Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.6.21:

अवधित्वेन चापेक्षायोगे दिग्लक्षणो विधिः ।
पूर्वमस्येति षष्ठ्येव दृष्टा धर्मान्तराश्रये ॥ २१ ॥

avadhitvena cāpekṣāyoge diglakṣaṇo vidhiḥ |
pūrvamasyeti ṣaṣṭhyeva dṛṣṭā dharmāntarāśraye || 21 ||

21. When the idea of limit (starting point) is to be expressed it is the ablative of position which is used. When some other idea (as that of part and whole) is to be expressed, it is the genitive case which is seen as in: ‘the upper part of this’ (pūrvam asya).


The result of the notion of Dik in grammar is now set forth.

[Read verse 21 above]

[Certain operations in grammar are based on the notion of Dilc. In the world, there is the idea of limit: ‘this is on the east of that’ and so on. There one uses the ablative case. Where some other idea such as that of part and whole is to be expressed, the genitive case is used according to P. 2.2.1.]

It is now explained why the notion of prior and posterior is not based on one’s own body.

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