Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.14.31:

शौण्डार्धर्चपुरोडशच्छत्रिणोऽत्र निदर्शनम् ।
ते विष्णुमित्रा इति च भिन्नेषु सहचारिषु ॥ ३१ ॥

śauṇḍārdharcapuroḍaśacchatriṇo'tra nidarśanam |
te viṣṇumitrā iti ca bhinneṣu sahacāriṣu || 31 ||

31. The expressions śauṇḍa, ardharca, puroḍāśa, chattrin [chatrin] as well as “those Viṣṇumitras” are illustrations of words denoting different associates also.

Commentary

[In P. 2.1.40, the word ‘śauṇḍaiḥ’ is used in the plural number and so is the word ‘ardharcāḥ’ in P. 2.4.31. That is because these words stand not only for themselves but also for the other words included in the groups of which they arc the first words. These other words are identified with them, so to speak. Similarly, the word puroḍāśāḥ = ‘sacrificial offerings’ are put in the plural because the offering stands for itself as well as for the associated materials like karambha, parivāpa and so on. Similarly, the words chattriṇaḥ [chatriṇaḥ] in the expression chattriṇo [chatriṇo] yānti = ‘the umbrella bearers are going’ stands also for those who do not carry umbrellas but are going with them. The same thing applies to the word viṣṇumitrāḥ in te viṣṇumitrāḥ’. It stands for the associates also. In the same way, the dual and the plural numbers in the dvandva and ekaśeṣa words, where each constituent denotes more than one object. They are connected with the same action or quality and so assume the form of one another (paraspararūpāpatteḥ)]

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