by Vihari-Lala Mitra | 1891 | 1,121,132 words | ISBN-10: 8171101519
The English translation of the Yoga-vasistha: a Hindu philosophical and spiritual text written by sage Valmiki from an Advaita-vedanta perspective. The book contains epic narratives similar to puranas and chronologically precedes the Ramayana. The Yoga-vasistha is believed by some Hindus to answer all the questions that arise in the human mind, an...
1. Triads or Triples of Om ~~
"But when considered as a triliteral word consisting of a, u, m, ( ~~), Om implies, the three Vedas, the three states of human nature; the three divisions of the Universe; the three deities, agents of the three states of things—the creation, preservation and destruction; or properly speaking; the three principle attributes of the Supreme Being. In this sense it implies in fact the Universe controlled by the Supreme Being." Ram Mohun Roy.
2. Their External Manifestations. ~~
The idea of the trisection of the circle of Om followed that of its bisection, together with that of the three fold division of Divine nature, much earlier in the minds of the Aryans of India, than the three sectors of the circle were unfolded by Euclid, and the mystery of the tri-une nature of the Divinity was discovered by the divine Plato, or that of the three persons in the God-head was revealed by the Gospel. But not content with this discovery, the ancient sages applied this triplicate division of Om to many other things as the three fold manifestations of the One Deity represented by the triliteral and trilateral figure of Om, and fell to their adoration, until they were recalled to the worship of the invisible unity of Om by the Vedanta doctrines. We shall now see these triples called the Vyahritis ( ~~) or three fold manifestations in their order.
1. The 3 Vedas. ~~
Om represents the three Vedas by its three letters, viz; the Rik, Yajur and Saman, consisting of the Hymns, Ceremonies and Psalms. The first like the hymns of Hesiod and Orpheus, the second like the Levitican laws, and the third resembling the Psalms of David, all of which are said to be of Divine origin.
2. The 3 States. ~~
These have no apposite terms in English, and are variously rendered to express the states of quietism, action and passion or excess of a feeling, leading to error.
3. The 3 Worlds. ~~
The earth, sky and heavens, called the three great evolutions ( ~~) of Om. But those were afterwards subdivided into twenty one (3×7) each named as Om ( ~~) as in the beginning of Atharva Sanhita ~~—"The Universe composed of thrice seven worlds."
4. The 3 states of things. ~~
5. The 3 Agencies Personified ~~
These are the creation, preservation, and destruction of all things ( ~~, or as philosophically called their evolution, sustentation and dissolution ( ~~), and their agents, Brahma the creator, Vishnu, the preserver, and Siva the destroyer of each and all, corresponding with Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto, and Osiris, Horus and Typhon ( ~~). But this trinity is refuted by the Vedantic doctrine of unity, which repudiates a secondary cause. ( ~~). The Maitri Upanishad makes mention of many more triads which were glorified with the aforesaid hallowed epithet Om (VI. 5.) Viz. the following:—
1. The Trisex Divinity.
Om composed of the three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter ( ~~). But the Vedanta refutes the generic distinctions of the One unknown ( ~~).
2. The 3 Elemental forms.
The fire, wind and sun, ( ~~), the three powerful manifestations of the Deity each of which had its votaries in the early fire, wind and sun worshippers of India.
3. The 3 Agencies as above.
The creation, preservation and destruction of things in the forms of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva as said above.
4. The 3 Fires. ~~
Om the three sacrificial fires called the ~~ and ~~, which were continually preserved in families.
5. The 3 Vedas. ~~
Om the triple learning contained in the Rik, Yajur and Saman, which were identified with God for their being his words.
6. The 3 Intelligences.
The three Intellectual faculties consisting of the Mind, Intellect or Reason, and the conscious soul.
7. The 3 Times. ~~
Present, past and future composing the circle of the eternity of Om ( ~~).
8. The 3 Aliments. ~~
9. The Mental Powers. ~~
The three intellectual faculties, the mind, intellect and consciousness as the spiritual manifestations of the Invisible Spirit.
10. The three Vital Airs. ~~
Those of respiration, circulation and secretion called ~~ the respiratory breath or air and others: there are two others which with these three will be found among the pentads ( ~~).
11. The three feet of God. ~~
These are the different hypostases of God or rather of the Divine soul in its three states of universality, individuality and external appearances, each of which is subdivided into three states.
12. The 3 Totals.
The Sutratma, Taijana and Hiranyagarbha (universal soul) ( ~~); The three emanations of infinite Intelligence from the Unity of God.
13. The three Specials.
14. The three externals.
15. The three Forms of Devotion.
The three forms of our devotion and Communion with God, that he is praised, worshipped and ascribed with attributes.
16. The Triple man.
His body—the bow, his mind—the arrow, and his soul—the aim. (Mandukya II. 4. p. 159).
17. The 3 States of the Soul.
Of waking, dreaming and sound sleep of the soul. ( ~~).
18. The 3 Humours of the Body.
The bile, phlegm and choler or flatulence ( ~~) are the preservatives of the body and life.
19. Three Matras. ~~
The three morae or vowels, the long, short and prolated. ( ~~).
20. Three Accents. ~~
The acute, grave and circumflex. ~~
21. Three Utterances of speech. ~~
Human speech consisting of letters, words and sentences treated of in Orthography, Etymology and Syntax. ( ~~).
22. Three Pronunciations ~~
Distinct, indistinct and half distinct. (Anquetil). ( ~~).
23. Do. of Three Vedas.
The Swarati of Rik, the Swara of Yajur, and Swanvati of Sama. ( ~~).
24. The 3 Letters.
Of Om viz. a, u, m, agree with the first, second and third word of every triad, i.e., each to each.
25. The 3 Merits.
Of the meditation of the three letters of Om described at length in the Upanishads.