Vaisheshika-sutra with Commentary

by Nandalal Sinha | 1923 | 149,770 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The Vaisheshika-sutra 9.1.15, English translation, including commentaries such as the Upaskara of Shankara Mishra, the Vivriti of Jayanarayana-Tarkapanchanana and the Bhashya of Chandrakanta. The Vaisheshika Sutras teaches the science freedom (moksha-shastra) and the various aspects of the soul (eg., it's nature, suffering and rebirth under the law of karma). This is sutra 5 (‘the yogins perceive the attributes of their own souls in the popular way’) contained in Chapter 1—Of Ordinary Perception of Non-Existence and of Transcendental Perception—of Book IX (of ordinary and transcendental cognition...).

Sūtra 9.1.15 (The Yogins perceive the attributes of their own souls in the popular way)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of Vaiśeṣika sūtra 9.1.15:

आत्मसमवायादात्मगुणेषु ॥ ९.१.१५ ॥

ātmasamavāyādātmaguṇeṣu || 9.1.15 ||

ātma-samavāyāt—from combination in the soul; ātma-guṇeṣu—in respect of the attributes of the soul.

15. (Perceptual cognition) of the attributes of the Soul (results) from (their) combination in the Soul.

Commentary: The Upaskāra of Śaṅkara Miśra:

(English rendering of Śaṅkara Miśra’s commentary called Upaskāra from the 15th century)

Is it then, it may be asked, combination with that which is conjoint with some other substance, that constitutes the presentation or ‘proximity’ to the mind, even in the case of one’s own understanding, etc.? He replies, No:

[Read sūtra 9.1.15 above]

“Perceptual cognition of the yogins is produced”—this is the topic. Perceptual cognition of understanding, etc., combined in the soul is on the other hand, produced simply from combination in the conjoint, (i.e., the soul which is conjoint with the mind), as it is with ourselves and others. The meaning, therefore, is that in such cognition there is no dependence upon any other form of contiguity or presentation. Now, ordinary or popular perception is cognition, which is never changing, produced from the contact of the senses and objects. It may be said to be produced by objects. Perception is connected with the genus of presentation (that is, without some form of immediate presentation, there can be no perception). And this is common to ordinary or popular and to super-ordinary or hyper-popular cognitions.—15.

Here ends the first chapter in the ninth book of the Commentary of Śaṅkara on the Vaiśeṣika Aphorisms.

Commentary: The Bhāṣya of Candrakānta:

(English translation of Candrakānta Tarkālaṅkāra’s Bhāṣya called the Vaiśeṣikabhāṣya from the 19th century)

In the view of Kaṇāda, there are only three independent and ultimate predicables, namely, Substance, Attribute, and Action, for, while describing the process of yogic cognition of all realities, he deals with these three predicables only and is entirely silent with regard to the other so-called predicables.

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