalakuta (kālakūṭa) country also. [46]

50. Kalatoyaka (kālatoyaka) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.X. 45).

mallāḥ sutheṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.X. 45)

51. Kalada (kālāda) - Possibly a minor hill tribe in the Himalayas; mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karaskara (kāraskara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kandwal (kaṃdavāla) who got this name from Kalada (kālāda). [47]


52. Kalamukha (kālamukha) - A southern tribe (II.28.45); probably a Bhil tribe.

ye ca kālamukhā nāma narā rākṣasayonayaḥ |
Kṛtsnaṃ kolla giriṃ caiva muracī pattanaṃ tadā (II.28.45)

53. Kashmira (kāśmīra) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.52 and 66); were defeated by Arjuna (II.23.24). Did not join the war.

kāśmīrāḥ sindhusauvīrā gāndhārā tharśakāsa tadā |
Abhīsārā kulūtāśa ca śauvalā bāhlikāsa tadā (VI.10.52)

śūthrābhīrāda tharathāḥ kāśmīrāḥ paśubhiḥ saha |
Khaśikāśa ca tukhārāśa ca pallavā girigahvarāḥ (VI.10.66)

54. Kichaka (kīcaka) - Their realms lay on the route to Ekacakra from Varnavata. The Pandavas travelled through Matsya, Trigarta and Panchala lands and entered Kichaka land (I.144.2). They were soldiers of the Matsya king, and their ruler was killed by Bhima. They seem not to have joined the war.

matsyāṃsa tarigartāna pāñcālāna kīcakāna antareṇa ca |
Ramaṇīyāna vanoththeśāna parekṣamāṇāḥ sarāṃsi ca (I.144.2)

Village Katrathal, an ancient historical village of Sikar district in Rajasthan, is believed to be associated with Kichaka.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kichaka (kīcaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khichad (khīcaḍa़).

55. Kuttaparanta - Possibly a Saurashtra tribe; mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.41).

56. Kunata (kunaṭā) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI. 10.50).

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Thugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI. 10.50)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kunata (kunaṭā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunt (kūṭa) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan and Kont (koṃṭa) who live in Uttar Pradesh.

57. Kundamana (kundamāna) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.13)

kāśmīrāḥ kundamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā madrakekayāḥ (II.48.13)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kundamana (kundamāna) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunda (kunda) + Maan (māna)

58. Kumara - Possibly a version of Vatsa, their king Shrenimat was defeated by Bhima during his march from Chedi to Koshala (II.27.1).

tataḥ kumāra viṣaye śareṇimantama adājayata |
Kosalādhipatiṃ caiva bṛhathbalama ariṃthamaḥ(II.27.1)

59. Kuraka (-ta) (kuraka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61); hailed from south Kanara region known as Vidyadhar in the Jaina tradition.

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuraka (kuraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuraka (kurakā) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

60. Kulaka (kulaka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kulaka (kulaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuraka

Kulak (kulaka) Kulakia (kulakiyā) is a gotra of Jats. They are descendants of ancestor Kulika (kulika) of Nagavanshi. [48]

61. Kurontha (karaṇṭha) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61); probably lived in the border region to the northwest of Garhwal and east of Kulu valley.

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

62. Kuru (kuru) - Key people in the epic, occupying Delhi and the adjoining portion of gangetic basin.

63. Kukkuta (Kulata) - Figure as a foreign (Mleccha) tribe of the northwest.

64. Kusala (-lyah) (kuśala) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.50).

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

65. Kushavindu (kuśa bindava) - Could belong to the southwest (VI.10.54).

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo thaśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa bindavaḥ

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kushavindu (kuśa bindava) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kush (kuśa) or Kuswan (kusavāṃ)

66. Krimi (kṛmi) - A once important tribe in east Punjab.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Krimi (kṛmi) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Karmi (karamī) or Kiram (kirama).[49]

67. Kevala (kevala) - Maybe a corrupt form of Kerala. (II.28.47)

ekapāthāṃśa ca puruṣāna kevalāna vanavāsinaḥ |
Nagarīṃ saṃjayantīṃ ca picchaṇḍaṃ karahāṭakama (II.28.47)


68. Kaisika (kaisika) - A branch of the Yadavas.

69. Kokanada (kokanada) - A northern tribe (II.24.17). (IX.44.55)

tatasa tarigartāna kaunteyo thārvāna koka nadāśa ca ye |
Kaṣatriyā bahavo rājanna upāvartanta sarvaśaḥ (II.24.17)
puṇyanāmā sunāmā ca suvaktraḥ pariyadarśanaḥ |
Pariśrutaḥ koka nadaḥ pariya mālyānulepanaḥ (IX.44.55)

The Mahabharata Tribe- Kokanada (kokanada) may ve identified wth Kok Jat Gotra

70. Kaukuttaka (kaukuṭṭaka) - Possibly a Nilgiri tribe (VI.10.58).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

71. Konkana (koṅkaṇa) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.58), a southern tribe, which did not fight in the war.

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Konkana (koṅkaṇa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Konkan (koṃkaṇa) [50]

72. Kopana (kopana) - A fierce southern tribe (VI.10.59).

samaṅgāḥ kopanāśa caiva kukurāṅgatha māriṣāḥ |
Dhavajinya utsava saṃketāsa tarivargāḥ sarvasenayaḥ (VI.10.59)

73. Kekaraka (kekaraka) - (VI.10.60).

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kekaraka (kekaraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kekeraul (kekeraula) Kakraul (kakaraula) |
Their earlier name was Kukar and they were rulers in Malwa. [51]

74. Kolla-giri (kolla giri) - A central Indian tribe vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.45).

ye ca kālamukhā nāma narā rākṣasayonayaḥ |
Kṛtsnaṃ kolla giriṃ caiva muracī pattanaṃ tadā (II.28.45)

75. Kausija (-ka) -

76. Kratha (kratha) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.65), Sabha Parva (II.27.7)

yajñavāhaḥ paravāhaśa ca deva yājī ca somapaḥ |
Sajālaśa ca mahātejāḥ kratha karādau ca bhārata (IX.44.65)
tataḥ supārśvama abhitasa tadā rājapatiṃ krathama |
Yudhyamānaṃ balāta saṃkhye vijigye pāṇḍavarṣabhaḥ (II.27.7)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kratha (kratha) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kaithoria (kaithoriyā) or Kaith (kaitha) who are considered descendants of Maharaja Kratha (kratha) of Kuruvansh. [52]

77. Krivi (kṛvi) -

The Mahabharata Tribe - Krivi (kṛvi) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kharb (kharba)

Krivi is also a Rigvedic Tribe: (RV VIII/20/24; VIII/22/12). These people are mentioned as Kravya in Sat.Br. (Xlll/5/4.7). They are to be identified with the Kharab clan of the Jats. They are also to be identified with the Khalabes of West Asian history, who gave their name to Chalybes on the mouth of Euphrates river.

78. Gaya (gaya) - Inhabitants of modern Gaya, brought tribute for Yudhisthira (II.48.15).

śauṇḍikāḥ kukkurāśa caiva śakāśa caiva viśāṃ pate |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca śānavatyā gayāsa tadā (II.48.15)

79. Gargya - Were defeated by Krishna (VII.11).

80. Giri-gahvara - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.66); lived in the Hindukush caves.

81. Guha - A southern tribe (XII.200.39).

82. Goparastra (gopa rāṣṭra) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.42); possibly hailed from ancient Nasik.

govinthā manthakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vitharbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ (VI.10.42)

83. Gopalakaccha (gopāla kaccha) - In 'geography' (VI.10.55); conquered by Bhima (II.27.3). Lay between Koshala and north Koshala, indicating modern Gopalpur in Gorakhpur district, between Ayodhya and Kushinagara.

kacchā gopāla kacchāśa ca lāṅgalāḥ paravallakāḥ |
Kirātā barbarāḥ sithdhā vithehāsa tāmraliṅgakāḥ (VI.10.55)

84. Govinda (govindā) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.42). Probably a central Indian tribe from the Kaimur range.

govindā mandakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vidarbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ (VI. 10.42)

85. Goshringa (gośṛṅga) - A hill conquered by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.5); could be located near Ujjain; visited by the Chinese traveller Xuan Zang (Hieun Tsang).

niṣāthabhūmiṃ gośṛṅgaṃ parvata paravaraṃ tadā |
Tarasā vayajayatha dhīmāña śareṇimantaṃ ca pārdivama (II.28.5)

86. Charmakhandika (carmakhaṇḍika) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.46) as a northwestern tribe.

aparandhrāśa ca śūthrāśa ca pahlavāśa carma khaṇḍikāḥ. Aṭavī śabarāśa caiva maru bhaumāśa ca māriṣa (VI.10.46)

87. Chitraka (citraka) - Waited upon Yudhisthira with tribute (II. 46.21).

āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāśa caitraki kaukurāḥ |
Kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane (II. 46.21)

88. Jathara (jaṭhara) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.41). Shalya Parva (IX.44.57)

jaṭharāḥ kukkuśāśa caiva suthāśārṇāśa ca bhārata |
Kuntayo ऽvantayaśa caiva tadaivāparakuntayaḥ (VI.10.41)

caturthaṃṣṭro ऽṣaṭa jihvaśa ca meghanāthaḥ pṛduśravāḥ |
Vithyutha akṣo dhanura vaktro jaṭharo mārutāśanaḥ (IX.44.57)
mahājaṭhara pādāṅgāsa tārakākśāśa ca bhārata |
Pārāvata mukhāśa cānye tadā vṛṣamukhāḥ pare (IX.44.80)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jathara (jaṭhara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jathara (jaṭhara).[53]

89. Jartika (jartika) - Jartika (jartika) is one of The Mahabharata Tribes, living in ancient time in the vicinity of Sakala and who are mentioned in the Karna Parva of the Mahabharata. (VIII.30.14)

śākalaṃ nāma nagarama āpagā nāma nimnagā |
Jartikā nāma bāhlīkāsa teṣāṃ vṛttaṃ suninthitama (VIII.30.14)K R

K R Qanungo[54] mentions incidence from Mahabharata that there is a town named Sakala and river named Apaga where section of the Bahikas, known as the Jartikas, dwell.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jartika (jartika) may be identified with Jat

90. Jaguda (jāguḍa) - Probably from the region south of Ghazni and north of Kandhar (III.48.21).

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna (III.48.21)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jaguda (jāguḍa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jagunda (jagundā) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

91. Jangala (jāṅgala) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.37); refers to peoples from the forest southwest of Kurukshetra.

ata ūrdhvaṃ janapadāna nibodha gadato mama |
Tatreme kurupāñcālāḥ śālva mādreya jāṅgalāḥ (VI.l0.37)
pitryaṃ rājyaṃ mahārāja kuravasa te sa jāṅgalāḥ |
Ada vīraira jitāṃ bhūmima akhilāṃ paratyapathyadāḥ (V.53.7)
matsyāḥ kūrmāśca sarpāśca mriyante yatra jāṅgalāḥ. Dhanaskandhaḥ striyāstatra sapatnairvipralopsyate ॥५४९॥ [55]

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jangala (jāṅgala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jangu (jāṃgū), Janghala (jaṃghālā), Jangal (jāṃgala)

92. Uttarajyoti (uttarajyoti) - Defeated by Nakula in west (II.29.10); location uncertain.

kṛtsnaṃ pañcanathaṃ caiva tadaivāparaparyaṭama |
Uttarajyotikaṃ caiva tadā vṛṇḍāṭakaṃ purama (II.29.10)

93. Jyoha (jyohā) - In the tribute list (II.48.3); could belong to the Tibet region.

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paradarā dīrghavenavaḥ |
:paśupāśa ca kuṇinthāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)

Jyoha (jyohā) may be identified with Johiya (johiyā) Johil (johila) Jot gotra. They are originally Yaudheya jats. Their area was Churu division. The area on the banks of Sutlej river upto Bahavalpur in Pakistan was Johiyawar (johiyāvāḍa़).[56]

94. Tamara (tāmara) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.68); hail from the region between India and Tibet.

tāmarā haṃsamārgāśa ca tadaiva karabhañjakāḥ |
Uththeśa mātreṇa mayā theśāḥ saṃkīrtitāḥ parabho (VI. 10.68)
gadā bhuśuṇḍi hastāśa ca tadā tomarapāṇayaḥ |
Asi madgarahastāśa ca daṇḍahastāśa ca bhārata (IX.44.105)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Tamara (tāmara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Tomar (tomara)

95. Tamradvipa - A southern people vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.45).

96. Taratoya (taratoya) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.l0.51), probably a minor tribe connected with seafare.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.l0.51)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Taratoya (taratoya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Talautia (talauṭiyā).

97. Tarkshya (tārkṣya) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.14).

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣuthrakamālavaiḥ (II.48.14)

98. Talakata - Cr. Ed. (II.28.43), could be from Bijapur in Mysore.

99. Talajangha (tālajaṅgha) - Once a major branch of the Haihaya dynasty, they had little importance by the time of the epic (V.72.13).

haihayānāma uthāvarto nīpānāṃ janamejayaḥ |
Bahulasa tālajaṅghānāṃ kṛmīṇāma uthdhato vasuḥ (V.72.13)


100. Talavan (talavana) - A southern tribe subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.48).

pāṇḍyāṃśa ca tharavithāṃśa caiva sahitāṃśa codra keralaiḥ |
Andhrāṃsa talavanāṃśa caiva kaliṅgāna oṣṭra karṇikāna (II.28.48)

101. Timingila (timiṅgila) - A southern coastal tribe subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.46).

davīpaṃ tāmrāhvayaṃ caiva parvataṃ rāmakaṃ tadā |
Timiṅgilaṃ ca nṛpatiṃ vaśe cakre mahāmatiḥ (II.28.46)

102. Tilaka (tilaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.51), possibly from Hoshiarpur, Punjab.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.l0.51)

103. Tiragraha (tīragrāha) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.51 ) .

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.l0.51)

104. Tripura (tripura) - A city near Vatsa (III.241.47). Tripura (meaning three cities, in Sanskrit) was constructed by the great Sura architect Mayasura. They were great cities of prosperity, power and dominance over the world, but due to their impious nature, Maya's cities were destroyed by Lord Shiva.

105. Tryanga (taryaṅga) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.60); possibly modern Telangana region.

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI.l0.60)

106. Tryasha (taryakṣa) - In tribute list (II.47.15).

davyakṣāṃsa taryakṣāla lalāṭākṣāna nānāthigbhyaḥ samāgatāna |
Auṣṇīṣāna anivāsāṃśa ca bāhukāna puruṣāthakāna (II.47.15)

107. Dasaparsva (daśā pārśva) - A northwestern people listed in 'geography' (VI.10.54).

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo daśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa binthavaḥ (VI.10.54)

108. Dasamalika - A northern tribe, possibly Rohitas of Afghanistan (VI.10.65 and II.24.16).

tadaiva maradhāśa cīnāsa tadaiva daśa mālikāḥ. Kaṣatriyopaniveśāśa ca vaiśyaśūthra kulāni ca (VI.10.65)

109. Dasar - The Yadava clan of Krishna (III.19.120).

110. Diptaksha (dīptākṣa) - (V.72.15).

hayagrīvo vithehānāṃ varapraśa ca mahaujasāma |
Bāhuḥ sunthara vegānāṃ dīptākṣāṇāṃ purūravāḥ (V.72.15)

111. Dirghavenava (dīrghavenava) - A Central Asian tribe mentioned in the tribute list (II.48.3).

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paratharā dīrghavenavaḥ |
Paśupāśa ca kuṇinthāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)

112. Dugula (dugūlā) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.50).

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

Dugula (dugūlā) may be identified with Dagolya Jat Gotra.

113. Dwadashaksha (dvādaśākṣa) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira. (IX.44.54)

ekākṣo dvādaśākṣaśa ca tadaivaika jaṭaḥ parabhuḥ |
Sahasrabāhura vikaṭo vayāghrākṣaḥ kaṣitikampanaḥ (IX.44.54)

114. Dvarapala (dvārapāla) - A northwestern region, mentioned In Nakula's conquests (II.29.10).

kṛtsnaṃ pañcanathaṃ caiva tadaivāparaparyaṭama |
Uttarajyotikaṃ caiva tadā vṛṇḍāṭakaṃ purama |
Dvārapālaṃ ca tarasā vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ (II.29.10)

115. Dvalpeya- (-bh) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.47), identified with the tiny island of Diu.

116. Nandivega (nandivega) - (V.72.17).

śamaśa ca nandivegānāma itya ete kulapāṃsanāḥ |
Yugānte kṛṣṇa saṃbhūtāḥ kuleṣu puruṣādhamāḥ (V.72.17)

117. Navarastra (nava rāṣṭra) - Defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.6).

nava rāṣṭraṃ vinirjitya kuntibhojama upāthravata |
Parītipūrvaṃ ca tasyāsau paratijagrāha śāsanama (II.28.6)

118. Nalakalaka (nalakālaka) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.58).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

119. Nisadha (niṣāda) - In 'geography' (VI.10.50), this was the kingdom of the famous King Nala of the Yadava race. The tiny realm lay at the western end of the Satpura ranges.

śakā niṣādā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

120. Nipa (nīpa) - An historical people whose king janamejaya caused the ruin of his own tribe (V.72.13); were bondsmen in Yudhisthira's palace (II.46.21).

āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāśa caitraki kaukurāḥ |
Kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane (II.46.21)
haihayānāma uthāvarto nīpānāṃ janamejayaḥ |
Bahulasa tālajaṅghānāṃ kṛmīṇāma uthdhato vasuḥ Mahabharata (V.72.13)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Nipa (nīpa) may be identified as Nepa (nepā) Jat clan.

121. Naimisha (naimiṣa) - People of Naimisharanaya (modern Nimsar) in Sitapur (UP) who were called the "knowers of true religion" (VIII.30.60).

kuravaḥ sahapāñcālāḥ śālvā matsyāḥ sanaimiṣāḥ |
Kosalāḥ kāśayo ऽṅagāśa ca kaliṅgā magadhāsa tadā (VIII.30.60)

122. Nairrta (nairṛta) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.50); probably came from the southwest.

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

Nairrta (nairṛta) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Nehra.

123. Panchakarpata (pañcakarpaṭa) - Subdued by Nakula in the west (II.29.6), and probably hailed from a small settlement of five unknown tribes in Punjab.

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa tarigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II.29.6)

124. Panitaka (panītaka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.42).

govinthā manthakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vitharbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ .. (VI. 10.42)

125. Pattana - Probably a Vindhya tribe, the city was defeated by Karna in his digvijaya (III.241.47).

126. Pattibhanjaka (pattipañjaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.62); identification uncertain.

mūṣakā satanabālāśa ca satiyaḥ pattipañjakāḥ |
Āthithāyāḥ sirālāśa ca satūbakā satanapāsa tadā (VI.10.62)

127. Parantangana - Meaning other Tangana, In the tribute list (II.48.3); probably a northwestern tribe. (VI.9.63)

hṛṣīvitharbhāḥ kāntīkāsa taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ |
Uttarāśa cāpare malecchā janā bharatasattama (VI.9.63)


128. Pasu (paśu) - In the tribute list (II.48.3); probably a northwestern tribe.

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paratharā thīrghavenavaḥ.paśupāśa ca kuṇinthāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)

129. Parasika (pārasīka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.51); probably people of Persia or southern Iran.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ .tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.10.51)

Parasika (pārasīka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Paraswal

130. Parasika - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.51); probably people of Persia or southern Iran.

131. Pichchhanda (picchaṇḍa) - A southern janapada subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.47).

ekapāthāṃśa ca puruṣāna kevalāna vanavāsinaḥ |
Nagarīṃ saṃjayantīṃ ca picchaṇḍaṃ karahāṭakama .dūtaira eva vaśe cakre karaṃ caināna athāpayata (II.28.47)

132. Pauraka (pauraka) - A northwestern tribe in the tribute list (II.48.13), identified with a Kabuli tribe of Afghanistan.

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ .śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II.48.13)

Pauraka (pauraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Paur

133. Prakustaka (parakutsaka) - In 'geography' (VI.10.51); possibly came from the Afghan-Pakistan border near Peshawar.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.10.51)

134. Pratimatsya (paratimatsya) - n 'geography' (VI.6.50); were neighbours of Matsya.

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Thugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.6.50)

135. Pradara - In the tribute list (II.48.37).

136. Prabhadraka (parabhadraka) - A Panchala tribe (VI.52.14).

dhṛṣṭathyumnaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca pāñcālāśa ca parabhadrakāḥ |
Madhye sainyasya mahataḥ saditā yuthdhāya bhārata (VI.52.14)

137. Pramuda - In 'geography' with Kiratas; probably lived in the Yamuna region.

138. Prachya (parācya) - A tribe near Kerala in 'geography' (VI.10.57); skilled in fighting on elephanttback.

tharaviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

139. Paravrsheya (parāvṛṣeya) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.49); possibly the region of Sahya (mountains) in the Western Ghats.

mahyuttarāḥ parāvṛṣeyā bhārgavāśa ca janādhipa |
Puṇḍrā bhārgāḥ kirātāśa ca suthoṣṇāḥ paramuthāsa tadā (VI. 10.49)

140. Parahuta (parāhūta) - In 'geography' (VI.10.45).

mallāḥ sutheṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)

141. Parostha (paroṣṭha) - A central Indian tribe (VI.10.60).

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.60)

142. Barbara ( barbara) - A northern Himalayan tribe (uttarajtha janmarah, XII. 200.39-40), (II.29.15) .

uttarā padajanmānaḥ kīrtayiṣyāmi tāna api |
Yauna kāmbojagāndhārāḥ kirātā barbaraiḥ saha (XII.200.40)

tataḥ sāgarakukṣisdāna malecchāna paramadāruṇāna |
Pahlavāna barbarāṃśa caiva tāna sarvāna anayatha vaśama (II.29.15)

Babbar (babbara) Jat Gotra found in Punjab when Sanskritised is Barbara.

143. Balirastra (balirāṣṭra) - In 'geography' (VI.10.43), a variant of Malla; a janapada in the Vidarbha region.

āthi rāṣṭrāḥ sukuṭṭāśa ca balirāṣṭraṃ ca kevalama |
Vānarāsyāḥ paravāhāśa ca vakrā vakrabhayāḥ śakāḥ (VI.10.43)

144. Baliha (balīha) - (V.72.14).

aja binthuḥ suvīrāṇāṃ surāṣṭrāṇāṃ kuśarthdhikaḥ |
Arkajaśa ca balīhānāṃ cīnānāṃ dhautamūlakaḥ (V.72.14)

145. Bahurvadya(bahu vādya) - In 'geography' (VI.10.53).

darvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vādyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

146. Bahlika - An ancient people known from the time of Atharva Veda and Satapatha Brahmana; closely connected with the Kurus of Mbh. Scholars identify them with the Bactrians of Balkh.

147. Bodha (bodha) - In 'geography;' a Yadava branch who fled westwards out of fear of Jarasandha (II.13.25).

śūrasenā bhadra kārā bodhāḥ śālvāḥ pataca carāḥ |
Susdarāśa ca sukuṭṭāśa ca kuṇinthāḥ kuntibhiḥ saha (II.13.25)

Badhwar (badhavāra) or Bodh Jat Gotra may be identified with Bodha (bodha).

148. Bharga (bharga) - In 'geography' (VL1 0.49); dwelled close to the Vats as and Nisadhas in Bhima's conquest (II.27.10).

bhargāṇāma adhipaṃ caiva niṣāthādhipatiṃ tadā |
Vijigye bhūmipālāṃśa ca maṇimata paramukhāna bahūna (II.27.10)

149. Bhadrakara (Madra) - Rank among the eighteen tribes of Bhojas who fled out of fear of Jarasandha (II.13.25); were part of the Salva confederacy.

śūrasenā bhadra kārā bodhāḥ śālvāḥ pataca carāḥ |
Susdarāśa ca sukuṭṭāśa ca kuṇinthāḥ kuntibhiḥ saha (II.13.25)

150. Bhardwaja (bharadvāja) - Probably a Garhwal tribe, listed in 'geography' (VI.10.67).

ātreyāḥ sa bharadvājāsa tadaiva satanayoṣikāḥ |
Aupakāśa ca kaliṅgāśa ca kirātānāṃ ca jātayaḥ (VI.10.67)

Bhardwaj (bhāradvāja) Jat Gotra may be identified with The Mahabharata Tribes - Bhardwaja (bharadvāja).

151. Bhargava - In 'geography (VI.10.49), could be from the western Ghats.

mahyuttarāḥ parāvṛṣeyā bhārgavāśa ca janādhipa |
Puṇḍrā bhārgāḥ kirātāśa ca suthoṣṇāḥ paramuthāsa tadā (VI.10.49)

152. Bhulinga -

153. Madaviraka (madaviraka) - Figure in the description of countries vanquished by Bhima (II.27.9).

nivṛtya ca mahābāhura madarvīkaṃ mahīdharama |
Sopatheśaṃ vinirjitya parayayāva uttarā mukhaḥ |
Vatsabhūmiṃ ca kaunteyo vijigye balavāna balāta (II.27.9)

May be Mada + Viraka tribes.

154. Madra (madra) - A Vedic people of high status. At the time of the epic, their king was Bahlika, and probably hailed from a tribe that migrated from Iran or Bactria and settled in Punjab.

tataḥ śākalama abhyetya madrāṇāṃ puṭabhethanama |
Mātulaṃ parītipūrveṇa śalyaṃ cakre vaśe balī (II.29.13)

The Mahabharata Tribes - Madra (madra) has may be identified with Jat Gotra - Maderna (maderaṇā) or Madrayana (madreṇā)

155. Madhumanta (madhumanta) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 1 0.51), they came from Afghanistan.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI. 1 0.51)

156. Madhyamikeya (madhyamikeya) - Probably indicates a place called Nagri near Chittor. Its ancient name was Madhyamika nagari (madhyamikā nagarī).

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II. 48.13)

The Shivis (śivi) or Sibia Jats ruled this area. The classical writers locate Shivis (Siboi) at the confluence of Beas and Chenab. [57] Later they migrated to Rajasthan in the area of Madhyamika near Chittor from their coins bearing the legend Shibi janapadas have been found. [58] The Shivis tribe is known by several variants-Shiva in the Rigveda as one of the tribes defeated by the Bharata king Sudas; Sivi in the Aitreya Brahmana (VIII.23.10), Mahabharata (II.48.13), Sibi in Mahabharata (II. 48.13) Sibi in Mahabhashya on Panini (IV.2.52) where as Shaiba or Shaibayah as vishaya has been mentioned. Classical writers call them Siboi (Diodous 3, XVIII, 96; Strabo XV,1; Curtius IX,41)[59]There are ruins of an ancient town called 'Tamva-vati nagari' 11 miles north of Chittor. Ancient coins of Shivi people are found near this town bearing 'Majhamikaya Shivajanapadas' (majhamikāya śivajanapadasa ), which means coins of 'Shiva janapada of Madhyamika'. The 'Tamvavati nagari' (tamvāvatī nagarī) was called as 'Madhyamika nagari'. These coins are of the period first to second century BCE. [60]

157. Mandaka (mandaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.42); a tribe of cowherds from central India.

govinthā mandakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vidarbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ (VI.10.42)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mandaka (mandaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Manda (manḍā).

158. Murachipattana (muracī pattana) - Subdued by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.45); identified with Muchuri, a famous port near Calicut.

ye ca kālamukhā nāma narā rākṣasayonayaḥ |
Kṛtsnaṃ kolla giriṃ caiva muracī pattanaṃ tadā (II.28.45)

159. Malada (malada) - In 'geography' (VI.10.48); was defeated by Bhimasena in the east (II.27.8); probably people from central India.

andhrāśa ca bahavo rājanna antargiryāsa tadaiva ca |
Bahirgirya āṅgamaladā māgadhā mānavarjakāḥ (VI.10.48)
tato matsyāna mahātejā malayāṃśa ca mahābalāna |
Anavathyāna gayāṃśa caiva paśubhūmiṃ ca sarvaśaḥ (II.27.8)

160. Malla (malla) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.45) and in Bhima's conquest after northern Koshala (II.27.3) The Malla resided in district Deoria (UP) and had their metropolis at Kushinagar and Pava, sacred sites of the Bauddhas and the Jainas.

mallāḥ sutheṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)

tato gopāla kacchaṃ ca sottamāna api cottarāna |
Mallānāma adhipaṃ caiva pārdivaṃ vayajayata parabhuḥ (II.27.3)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Malla (malla) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mahla(mahalā)/Mall (malla).

161. Mahishakarshika (māhiṣa kārṣika) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.45). Probably hailed from the region near the ancient city of Mahishmati.

mallāḥ sutheṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)

162. Mahechchha (maheccha) - A janapada conquered by Nakula in the west, near the desert (II.29.6); could indicate the Maheya region of Ahmadabad where the river Mahi flows.

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa tarigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II.29.6)

Could be Meham (mehama) town in Rohtak district in Haryana, as it is close to Sirsa town in Haryana.

163. Maradha (maradhā) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.65).

tadaiva maradhāśa cīnāsa tadaiva daśa mālikāḥ |
Kaṣatriyopaniveśāśa ca vaiśyaśūthra kulāni ca (VI.10.65)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Maradha (maradhā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mirdha (mirdhā) found in Jodhpur region of Rajasthan.

164. Manavarjaka (mānavarjaka) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.48); could refer to the Purulia and Dhanabad regions.

andhrāśa ca bahavo rājanna antargiryāsa tadaiva ca |
Bahirgirya āṅgamaladā māgadhā mānavarjakāḥ (VI. 10.48)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Manavarjaka (mānavarjaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Maan (māna) + Bardak (varḍaka)

165. Malaka (malaka) - In 'geography' (VI.10.61); a central Indian tribe.

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Malaka (mālaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Malik (malika)

166. Malavanaka (mālavāṇaka) - In 'geography' (VI.10.58); scholars place them between Broach and Kutch (approx. Modern Ahmedabad).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

167. Mavellaka (māvellaka) - Mentioned among groups slain by Arjuna (VIII.4.47).

māvellakāsa tuṇḍikerāḥ sāvitrī putra kāñcalāha |
Parācyothīcyāḥ paratīcyāśa ca thākṣiṇātyāśa ca māriṣa (VIII.4.47)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mavellaka (māvellaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mavala (māvalā)

168. Mahishaka (mahiṣaka) - In 'geography (VI.10.57);' identified with the people of Mysore.

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

ākhu babhruka vaktraśa ca mayūravadanāsa tadā |
Matsyameṣānanāśa cānye ajāvi mahiṣānanāḥ (IX.44.77)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Mahishaka (mahiṣaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bains (baiṃsa).

169. Mudgala (mudagala) - Defeated by Krishna (VII.11.39), they are a Brahmin clan descended from the Paurava dynasty'.

170. Mushaka (mūṣaka) - Listed in 'geography' as a southern people (VI.10.57). The Musaka janapada is identified with the region near modern Hyderabad, on the bank of river Musi, a tributary of the Krishna. The tribe is regarded as a branch of a northern tribe documented by Alexander's historians as Musicanur, who were settled in Sind.

tharaviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mushaka (mūṣaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mushasela (muśāselā) gotra Jats living in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

171. Moka/(Mau-kah) (maukā) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.38); could be a Kshatriya tribe from Kutch or Mewar regions.

śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca |
Matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ (VI. 10.38)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Moka (maukā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Moga (maugā)

172. Mohana (Modana) (modāṇā) - Mentioned in Karna digvijaya (III. 241.47).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Modana (modāṇā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Modana (modāṇā) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

173. Modapura (modāpura)- A tribal city subdued by Arjuna in the Himalayas (II. 24.10).

modā puraṃ vāmathevaṃ suthāmānaṃ susaṃkulama |
Kulūtāna uttarāṃśa caiva tāṃśa ca rājñaḥ samānayata (II. 24.10)

174. Moda-giri (modā giri) - Defeated by Bhima (II. 27.19); probably modern Monghyr.

ada modā giriṃ caiva rājānaṃ balavattarama |
Pāṇḍavo bāhuvīryeṇa nijaghāna mahābalama (II. 27.19)

175. Mauleya (mauleya) - Paid tribute to Yudhisthira (II. 48.14); dwelled on the banks of the Mula river in Baluchistan.

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣuthrakamālavaiḥ (II. 48.14)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mauleya (mauleya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mola (molā) who live in Nimach, Mandsaur districts in Madhya Pradesh.

176. Yakrilloma (yakṛla loma) - Mentioned in Virata Parva (IV.5.4) in Matsya Kingdom. Hail from a region between dasharna in the south and Panchala in the north, near Surasena, through which Pandavas passed to the country of Matsya. Also in 'geography' (VI. 10.44);

antareṇa yakṛllomāña śūrasenāṃśa ca pāṇḍavāḥ |
Lubdhā baruvāṇā matsyasya viṣayaṃ parāviśana vanāta

vithehakā māgadhāśa ca suhmāśa ca vijayāsa tadā |
Aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca yakṛla lomāna eva ca (VI. 10.44)

177. Yavana (yavana) - Mentioned frequently as peoples of the northwest, and said to be descendants of Yayati's son Turvasu (I. 80.26).

yadosa tu yādavā jātāsa turvasora yavanāḥ sutāḥ |
Daruhyora api sutā bhojā anosa tu maleccha jātayaḥ (I. 80.26)

178. Yugandhara (yugaṃdhara) - Figure in 'geography'. (VII.15.30-31)

yugaṃdharasa tato rājana bhārathvājaṃ mahāradama |
Vārayāma āsa saṃkruthdhaṃ vātothdhūtama ivārṇavama (VII.15.30)
yudhiṣṭhiraṃ sa vithdhvā tu śaraiḥ saṃnataparvabhiḥ |
Yugaṃdharaṃ ca bhallena radanīḍātha apāharata (VII.15.31)
tato virāṭathrupathau kekayāḥ sātyakiḥ śibiḥ |
Vayāghrathattaśa ca pāñcālyaḥ siṃhasenaśa ca vīryavāna (VII.15.32)

179. Yaudheya (yaudheya) - A prominent and ancient people; mentioned in the tribute list (II.48.13). Yaudheya coins and a mint site have been found near Rohtak. Cunningham identified them with Johia Kshatriyas from Johiabar near Multan.

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II.48.13)

They are identified with the Jats clan Joiyas or Johiya[61] of Bahawalpur and Multan Divisions (Pakistan) and Bikaner, Rajasthan (India). Yaudheyas were the rulers of South-Eastern Punjab and Rajasthan. Even today these areas are inhabited by the Johiyas.

180. Ramatha (ramaṭhā) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.65) and in the Nakula digvijaya (II. 29.11).

ramaṭhāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca paratīcyāśa caiva ye nṛpāḥ |
Tāna sarvāna sa vaśe cakre śāsanātha eva pāṇḍavaḥ (II. 29.11)

181. Rathoraga (radoraga) - A northwest frontier tribe. (VI.10.53)

darvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

182. Rasyakagana - A vagrant tribe in the southwest.


183. Rajanya rājanya) - In the tribute list (II. 48.13); probably from Hoshiarpur region.

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II. 48.13)

184. Rajika -

185. Ramaka (rāmaka) - The people of the Ramaka mountain who were subdued by Sahdeva (II. 28.46) in the south.

thavīpaṃ tāmrāhvayaṃ caiva parvataṃ rāmakaṃ tadā |
Timiṅgilaṃ ca nṛpatiṃ vaśe cakre mahāmatiḥ (II.28.46)

186. Roma (roma) - A Roman city mentioned in Sahdeva's conquest.

antākhīṃ caiva romāṃ ca yavanānāṃ puraṃ tadā |
Dūtaira eva vaśe cakre karaṃ caināna athāpayata (II.28.49)


187. Romaka (-sah)/Romana (romāṇa) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.54); probably a variant of Vahuka (Cr. Ed. II. 47.15).

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo thaśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa binthavaḥ (VI. 10.54)

188. Rohitaka (rohītaka) - Listed in Karna digvijaya (III. 241.67); people of modern Rohtak in Haryana, the capital of Yaudheyas; it was subdued by Nakula (II. 29.4).

tato bahudhanaṃ ramyaṃ gavāśvadhanadhānyavata |
Kārtikeyasya dayitaṃ rohītakama upāthravata (II. 29.4)

189. Rshika (ṛṣika) - An important Central Asian people of Chinese origin, conquered by Arjuna (II. 24.24).

lohāna paramakāmbojāna ṛṣikāna uttarāna api |
Sahitāṃsa tāna mahārāja vayajayata pākaśāsaniḥ (II. 24.24)

190. Lampaka - A variant of Loha (II. 24.23); a northern people.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Lampaka may be identified with Jat Gotra - Lamba (lāṃbā)

Ashoka's inscriptions chiseled on rocks and stone pillars located at strategic locations throughout his empire--such as Lampaka (Laghman in modern Afghanistan), Mahastan (in modern Bangladesh), and Brahmagiri (in Karnataka)--constitute the second set of datable historical records.[62]

191. Lalataksha (lalāṭākṣa) - A northwestern tribe (II.47.15).

davyakṣāṃsa taryakṣāla lalāṭākṣāna nānāthigbhyaḥ samāgatāna |
Auṣṇīṣāna anivāsāṃśa ca bāhukāna puruṣāthakāna (II.47.15)

192. Langala(lāṅgala) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.l0.55).

kacchā gopāla kacchāśa ca lāṅgalāḥ paravallakāḥ |
Kirātā barbarāḥ sithdhā vithehāsa tāmraliṅgakāḥ (VI.l0.55)

193. Lata (lāṭa) - Mentioned in Anusasana Parva (XIII. 34.17); hailed from. Southern Gujarat.

194. Loha (loha) - Vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.24); possibly Kashmir or an Afghan region.

lohāna paramakāmbojāna ṛṣikāna uttarāna api |
Sahitāṃsa tāna mahārāja vayajayata pākaśāsaniḥ (II.24.24)

Loha is a village in Ratangarh tehsil of Churu ditrict in Rajasthan.

195. Lohita (lohita) - Subdued by Arjuna after Kashmir (II 24.16); could indicate modern Leh.

tataḥ kāśmīrakāna vīrāna kaṣatriyāna kaṣatriyarṣabhaḥ |
Vayajayala lohitaṃ caiva maṇḍalaira thaśabhiḥ saha (II 24.16)

Lohita (lohita) was a Nagavanshi mahapurusha |
(II.9.8)

vāsukisa takṣakaśa caiva nāgaśa cairāvatasa tadā
kṛṣṇaśa ca lohitaśa caiva padmaśa citraśa ca vīryavāna ..8..

Jat Gotras originated from Lohita - Lohamsher (lohamaśera), Lohmarod (lohamaroḍa़), Loat (loata), Lohit (lohita), Loa (loa)

196. Lohajangha (lohajaṅgha) - Bondsmen at Yudhisthira's court (II.46.21); hailed from Logar valley, south of Kabul.

āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāśa caitraki kaukurāḥ |
Kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane (II.46.21)

197. Vakra (vakra) / Vakrabhaya (vakrabhaya) - A fierce tribe listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.43).

āthi rāṣṭrāḥ sukuṭṭāśa ca balirāṣṭraṃ ca kevalama |
Vānarāsyāḥ paravāhāśa ca vakrā vakrabhayāḥ śakāḥ (VI. 10.43)

198. Vadhra (vadhra) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.54).

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo thaśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa binthavaḥ (VI. 10.54)

199. Vanavasina (vanavāsi) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.57); hail from north Kanara.

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI. 10.57)

200. Aparavartaka (aparavartaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

201. Varmaka (varmaka) - A warrior clan, figures in Bhima's conquest of eastern countries (II.27.12).

śarmakāna varmakāṃśa caiva sāntvenaivājayata parabhuḥ |
Vaithehakaṃ ca rājānaṃ janakaṃ jagatīpatima |
Vijigye puruṣavyāghro nātitīvreṇa karmaṇā (II.27.12)

202. Vastrapa (vastrapa) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.14) and probably came from the Girnar region in Junagarh.

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣuthrakamālavaiḥ (II.48.14)

203. Vanarasya (vānarasya) - Listed in the 'geography' (VI. 10.43).

āthi rāṣṭrāḥ sukuṭṭāśa ca balirāṣṭraṃ ca kevalama |
Vānarāsyāḥ paravāhāśa ca vakrā vakrabhayāḥ śakāḥ (VI. 10.43)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Vanarasya (vānarasya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vanar (vānara)

204. Vatajama (vātajāma) - In 'geography' (VI.10.53); came from the northwest frontier.

darvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

205. Vahika (vāhīka) - In 'geography' (VI.9.45), A northwestern janapada (VIII.30.27); indicates the whole of Punjab.

mallāḥ sudeṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.9.45)
īthṛśā barāhmaṇenoktā bāhlīkā moghacāriṇaḥ |
Yeṣāṃ ṣaḍbhāgahartā tavama ubhayoḥ śubhapāpayoḥ (VIII.30.27)

Bahik (bāhika) Bahika (bāhika) Vahik (vāhika) Vahika (vāhika) Valhika (vālhīka) is used for the Jats of Punjab.

206. Vikalpa (vikalpa) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI. 10.57).

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI. 10.57)

207. Vijaya (vijaya) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 1 0.44).

videhakā māgadhāśa ca suhmāśa ca vijayāsa tadā |
Aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca yakṛla lomāna eva ca (VI. 1 0.44)

208. Vidarbha (vidarbha) - a famous ancient people of modern Berar, a branch of Yadavas. Their king Rukmi was the only ruler who could not join the Mbh. War, as neither the Kauravas nor the Pandavas wanted his help. His kingdom probably comprised only a portion of Vidarbha country, as the Vidarbha tribe figures on the Kaurava side (VI. 47.13 ),

vidarbhaira mekalaiśa caiva karṇaprāvaraṇaira api |
Sahitāḥ sarvasainyena bhīṣmama āhavaśobhinama (VI. 47.13 )

209. Videha (videha) - An ancient people of Mithila or Janakpore in Nepal. The Videha dynasty was a branch of the Ikshwakus whose main branch flourished in Koshala. Were not real participants in the Mbh. War, though their name figures in the narration of the Kuru army (VI.112.108) and Pandava army (VIII.3.18). Bhima conquered their country (11.26.4).

te videhāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca dāśeraka gaṇaiḥ saha |
Abhipetura niṣāthāśa ca sauvīrāśa ca mahāraṇe (VI.112.108)

210. Vindhyap(m)/ulaka (vindhyapulaka) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.60); indicates all tribes in the southern Vindhya-Satpura range.

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI. 10.60)

211. Viraka (vīraka) - Mentioned as a sinful people (VIII.30.45).

kāraḥ karāna mahiṣakāna kaliṅgāna kīkaṭāṭavīna |
Karkoṭakāna vīrakāṃśa ca thurdharmāṃśa ca vivarjayeta (VIII.30.45)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Viraka (vīraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Virk (virka) , Wirk (virka), Birk (birka).

212. Vrika (vṛka) - A prominent nortwest tribe which lived by the profession of arms. Vrkasthala was one of the five villages demanded by Pandavas (V. 31.19) and lay on Krishna's route from Upaplavya to Hastinapura (V. 82.20).

kuśa sadalaṃ vṛkasdalama āsanthī vāraṇāvatama |
Avasānaṃ bhavetha atra kiṃ citha eva tu pañcamama (V. 31.19)

vṛkasdalaṃ samāsāthya keśavaḥ paravīrahā |
Parakīrṇaraśmāva āthitye vimale lohitāyati (V. 82.20)

vṛkodara (Vrika+Udar) nibhāśa caiva ke cida añjanasaṃnibhāḥ |
Śavetāṅgā lohitagrīvāḥ piṅgākṣāśa ca tadāpare
kalmāṣā bahavo rājaṃśa citravarṇāśa ca bhārata (IX.44.100)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Vrika (vṛka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vrik (vṛka), Varika (varika)

213. Vrndataka (vṛṇḍāṭaka) - A western tribe subdued by Nakula (II. 29.10).

kṛtsnaṃ pañcanathaṃ caiva tadaivāparaparyaṭama |
Uttarajyotikaṃ caiva tadā vṛṇḍāṭakaṃ purama (II. 29.10).

214. Vaiyamaka (vaiyamaka) - Figure in the tribute list (II. 48.12) and identified with Aimaks of central Afghanistan.

kāyavyā tharathā thārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Authumbarā thurvibhāgāḥ pārathā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II. 48.12)

215. Vairama (vairāma) - Figure in the tribute list as dwellers of wastelands near the mouth of the Indus (II.47.10).

te vairāmāḥ pārathāśa ca vaṅgāśa ca kitavaiḥ saha |
Vividhaṃ balima āthāya ratnāni vividhāni ca (II.47.10)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Vairama (vairāma) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vaire (vaire)

216. Shaka (śaka) - A northwestern tribe. (VI.20.13), (VI.10.50)

śārathvataśa cottaradhūra mahātmā; maheṣvāso gautamaśa citrayodhī |
Śakaiḥ kirātaira yavanaiḥ pahlavaiśa ca; sārdhaṃ camūma uttarato ऽbhipāti (VI.20.13)

śakā niṣādā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

217. Sakala (sakala) - The capital of the Madra tribe, identified with modern Sialkot. But Sakaladvipa is mentioned in Aruna's conquest of the north, the vicinity of the Himalayas (II. 23.15) and could indicate a group of tiny free hill states around Shimla.

sa tena sahito rājana savyasācī paraṃtapaḥ |
Vijigye sakalaṃ thavīpaṃ parativindhyaṃ ca pārdivama (II. 23.15)

218. Sarmaka - An eastern tribe vanquished by Bhima (II.24.12).

219. Shanavatya (śānavatya) - In the tribute list (II.48.15); identified with modern Santhals.

śauṇḍikāḥ kukkurāśa caiva śakāśa caiva viśāṃ pate |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca śānavatyā gayāsa tadā (II.48.15)

220. Shivis (śibī) - An ancient Punjab people vanquished by Nakula in the west (II. 29.6).

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa tarigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II. 29.6)

221. Shirisaka (śirīṣaka) - Listed in Nakula's conquest of the west (II.29.6); identified as modern Sirsa in Hissar, Haryana.

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa tarigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II. 29.6)

222. Sundaka - Listed in Karna digvijaya (III.241.42).

223. Shukara (śūkara) - A rare ethnic name in the tribute list (II. 48.24); presented hundreds of elephants to Yudhisthira.

kṛtī tu rājā kauravya śūkarāṇāṃ viśāṃ pate |
Athathatha gajaratnānāṃ śatāni subahūnya api (II. 48.24)

224. Sudra (śūdra) - An ancient tribe from the region of Aparanta in 'geography' (VI. 10.46). Nakula vanquished them near the Sarasvati (II. 29.9).

aparandhrāśa ca śūdrāśa ca pahlavāśa carma khaṇḍikāḥ |
Aṭavī śabarāśa caiva maru bhaumāśa ca māriṣa (VI. 10.46)

śūdrābhīra gaṇāśa caiva ye cāśritya sarasvatīma |
Vartayanti ca ye matsyaira ye ca parvatavāsinaḥ (II. 29.9)

225. Surparaka (śūrpāraka) - Refers to the people of modern Sopora, listed in Sahdeva's conquest of the southern region (II.28.43).

tataḥ śūrpārakaṃ caiva gaṇaṃ copakṛtāhvayama |
Vaśe cakre mahātejā thaṇḍakāṃśa ca mahābalaḥ (II.28.43)

226. Saundika (śauṇḍika)- In the tribute list (II.48.15). Saundika means a dealer in wine and the modern Sunri caste of Bihar and UP claim decent from ancient Saundikas. Sondhi, a Khatri sub-caste in Punjab, is also identified with them.

śauṇḍikāḥ kukkurāśa caiva śakāśa caiva viśāṃ pate |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca śānavatyā gayāsa tadā (II.48.15)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Saundika (śauṇḍika) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Sunda (suṇḍā)

227. Shanda (ṣaṇḍa) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.42).

govinthā manthakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vitharbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ (VI. 10.42)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Shanda (ṣaṇḍa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Sunda (suṇḍā)

228. Sakshaddruha (sakṣadthruha) - Listed in 'geography' as a northwest tribe (VI. 10.64).

yavanāśa ca sa kāmbojā thāruṇā maleccha jātayaḥ |
Sakṣadthruhaḥ kuntalāśa ca hūṇāḥ pāratakaiḥ saha (VI. 10.64)

229. Para Samcaraka (parasaṃcaraka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.60); possibly a nomadic tribe from central India.

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI. 10.60)

230. Sanjayanti - A city-state of wild tribes defeated by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.11); linked with the old village of Sanjana or Sanjaya in Thana, Bombay.

231. Samanga - Listed in 'geography'.

232. Satiya (satiya) - A southern tribe (VI. 10.62).

mūṣakā satanabālāśa ca satiyaḥ pattipañjakāḥ |
Āthithāyāḥ sirālāśa ca satūbakā satanapāsa tadā (VI. 10.62)

233. Sarvasenaya (sarvasenaya) - A Salva branch; listed in the 'geography' (VI. 10 59).

samaṅgāḥ kopanāśa caiva kukurāṅgatha māriṣāḥ |
Dhavajinya utsava saṃketāsa tarivargāḥ sarvasenayaḥ (VI. 10 59)

234. Sairindhra (sairandhra) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.56).

oṣṭrāḥ puṇḍrāḥ sa sairandhrāḥ pārvatīyāśa ca māriṣa |
Adāpare janapathā thakṣiṇā bharatarṣabha (VI. 10.56)

235. Sahyottara - Probably the people of Khandesh.

236. Satvata - An ethnic name of the great Yadava confederacy in Anarta. Satvata was a great King whose sons established at least four distinct lineages of Kshatriyas, viz. Bhoja, Andhaka, Kukura and Vrishni.

237. Savitriputraka (sāvitrī putra) - A Salva branch defeated in battle by Arjuna (VIII.4.47) in the northwest; known as the hundred sons of Savitri and Satyavan (III.279.15).

māvellakāsa tuṇḍikerāḥ sāvitrī putra kāñcalāha |
Parācyothīcyāḥ paratīcyāśa ca thākṣiṇātyāśa ca māriṣa (VIII.4.47)

238. Simhapura (siṃhapura) - A northwest settlement subdued by Arjuna (II. 24.19).

tataḥ siṃhapuraṃ ramyaṃ citrāyudhasurakṣitama |
Parāmadatha balama āsdāya pākaśāsanira āhave (II. 24.19)

239. Siddha (siddha) - A Himalayan people in 'geography' (VI. 10.55); also known as celestial ascetics. Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

kacchā gopāla kacchāśa ca lāṅgalāḥ paravallakāḥ |
Kirātā barbarāḥ siddhā vithehāsa tāmraliṅgakāḥ (VI. 10.55)

putra meṣaḥ paravāhaśa ca tadā nandopanandakau |
Dhūmraḥ śavetaḥ kaliṅgaśa ca siddhārdo varadasa tadā (IX.44.59)

240. Sirala (sirāla) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.62).

mūṣakā satanabālāśa ca satiyaḥ pattipañjakāḥ |
Āthithāyāḥ sirālāśa ca satūbakā satanapāsa tadā (VI. 10.62)

241. Sukatya (sukuṭya) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.38); one of the tribes who fled westwards in fear of Jarasandha.

śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca |
Matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ (VI. 10.38)

242. Sudamana (sudāmāna) - A northwest janapada in geography (VI.10.53)

tharvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya sudāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

243. Sudesna (sudeṣṇa) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.45).

mallāḥ sudeṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)

244. Sundaravega (sundara vegāna) - A name of a family or clan (V.72.15).

hayagrīvo vithehānāṃ varapraśa ca mahaujasāma |
Bāhuḥ sundara vegānāṃ thīptākṣāṇāṃ purūravāḥ (V.72.15)

245. Suparsva (supārśva) - Bhima subdued king Kratha in Suparshva, between Kashi and Matsya (II.27.7); probably a Yadava settlement in Berar.

tataḥ supārśvama abhitasa tadā rājapatiṃ karadama |
Yudhyamānaṃ balāta saṃkhye vijigye pāṇḍavarṣabhaḥ (II.27.7)

246. Sumallika (sumallika) - Listed in 'geography' with other northhwestern peoples (VI. 10.53); could be the inhabitants of Mulla pass.

tharvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI. 10.53)

247. Susthara(-lah) (susdara) - They rank among the tribes who fled westward after being defeated by Jarasandha (II.13.25).

śūrasenā bhathra kārā bodhāḥ śālvāḥ pataca carāḥ |
Susdarāśa ca sukuṭṭāśa ca kuṇinthāḥ kuntibhiḥ saha (II.13.25)

248. Suhma (suhma) - One of the five Anava tribes of the east, mentioned in connection with digvijayas (of Pandu I. 105; Arjuna II 24.20). The country is identified with Radha in Bengal.

tataḥ suhmāṃśa ca colāṃśa ca kirīṭī pāṇḍavarṣabhaḥ |
Sahitaḥ sarvasainyena parāmadata kurunanthanaḥ ( II 24.20)

249. Srnjaya/Somaka (somaka) - They were two main branches of Panchalas who joined the Pandavas; their leader was Dhrstadyumna (I. 185.1).

tatasa tadoktaḥ parihṛṣṭarūpaḥ; pitre śaśaṃsāda sa rājaputraḥ |
Dhṛṣṭathyumnaḥ somakānāṃ parabarho; vṛttaṃ yadā yena hṛtā ca kṛṣṇā (I. 185.1)

250. Seka/Aparaseka - Defeated by Sahdeva (II. 28.8) in the south; possibly from the region between the Chambal and Narmada rivers.

251. Saindhava (saindhava) - Amongst the tribes of the extreme northwest (III. 48.21, VIII. 4.96).

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna (III.48.21)

ājāneyaiḥ saindhavaiḥ pārvatīyaira; nathīja kāmbojavanāyu bāhlikaiḥ |
Gāndhārarājaḥ savabalena yukto; vayavasdito yothdhukāmasa tavatharde (VIII. 4.96)

252. Shauvala (śauvala) - In 'geography' among northwest tribes (VI. 10.52).

kāśmīrāḥ sindhusauvīrā gāndhārā darśakāsa tadā |
Abhīsārā kulūtāśa ca śauvalā bāhlikāsa tadā (VI. 10.52)

253. Sopadesa (sopadeśa) - Conquered by Bhima (II. 27.9).

nivṛtya ca mahābāhura matharvīkaṃ mahīdharama |
Sopadeśaṃ vinirjitya parayayāva uttarā mukhaḥ (II. 27.9)

254. Saubdhida (saubdhida) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.58).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhidā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI. 10.58)

255. Saudha (saudha) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.40); could indicate Saudha, capital of the Salvas.

pāñcālāḥ kauśikāśa caiva ekapṛṣṭhā yugaṃ dharāḥ |
Saudhā mathrā bhujiṅgāśa ca kāśayo ऽparakāśayaḥ (VI. 10.40)

256. Saubalya (saubalya) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI. 10.38).

śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca |
Matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ (VI. 10.38)

257. Stanapa (satanapa) - A wild northern tribe (VI. 10.62).

mūṣakā satanabālāśa ca satiyaḥ pattipañjakāḥ |
Āthithāyāḥ sirālāśa ca satūbakā satanapāsa tadā (VI. 10.62)

258. Satrirajya (satrī rājya) - Mentioned in the list of tribes whom Sanjaya saw in the court of Yudhisthira, in Rajasuya (III. 48.21); probably a trans-Himalayan kingdom.

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna (III. 48.21)

259. Hamsakayana (haṃsakāyana) - Figure as northwestern peoples in the tribute list (II. 48.13); identified with modern Hunza and Nagar in the extreme northwest of Kashmir.

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II. 48.13)

260. Harivarsa (harivarṣa) - The last spot in the north which Arjuna could reach in his digvijayas (II. 25.7), after which lay the utopian land of Uttarakurus.

uttaraṃ harivarṣaṃ tu samāsāthya sa pāṇḍavaḥ |
Iyeṣa jetuṃ taṃ theśaṃ pākaśāsanananthanaḥ (II. 25.7)

261. Hataka (hāṭaka) - Gandharva territory near Kailash mountain and Manasa lake, subdued by Arjuna on his way back from the conquest of northern countries (II. 25.3).

taṃ jitvā hāṭakaṃ nāma theśaṃ guhyaka rakṣitama |
Pākaśāsanira avyagraḥ saha sainyaḥ samāsathata (II. 25.3)

262. Harahuna (hārahūṇa) - Figure in Nakula's conquest of western quarters (II. 29.11) and in the tribute list (II.47.19; III. 48.21); could be tribes from the banks of Aragandava river in southhwest Afghanistan, known as Harahvaiti in old Iranian languages, though the name suggests a link with Hunas.

ramaṭhāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca paratīcyāśa caiva ye nṛpāḥ |
Tāna sarvāna sa vaśe cakre śāsanātha eva pāṇḍavaḥ (II. 29.11)

cīnāna hūnāña śakāna oḍūna parvatāntaravāsinaḥ |
Vārṣṇeyāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca kṛṣṇāna haimavatāṃsa tadā (II.47.19)

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna (III. 48.21)

263. Haimavata ( haimavata) - Himalayan people in the tribute list (II. 47.19).

cīnāna hūnāña śakāna oḍūna parvatāntaravāsinaḥ |
Vārṣṇeyāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca kṛṣṇāna haimavatāṃsa tadā (II.47.19)

264. Haihaya (hehaya) - An ancient people famous in the time of Arjuna Kartavirya, who once occupied the whole of central and northern India barring a few parts in the east. They occupied the Chamba basin. (XIII.31.7-8)

tasyānvavāye thavau rājana rājānau saṃbabhūvatuḥ |
Hehayasa tālajaṅghaśa ca vatseṣu jayatāṃ vara (XIII.31.7)

hehayasya tu putrāṇāṃ thaśasu satrīṣu bhārata |
Śataṃ babhūva parakhyātaṃ śūrāṇāma anivartināma (XIII.31.8)