Vaisheshika-sutra with Commentary

by Nandalal Sinha | 1923 | 149,770 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The Vaisheshika-sutra 10.2.9, English translation, including commentaries such as the Upaskara of Shankara Mishra, the Vivriti of Jayanarayana-Tarkapanchanana and the Bhashya of Chandrakanta. The Vaisheshika Sutras teaches the science freedom (moksha-shastra) and the various aspects of the soul (eg., it's nature, suffering and rebirth under the law of karma). This is sutra 9 (‘authoritativeness of the veda established’) contained in Chapter 2—Of Other Forms of Cognition—of Book X (of the differences of the attributes of the soul and of the threefold causes).

Sūtra 10.2.9 (Authoritativeness of the Veda established)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of Vaiśeṣika sūtra 10.2.9:

तद्वचनादाम्नायस्य प्रमाण्यमिति ॥ १०.२.९ ॥

tadvacanādāmnāyasya pramāṇyamiti || 10.2.9 ||

tat-vacanāt—from being the word of Him, God; āmnāyasya—of the Vedas; prāmāṇyaṃ—authoritativeness; itifinis.

9. The authoritativeness of the Veda (follows) from its being the W ord of God.

Commentary: The Upaskāra of Śaṅkara Miśra:

(English rendering of Śaṅkara Miśra’s commentary called Upaskāra from the 15th century)

It may be urged: The Veda has been revealed by God,—it is here that there is conflict of opinions.

Accordingly he says:

[Read sūtra 10.2.9 above]

Note.—According to Śrīdhara, author of Nyāyakandati, “[?]” tat refers to Ṛṣis. [?]

‘iti’ indicates the conclusion of the Śāstra or system. The authoritativeness, ‘āmnāyasya,’ of the Veda, (is derived), ‘vacanāt,’ from its being the composition, ‘tena,’ by Īśvara. For, thus, we have already proved that the Vedas have a personal author, inasmuch as they are a collection of sentences or declarations. Nor can we and others possibly be the speakers of them, divided and sub-divided as they are in a thousand branches, for they treat of objects which transcend the senses, and beings of our nature cannot behold objects which transcend the senses. Moreover, the Vedas must have been spoken by a trustworthy person, inasmuch as they are accepted by men of light and leading. That which is not spoken by a trustworthy person, is not accepted by men of light and leading, the Vedas are accepted by men of light and leading, therefore they have been spoken by a trustworthy person. To be spoken by a trustworthy person is to be declared by a self-governed or independent person; and to be accepted by men of light and leading is to be believed in, and acted upon, by persons attached to all the systems of thought. It has been stated before that non-appearance of the fruit or result, which occasionally happens, is due to defect or flaw in the act or performance, the agent, and the means or requisites. If it be denied that this is so, there being no recollection on the part of the agent; we reply that the denial has no value, it having been already proved that there is recollection on the part of the agent. The composition thereof by Him is proved, inasmuch as they could be declared only by an independent person, while such independent power to declare the \ edas in their thousand branches is as has been said, impossible for beings of our nature. Moreover, since certitude must be the product of excellence or superiority, the certitude derived from the Vedas must also have excellence for its condition, and excellence must in this case be pronounced to be only the speaker’s accurate knowledge of the true meaning of the sentences. The speaker of the Veda must, therefore. be one of that description, one who has immediate cognition of heaven, adṛṣṭa and like other objects, and there is none such but Īśvara alone. This is well said.—9.

Note.—Cf. I.i.3, supra.

The fortunate Śaṅkara, who is the son of Bhavanātha by Bhavānī, and who is devoted to the worship of Siva, has written this commentary on the Aphorisms of Kaṇāda.

Even though this production of mine may not find favour with others, nay, may be an object of ridicule with them, yet, (it is hoped), it will be adored a thousand times and over by my pupils, out of respect for their teacher.

Here ends the second chapter of the tenth book in the commentary on the Vaiśeṣika Aphorisms by Śrī Śaṅkara Miśra, son of Mahāmahopādhyāya Bhavanātha Miśra.

And complete is also this treatise.

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