Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.6.13:

परमाणोरभागस्य दिशा भागो विधीयते ।
भागप्रकल्पनाशक्तिं प्रथमां तां प्रचक्षते ॥ १३ ॥

paramāṇorabhāgasya diśā bhāgo vidhīyate |
bhāgaprakalpanāśaktiṃ prathamāṃ tāṃ pracakṣate || 13 ||

13. It is through Dik that division is made in the indivisible atom. That indeed has been declared to be the first power for effecting all division.


[Division of parts in limited material objects is due to Direction (Dik). Even in atoms which are supposed to be indivisible, one can imagine four sides, a top and a bottom on the basis of Dik. Other atoms can come into contact with these six parts and produce such things as binaries etc. It is because of this division into parts from the very beginning, that it continues in all the later products. So division of all material objects into parts in the first service which Dik renders. Some explain this and the previous verse as follows:—“In all divisible objects, division into narts is due to light and shade. In all indivisible objects like the atom, division is imaginary and it is brought about bv Dik.” What they mean is this: Where there is some basis for the division of parts such as light and shade as in the case of divisible objects, that is the basis of the division. Where there is none as in the case of indivisible objects like atoms, there it is Dik which is the cause of such division. But all this is wrong. It is due to Dik that division in any object is possible, not merely in the indivisible atom.]

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