Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.6.20:

तस्यास्तु शक्तेः पूर्वादिभेदो भावान्तराश्रयः ।
भिन्ना दिक् तेन भेदेन भेदायैवोपकल्पते ॥ २० ॥

tasyāstu śakteḥ pūrvādibhedo bhāvāntarāśrayaḥ |
bhinnā dik tena bhedena bhedāyaivopakalpate || 20 ||

20. From that Power, distinctions such as East etc. arise on the basis of association with other things. Thus differentiated, Dik brings about differentiation in the cognition of things.


It is now stated that Dik performs a function parallel to that of Kālā.

[Read verse 20 above]

[Just as Time, the power of Brahman, exercising the functions of permission and prevention, brings about temporal sequence, in the same way Dik is also the cause of the notion of spatial sequence among objects, due to association with other things. By ‘other things’, contacts with the sun are meant. Dik brings about cognitions of objects as qualified by itself. It is then that Dik which is One, appears to be many.]

The result of the notion of Dik in grammar is now set forth.

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