Yoga-sutras (Ancient and Modern Interpretations)

by Makarand Gopal Newalkar | 2017 | 82,851 words | ISBN-13: 9780893890926

Yoga-sutras 2.3 [Kleshas], English translation with modern and ancient interpretation. The Patanjali Yogasutras describe an ancient Indian tradition spanning over 5000 years old dealing with Yoga:—Meditating the mind on the Atma leading to the realization of self. This study interprets the Yogasutras in light of both ancient and modern commentaries (e.g., Vyasa and Osho) while supporting both Sankhya and Vedanta philosophies.

Sūtra 2.3 [Kleśas]

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of sūtra 2.3 [kleśas]:

अविद्यास्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशाः क्लेशाः ॥ २.३ ॥

avidyāsmitārāgadveṣābhiniveśāḥ kleśāḥ || 2.3 ||

(3) Avidyā (misapprehension about the real nature of things), asmitā (egoism), rāga (attachment), dveśa (aversion) and abhiniveśa (fear of death) are the five kleśas (afflictions).

Ancient and Modern interpretation:

Patañjali has explained five different types of kleśas in following sūtra.

[1. Avidyā]

[2. Asmita]

[3. Rāga]

[4. Dveśa]

[5. Abhiniveśa]

Philosophy of kleśas–A Synopsis

In Taittirīya-Upaniṣad it is said that,[1] sūrya, vāyu, agni, indra and death all are working due to fear of brahman.

Taimni has given beautifully synopsis of these kleśas

Question dealt with Subject No. of sūtras in which the subject is dealt with in Section II
What are kleśas? Enumeration and definitions. 3,4,5,6,7,8,9.
How are they destroyed? General methods of destroying them. 10,11.
Why should kleśas be destroyed? They involve us in a never-ending cycle of births and deaths and miseries of life. 12,13,14,15.
Can their result miseries of life be destroyed? Yes, those that is still in the future. 16.
What is the fundamental cause of these miseries? Union and identification of the Knower with the Known. 17.
What is the nature of the Known? Interaction of bhūtas, indriyas and guṇas which result in experience and liberation. 18,19.
What is the nature of the Knower? The Knower is pure consciousness. 20,21,22.
Why have the Knower and the Known been brought together? For the evolution of powers of prakṛti and for self-realization of the puruṣa. 23.
How have the Knower and the Known been brought together? Through a veil of illusion caused by avidyā. 24.
How can the Knower and Known be separated? By destroying the veil of avidyā. 25.
How can this veil of avidyā be destroyed? By viveka which leads to increasing awareness of his nature by the puruṣa in 7 stages 26,27.
How can viveka be developed? By the practice of yoga. 28.

Footnotes and references:


Taittirīya Upaniṣad,Anuwak-VII,Shloka1 Ba-IYaasmaa-WatÁ pvato |Ba-IYaaodoit say-U a-Á|

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