Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.5.6:

सर्वं च सर्वतोऽवश्यं नियमेन प्रकृष्यते ।
संसर्गिणा निमित्तेन निकृष्टेनाधिकेन वा ॥ ६ ॥

sarvaṃ ca sarvato'vaśyaṃ niyamena prakṛṣyate |
saṃsargiṇā nimittena nikṛṣṭenādhikena vā || 6 ||

6. Everything can differ in degree from everything else (of the same kind) either on the basis of an attribute of inferiority or of superiority.

Commentary

It is now explained how expressions like nikṛṣṭataraḥ prakṛṣṭataraḥ’ are possible.

[Read verse 6 above]

[When there is excellence of that which is the cause of something coming within the range of words, there is excellence of the thing itself. When the cause is of an inferior nature, the degree relates to inferiority and when it is of a suerior nature, it relates to superiority. Thus within the same kind, there can be difference of degree.]

Expressions like ‘gotara’ are now being explained.

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